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Abstract

The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic CO emissions, making the cement industry an important sector for CO-emission mitigation strategies. CO is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation. In this paper, we review the total CO emissions from cement making, including process and energy-related emissions. Currently, most available data only includes the process emissions. We also discuss CO emission mitigation options for the cement industry. Estimated total carbon emissions from cement production in 1994 were 307 million metric tons of carbon (MtC), 160 MtC from process carbon emissions, and 147 MtC from energy use. Overall, the top 10 cement-producing countries in 1994 accounted for 63% of global carbon emissions from cement production. The average intensity of carbon dioxide emissions from total global cement production is 222 kg of C/t of cement. Emission mitigation options include energy efficiency improvement, new processes, a shift to low carbon fuels, application of waste fuels, increased use of additives in cement making, and, eventually, alternative cements and CO removal from flue gases in clinker kilns.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.energy.26.1.303
2001-11-01
2024-04-14
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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