1932

Abstract

Although it is generally more adaptive for insects to produce additional generations than to have longer life cycles, some insects produce one or fewer generations per year (univoltine or semivoltine life cycles, respectively). Some insects with the potential to produce multiple generations per year produce a univoltine life cycle in response to environmental conditions. Obligatory univoltine insects have a single long diapause or multiple diapauses in different seasons. Semivoltine insects have multiple diapauses in different years, a prolonged diapause for more than a year, or diapause controlled by a circannual rhythm. Diapause in these insects greatly varies among species both in the physiological mechanism and in the evolutionary background, and there is no general rule defining it. In this review, we survey the physiological control of univoltine and semivoltine insects’ diapause and discuss the adaptive significance of the long life cycles. Although constraints such as slow development are sometimes responsible for these life cycles, the benefits of these life cycles can be explained by bet-hedging in many cases. We also discuss the effect of climate warming on these life cycles as a future area of research.

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2023-01-23
2024-06-17
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