1932

Abstract

Parasitoid wasps are important components of insect food chains and have played a central role in biological control programs for over a century. Although the vast majority of parasitoids exploit insect herbivores as hosts, others parasitize predatory insects and arthropods, such as ladybird beetles, hoverflies, lacewings, ground beetles, and spiders, or are hyperparasitoids. Much of the research on the biology and ecology of parasitoids of predators has focused on ladybird beetles, whose parasitoids may interfere with the control of insect pests like aphids by reducing ladybird abundance. Alternatively, parasitoids of the invasive ladybird may reduce its harmful impact on native ladybird populations. Different life stages of predatory insects and spiders are susceptible to parasitism to different degrees. Many parasitoids of predators exhibit intricate physiological interrelationships with their hosts, adaptively manipulating host behavior, biology, and ecology in ways that increase parasitoid survival and fitness.

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2023-01-23
2024-06-19
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