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Abstract

The diverticulated crop is a unique and overlooked foregut organ in the Diptera that affects many physiological and behavioral functions. Historically, the crop was viewed simply as a reservoir for excess nutrients. The crop lobes and crop duct form an elaborate sphincter and pump system that moves stored nutrients to the crop lobes, oral cavity, and the midgut. The storage capacity of the crop lobes is significant when filled maximally and supplies sufficient carbohydrates to sustain prolonged activity and flight, and adequate protein and lipids to facilitate reproductive events. Crop emptying is under complex neuroendocrine and neural control and may be influenced by multiple neuromessengers, such as serotonin and dromyosuppressin. The crop lobes also serve as a site for the initial mixing of enzymes from the salivary glands and antimicrobials from the labellar glands with ingested food. These food-processing functions are associated with behaviors unique to dipterans, such as regurgitation (or bubbling), nuptial gift giving, and substrate droplet deposition or trap-lining.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153653
2013-01-07
2024-06-16
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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