Air conditioning and refrigeration services are increasing rapidly in developing countries due to improved living standards. The cooling services industry is currently responsible for over 10% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so it is critical to investigate how the expansion of cooling services will impact future GHG emissions. In this article, we first examine the current status and expected expansion of cooling services worldwide and the associated GHG emissions. Then, we review potential improvements and innovations that could reduce future GHG emissions. Three approaches to reduce GHG emissions within the cooling sector include converting to alternative refrigerants, improving energy efficiency, and moving toward a lower-carbon electricity grid. In addition, we identify eight interventions that apply to the built environment or the food supply chain that would lead to additional GHG reductions in the cooling sector.


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