1932

Abstract

Sustainability and gender have been prominent on the development agenda since the 1980s, but there has been little systematic study of the links between the two. This review draws on ecofeminist theory, feminist political ecology, intrahousehold literature, and natural resource management case studies and reviews to examine how gender shapes the motives, means, and opportunities for men and women to contribute to sustainability. Particular attention is given to evidence on closeness to nature, focus on conservation, rights to resources, opportunities to exploit resources, and constraints to adoption of sustainable practices. Despite early claims that women are naturally more conserving of resources, the empirical literature, in particular, gives a more mixed and nuanced picture. Conservation is influenced not only by gender but also by a host of tangible and intangible factors, including local ecology, context, and culture, that affect incentives and the ability to adopt sustainable extraction and provision practices.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-101813-013240
2014-10-17
2024-05-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/energy/39/1/annurev-environ-101813-013240.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-101813-013240&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. World Comm. Environ. Dev 1987. Our Common Future. New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  2. Pretty J. 2.  1995. Participatory learning for sustainable agriculture. World Dev. 23:81247–63 [Google Scholar]
  3. Mwangi E, Markelova H, Meinzen-Dick RS. 3.  2012. Collective Action and Property Rights for Poverty Reduction: Insights from Africa and Asia Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press
  4. Leach M. 4.  2007. Earth mother myths and other ecofeminist fables: how a strategic notion rose and fell. Dev. Change 38:167–85 [Google Scholar]
  5. Goebel A. 5.  2003. Women and sustainability: What kind of theory do we need?. Can. Woman Stud. 23:177–84 [Google Scholar]
  6. Thomas D. 6.  1994. Like father, like son; like mother, like daughter: parental resources and child height. J. Hum. Resour. 29:4950–88 [Google Scholar]
  7. Hoddinott J, Alderman H, Haddad L. 7.  1997. Testing competing models of intrahousehold allocation. Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Developing Countries: Models, Methods, and Policy L Haddad, J Hoddinott, H Alderman 129–41 Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  8. Quisumbing AR. 8.  2003. Household Decisions, Gender, and Development: A Synthesis of Recent Research Washington, DC: Int. Food Policy Res. Inst.
  9. Goldstein M, Udry C. 9.  2008. The profits of power: land rights and agricultural investment in Ghana. J. Polit. Econ. 116:6981–1022 [Google Scholar]
  10. Pretty J. 10.  2008. Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 363:447–65 [Google Scholar]
  11. Jackson C. 11.  1993. Women/nature or gender/history? A critique of ecofeminist ‘development.’. J. Peasant Stud. 20:3389–419 [Google Scholar]
  12. Ortner SB. 12.  1972. Is female to male as nature is to culture?. Fem. Stud. 1:25–31 [Google Scholar]
  13. MacCormack CP. 13.  1980. Nature, culture and gender: a critique. Nature, Culture and Gender CP MacCormack, M Strathern 1–24 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Ray I. 14.  2007. Women, water, and development. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 32:421–39 [Google Scholar]
  15. Jackson C. 15.  1993. Doing what comes naturally? Women and environment in development. World Dev. 21:121947–63 [Google Scholar]
  16. Mies M, Shiva V. 16.  1993. Ecofeminism Halifax, Can: Fernwood Publ.
  17. Agarwal B. 17.  1992. The gender and environment debate: lessons from India. Fem. Stud. 18:1119–58 [Google Scholar]
  18. Momsen JH. 18.  2000. Gender differences in environmental concern and perception. J. Geogr. 99:247–56 [Google Scholar]
  19. Leach M, Joekes S, Green C. 19.  1995. Editorial: Gender relations and environmental change. IDS Bull. 26:11–8 [Google Scholar]
  20. Rocheleau D, Thomas-Slayter B, Wangari E. 20.  1996. Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experience London: Routledge
  21. Elmhirst R. 21.  2011. Introducing new feminist political ecologies. Geoforum 42:2129–32 [Google Scholar]
  22. Nightingale AJ. 22.  2006. The nature of gender: work, gender and environment Online Pap. Ser. GEO-030, Univ. Edinburgh Sch. GeoSci. Inst. Geogr., Edinburgh, UK
  23. Carney J. 23.  1993. Converting the wetlands, engendering the environment: the intersection of gender with agrarian change in the Gambia. Econ. Geogr. 69:4329–48 [Google Scholar]
  24. Freidberg S. 24.  2001. To garden, to market: gendered meanings of work on an African urban periphery. Gender Place Cult.: J. Fem. Geogr. 8:15–24 [Google Scholar]
  25. Orlove B, Caton S. 25.  2010. Water sustainability: anthropological approaches and prospects. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 39:401–15 [Google Scholar]
  26. McElroy MB. 26.  1990. The empirical content of Nash-bargained household behavior. J. Hum. Resour. 25:4559–83 [Google Scholar]
  27. Agarwal B. 27.  1997. Environmental action, gender equity and women's participation. Dev. Change 28:1–44 [Google Scholar]
  28. Ostrom E. 28.  1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  29. Fausto-Sterling A. 29.  1992. Myths of Gender: Biological Theories About Women and Men New York: Basic Books
  30. De Beauvoir S. 30.  1953. The Second Sex New York: Bantam
  31. Amin S. 31.  1997. The poverty–purdah trap in rural Bangladesh: implications for women's roles in the family. Dev. Change 28:2213–33 [Google Scholar]
  32. Kantor P. 32.  2002. Female mobility in India: the influence of seclusion norms on economic outcomes. Int. Dev. Plan. Rev. 24:2145–59 [Google Scholar]
  33. Hanson S. 33.  2010. Gender and mobility: new approaches for informing sustainability. Gender Place Cult.: J. Fem. Geogr. 17:15–23 [Google Scholar]
  34. Muñoz Boudet AM, Petesch P, Turk C, Thumala A. 34.  2013. On Norms and Agency: Conversations About Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries Directions in Development Washington, DC: World Bank
  35. Bannon I, Correia M. 35.  2006. The Other Half of Gender: Men's Issues in Development Washington, DC: World Bank
  36. Zwarteveen M, Neupane N. 36.  1996. Free-riders or victims: women's nonparticipation in irrigation management in Nepal's Chhattis Mauja Irrigation Scheme Res. Rep. 7, Int. Irrig. Manag. Inst., Colombo, Sri Lanka
  37. Colfer CJP. 37.  2013. The gender box: a framework for analyzing gender roles in forest management Occas. Pap. 82, CIFOR, Bogor, Indones.
  38. Jewitt S. 38.  1996. Agro-ecological knowledges and forest management in the Jharkand, India: tribal development or populist impasse PhD Diss., Dep. Geogr., Univ. Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  39. Gaul KK. 39.  1994. Negotiated positions and shifting terrains: apprehension of forest resources in the Western Himalaya PhD Diss., Dep. Anthropol., Univ. Mass., Amherst
  40. Agarwal B. 40.  2000. Conceptualising environmental collective action: why gender matters. Cambridge J. Econ. 24:283–310 [Google Scholar]
  41. Sundberg J. 41.  2004. Identities in the making: conservation, gender and race in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala. Gender Place Cult.: J. Fem. Geogr. 11:143–66 [Google Scholar]
  42. Plumwood V. 42.  1991. Nature, self, and gender: feminism, environmental philosophy, and the critique of rationalism. Hypatia 6:13–27 [Google Scholar]
  43. Warren KJ. 43.  1987. Feminism and ecology: making connections. Environ. Ethics 9:13–20 [Google Scholar]
  44. MacCormack CP, Strathern M. 44.  1980. Nature, Culture and Gender Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  45. Joekes S, Heyzer N, Oniang'o R, Salles V. 45.  1994. Gender, environment and population. Dev. Change 25:1137–65 [Google Scholar]
  46. Fafchamps M, Quisumbing AR. 46.  2003. Social roles, human capital, and the intrahousehold division of labor: evidence from Pakistan. Oxford Econ. Pap. 55:136–80 [Google Scholar]
  47. Jewitt S. 47.  2000. Mothering earth? Gender and environmental protection in the Jharkhand, India. J. Peasant Stud. 27:294–131 [Google Scholar]
  48. Resurreccion B. 48.  2006. Gender, identity and agency in Philippine upland development. Dev. Change 37:2375–400 [Google Scholar]
  49. Humphries S, Classen L, Jiménez J, Sierra F, Gallardo O, Gómez M. 49.  2012. Opening cracks for the transgression of social boundaries: an evaluation of the gender impacts of farmer research teams in Honduras. World Dev. 40:102078–95 [Google Scholar]
  50. Elmhirst R. 50.  1998. Reconciling feminist theory and gendered resource management in Indonesia. Area 30:3225–35 [Google Scholar]
  51. Djoudi H, Brockhaus M. 51.  2011. Is adaptation to climate change gender neutral? Lessons from communities dependent on livestock and forests in northern Mali. Int. For. Rev. 13:2123–35 [Google Scholar]
  52. Maharjan A, Bauer S, Knerr B. 52.  2012. Do rural women who stay behind benefit from male out-migration? A case study in the hills of Nepal. Gender Technol. Dev. 16:195–123 [Google Scholar]
  53. Mwangi E, Mai YH. 53.  2011. Introduction to the special issue on forests and gender. Int. For. Rev. 13:2119–22 [Google Scholar]
  54. Nightingale AJ. 54.  2006. Caring for nature: subjectivity, boundaries and environment Online Pap. Ser. GEO-021, Univ. Edinburgh Sch. GeoSci. Inst. Geogr., Edinburgh, Scotl.
  55. Radel C. 55.  2012. Gendered livelihoods and the politics of socio-environmental identity: Women's participation in conservation projects in Calakmul, Mexico. Gender Place Cult.: J. Fem. Geogr. 19:161–82 [Google Scholar]
  56. Lévi-Strauss C. 56.  1969. Elementary Structures of Kinship 340 Boston: Beacon
  57. McGregor J. 57.  1991. Woodland resources: ecology policy and ideology: an historical case study of woodland use in Shurugwi Communal Area, Zimbabwe PhD Thesis, Loughborough Univ., Leicestershire, UK
  58. Shiva V. 58.  1989. Staying Alive. Women, Ecology and Development London: Zed Books
  59. Allendorf TD, Allendorf K. 59.  2013. Gender attitudes toward protected areas in Myanmar. Soc. Nat. Resour.: Int. J. 26:8962–76 [Google Scholar]
  60. Folbre N. 60.  1986. Hearts and spades: paradigms of household economics. World Dev. 14:2245–55 [Google Scholar]
  61. Folbre N. 61.  1994. Who Pays for the Kids: Gender and the Structures of Constraint New York: Routledge
  62. Yang F, Xi Y. 62.  2001. Naxi women: protection and management of forests in Lijiang, China. Gender Technol. Dev. 5:2199–222 [Google Scholar]
  63. Arora-Jonsson S. 63.  2011. Virtue and vulnerability: discourses on women, gender and climate change. Glob. Environ. Change 21:2744–51 [Google Scholar]
  64. Neumayer E, Plümper T. 64.  2007. The gendered nature of natural disasters: the impact of catastrophic events on the gender gap in life expectancy, 1981–2002. Ann. Am. Assoc. Geogr. 97:3551–66 [Google Scholar]
  65. Maathai W. 65.  2003. The Green Belt Movement: Sharing the Approach and the Experience New York: Lantern Books
  66. Sultana P, Thompson P. 66.  2008. Gender and local floodplain management institutions: a case study from Bangladesh. J. Int. Dev. 20:53–68 [Google Scholar]
  67. Agarwal B. 67.  2009. Gender and forest conservation: the impact of women's participation in community forest governance. Ecol. Econ. 68:112785–99 [Google Scholar]
  68. Agarwal B. 68.  2010. Does women's proportional strength affect their participation? Governing local forests in South Asia. World Dev. 38:198–112 [Google Scholar]
  69. Agarwal B. 69.  2010. Gender and Green Governance Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press
  70. Westermann O, Ashby J, Pretty J. 70.  2005. Gender and social capital: the importance of gender differences for the maturity and effectiveness of natural resource management groups. World Dev. 33:111783–99 [Google Scholar]
  71. Mai YH, Mwangi E, Wan M. 71.  2011. Gender analysis in forestry research: looking back and thinking ahead. Int. For. Rev. 13:2245–58 [Google Scholar]
  72. Villamor GB, Desrianti F, Akiefnawati R, Amaruzaman S, van Noordwijk M. 72.  2013. Gender influences decision to change land use practices in the tropical forest margins of Jambi, Indonesia. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Change. doi: 10.1007/s11027-013-9478-7
  73. Villamor GB, van Noordwijk M. 73.  2011. Social role-play games versus individual perceptions of conservation and PES agreements for maintaining rubber agroforests in Jambi (Sumatra), Indonesia. Ecol. Soc. 16:327 [Google Scholar]
  74. Quisumbing AR, Otsuka K. 74.  2001. Land inheritance and schooling in matrilineal societies: evidence from Sumatra. World Dev. 29:122093–110 [Google Scholar]
  75. German L, Taye H. 75.  2008. A framework for evaluating effectiveness and inclusiveness of collective action in watershed management. J. Int. Dev. 20:199–116 [Google Scholar]
  76. Huong VTD. 76.  2006. Gendered knowledge in the management of medicinal plants: a case study of a Dzao community in the buffer zone of Bavi National Park, Northern Vietnam Presented at Reg. Semin., “Regionalization of Development: Redefining Local Culture, Space and Identity in The Mekong Region,” April 22–24, Luang Prabang, Laos
  77. Brara R. 77.  1987. Shifting sands: a study of right in common pastures Rep., Inst. Dev. Stud., Jaipur, India
  78. Sarin M, Khanna R. 78.  1993. Women organize for wasteland development: a case study of SARTHI in Gujarat. Women and Wasteland Development in India AM Singh, N Burra 129–69 New Delhi: Sage [Google Scholar]
  79. Diamond N, Feldstein HS, Gambill D, Hill Rojas M. 79.  1997. A Working Session on Communities, Institutions and Policies: Moving from Environmental Research to Results Washington, DC: WIDTECH
  80. Bauer M, Chytilová J. 80.  2013. Women, children and patience: experimental evidence from Indian villages. Rev. Dev. Econ. 17:4662–75 [Google Scholar]
  81. Pender JL. 81.  1996. Discount rates and credit markets: theory and evidence from rural India. J. Dev. Econ. 50:2257–96 [Google Scholar]
  82. Holden ST, Shiferaw B, Wik M. 82.  1998. Poverty, market imperfections and time preferences: of relevance for environmental policy?. Environ. Dev. Econ. 3:1105–30 [Google Scholar]
  83. Meinzen-Dick RS, Brown L, Feldstein H, Quisumbing AR. 83.  1997. Gender, property rights, and natural resources. World Dev. 25:81303–15 [Google Scholar]
  84. Schlager E, Ostrom E. 84.  1992. Property-rights regimes and natural resources: a conceptual analysis. Land Econ. 68:2249–62 [Google Scholar]
  85. Meinzen-Dick RS, Pradhan R, Di Gregorio M. 85.  2004. Understanding property rights. Collective Action and Property Rights for Sustainable Development RS Meinzen-Dick, M Di Gregorio 7–8 Washington, DC: IFPRI [Google Scholar]
  86. Sun Y, Mwangi E, Meinzen-Dick RS. 86.  2011. Is gender an important factor influencing 205 user groups' property rights and forestry governance? Empirical analysis from East Africa and Latin America. Int. For. Rev. 13:2205–20 [Google Scholar]
  87. McLain R. 87.  1992. Recommendation for a new Malian Forest Code: observations from the Land Tenure Center's study of land and tree tenure in Mali's Fifth Region LTC Res. Pap. 109, Land Tenure Cent., Univ. Wis., Madison
  88. Bruce J, Fortmann L, Nhira C. 88.  1993. Tenures in transition, tenures in conflict: examples from the Zimbabwe social forest. Rural Sociol. 58:4626–42 [Google Scholar]
  89. Rocheleau D. 89.  1988. Women, trees and tenure: implications for agroforestry. Whose Trees? Proprietary Dimensions of Forestry L Fortmann, J Bruce 254–72 Boulder, CO: Westview [Google Scholar]
  90. Rocheleau D. 90.  1991. Gender, ecology and the science of survival: stories and lessons from Kenya. Agric. Hum. Values 8:1–2156–65 [Google Scholar]
  91. Rocheleau D, Edmunds D. 91.  1997. Women, men and trees: gender, power and property in forest and agrarian landscapes. World Dev. 25:81351–71 [Google Scholar]
  92. Price LL, Ogle BM. 92.  2008. Gathered indigenous vegetables in mainland Southeast Asia: a gender asset. Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility and Interventions BP Resurreccion, R Elmhirst 213–42 London: Earthscan [Google Scholar]
  93. Goebel A. 93.  2003. Gender and entitlements in the Zimbabwean woodlands: a case study of resettlements. Women & Plants: Relations in Biodiversity Management and Conservation PL Howard 115–29 New York/London: Zed Books/St. Martin's [Google Scholar]
  94. Howard PL, Nabanoga G. 94.  2005. Are there customary rights to plants? An inquiry among the Baganda (Uganda), with special attention to gender CAPRi Work. Pap. No. 44, Int. Food Policy Res. Inst., Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  95. Zwarteveen M. 95.  1997. Water: from basic need to commodity: a discussion on gender and water rights in the context of irrigation. World Dev. 25:81335–49 [Google Scholar]
  96. Meinzen-Dick RS, Bakker M. 96.  2001. Water rights and multiple water uses: issues and examples from Kirindi Oya, Sri Lanka. Irrig. Drain. Syst. 15:2129–48 [Google Scholar]
  97. Bray F. 97.  2007. Gender and technology. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 36:37–53 [Google Scholar]
  98. Place F. 98.  1994. The role of land and tree tenure on the adoption of agroforestry technologies: a summary and synthesis Rep., Land Tenure Cent., Univ. Wis., Madison
  99. Dey J. 99.  1985. Women in African rice farming systems. Women in Rice Farming: Proceedings of a Conference on Women in Rice Farming Systems Int. Rice Res. Inst ., pp. 419–44 Brookfield, VT: Gower
  100. von Braun J, Webb PJR. 100.  1989. The impact of new crop technology on the agricultural division of labor in a West African setting. Econ. Dev. Cult. Change 37:513–34 [Google Scholar]
  101. Jones C. 101.  1983. The mobilization of women's labor for cash crop production: a game theoretic approach. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 65:51049–54 [Google Scholar]
  102. Leach M. 102.  1992. Women's crops in women's spaces: gender relations in Mende rice farming. Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment and Development E Croll, D Parkin 76–96 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  103. Zwarteveen M, Meinzen-Dick RS. 103.  2001. Gender and property rights in the commons: examples of water rights in South Asia. Agric. Hum. Values 18:111–25 [Google Scholar]
  104. Gunchinmaa T, Hamdamova D, van Koppen B. 104.  2011. Gender in irrigated farming: a case study in the Zerafshan River Basin, Uzbekistan. Gender Technol. Dev. 15:2201–22 [Google Scholar]
  105. Agrawal A, Yadama G, Andrade R, Bhattacharya A. 105.  2006. Decentralization and environmental conservation: gender effects from participation in joint forest management CAPRi Work. Pap. No. 53, Int. Food Policy Res. Inst., Washington, DC
  106. Feder G, Nishio A. 106.  1997. The Benefits of Land Registration and Titling: Economic and Social Perspectives Washington, DC: World Bank
  107. Feder G, Onchan T, Chamlamwong Y, Hongladarom C. 107.  1988. Land Policies and Farm Productivity in Thailand Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
  108. Quisumbing AR, Payongayong E, Aidoo JB, Otsuka K. 108.  2001. Women's land rights in the transition to individualized ownership: implications for tree-resource management in western Ghana. Econ. Dev. Cult. Change 50:1157–82 [Google Scholar]
  109. Otsuka K, Quisumbing AR, Payongayong E, Aidoo JB. 109.  2003. Land tenure and the management of land and trees: the case of customary land tenure areas of Ghana. Environ. Dev. Econ. 8:177–104 [Google Scholar]
  110. Fortmann L, Antinori C, Nabane N. 110.  1997. Fruits of their labors: gender, property rights, and tree planting in two Zimbabwe villages. Rural Sociol. 62:3295–314 [Google Scholar]
  111. Deininger A, Ali DA, Yamano T. 111.  2008. Legal knowledge and economic development: the case of land rights in Uganda. Land Econ 84:4593–619 [Google Scholar]
  112. Ali DA, Deininger K, Goldstein M. 112.  2011. Environmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Africa: pilot evidence from Rwanda Policy Res. Work. Pap. 5765, World Bank, Washington, DC
  113. Deininger K, Ali DA, Holden S, Zevenbergen J. 113.  2008. Rural land certification in Ethiopia: process, initial impact, and implications for other African countries. World Dev. 36:101786–812 [Google Scholar]
  114. Quisumbing AR, Kumar N. 114.  2013. Did the Ethiopian land registration improve women's land rights and increase adoption of soil conservation? Presented at “Agricultural Development Within the Rural-Urban Continuum,” Sept. 17–19, Stuttgart-Hohenheim
  115. Swallow B, Meinzen-Dick RS. 115.  2008. Payment for environmental services: interactions with property rights and collective action. Institutions and Sustainability: Political Economy of Agriculture and the Environment. Essays in Honour of Konrad Hagedorn VV Beckmann, M Padmanabhan 243–66 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer [Google Scholar]
  116. Shames S, Wollenberg E, Buck LE, Kristjanson P, Masiga M, Biryahwaho BB. 116.  2012. Institutional innovations in African smallholder carbon projects CCAFS Rep. No. 8, CGIAR Res. Prog. Climate Change, Agric. Food Secur., Copenhagen, Denmark
  117. Terry G. 117.  2009. No climate justice without gender justice: an overview of the issues. Gender Dev. 17:15–18 [Google Scholar]
  118. Udry C. 118.  1996. Gender, agricultural production, and the theory of the household. J. Polit. Econ. 104:51010–46 [Google Scholar]
  119. Hemmati M, Röhr U. 119.  2009. Engendering the climate-change negotiations: experiences, challenges, and steps forward. Gender Dev. 17:119–32 [Google Scholar]
  120. Peach Brown H. 120.  2011. Gender, climate change and REDD+ in the Congo Basin forests of Central Africa. Int. For. Rev. 13:2163–76 [Google Scholar]
  121. Bandiaky S. 121.  2008. Gender inequality in Maldinio Biodiversity Community–based Reserve, Senegal: political parties and the “village approach.”. Conserv. Soc. 6:162–73 [Google Scholar]
  122. Hambly Odame H. 122.  2002. Men in women's groups: a gender and agency analysis of local institutions. Masculinity Matters: Men, Gender and Development F Cleaver 138–65 London: Zed [Google Scholar]
  123. Leino J. 123.  2007. Ladies first? Gender and the community management of water infrastructure in Kenya Grad. Stud. Res. Fellow Work. Pap. 30, Cent. Int. Dev., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA
  124. Agarwal B, Panda P. 124.  2007. Toward freedom from domestic violence: the neglected obvious. J. Hum. Dev. 8:3359–88 [Google Scholar]
  125. Behrman J, Meinzen-Dick RS, Quisumbing AR. 125.  2012. The gender implications of large-scale land deals. J. Peasant Stud. 39:149–79 [Google Scholar]
  126. Mwangi E, Meinzen-Dick RS, Sun Y. 126.  2011. Gender and sustainable forest management in East Africa and Latin America. Ecol. Soc. 16:117 [Google Scholar]
  127. Pandey S. 127.  1990. Women in Hattidunde forest management in Dhading District, Nepal MPE Ser. No. 9, Int. Cent. Integr. Mt. Dev., Kathmandu, Nepal
  128. Chen MA. 128.  1993. Women and wasteland development in India: an issue paper. Women and Wasteland Development in India AM Singh, N Burra 21–90 Delhi: Sage [Google Scholar]
  129. Kelkar M. 129.  2007. Local knowledge and natural resource management: a gender perspective. Indian J. Gender Stud. 14:2295–306 [Google Scholar]
  130. Wangari E, Thomas-Slayter B, Rocheleau D. 130.  1996. Gendered visions for survival: semi-arid regions in Kenya. Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experiences D Rocheleau, B Thomas-Slayter, E Wangari 127–54 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  131. Shiva V. 131.  1992. Women's indigenous knowledge and biodiversity conservation. Indigenous Vision. Peoples of India. Attitudes to the Environment G Sen 205–14 New Delhi: Sage [Google Scholar]
  132. Sillitoe P. 132.  2003. The gender of crops in the Papua New Guinea highlands. Women and Plants: Gender Relations in Biodiversity Management and Conservation PL Howard 165–79 London/New York: Zed/Palgrave-MacMillan [Google Scholar]
  133. Padmanabhan MA. 133.  2005. Institutional innovations towards gender equality in agrobiodiversity management: collection action in Kerala, South India CAPRi Work. Pap. No. 39, Int. Food Policy Res. Inst., Washington, DC
  134. Doss CR. 134.  2002. Men's crops? Women's crops? The gender patterns of cropping in Ghana. World Dev. 30:111987–2000 [Google Scholar]
  135. Jewitt S. 135.  2000. Unequal knowledges in Jharkhand, India: de-romanticizing women's agroecological expertise. Dev. Change 31:5961–85 [Google Scholar]
  136. 136. World Bank, IFPRI 2010. Gender and Governance in Rural Services: Insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia Washington, DC: Int. Bank Reconstr. Dev./World Bank
  137. Peterman A, Behrman J, Quisumbing AR. 137.  2010. A review of empirical evidence on gender differences in nonland agricultural inputs, technology, and services in developing countries IFPRI Discuss. Pap. 00975, Int. Food Policy Res. Inst., Washington, DC
  138. Davis K, Nkonya E, Ayalew D, Kato E, Odendo M. 138.  et al. 2010. Impact of farmer field schools on agricultural productivity, poverty and farmer empowerment in East Africa IFPRI Discuss. Pap. 00992, Int. Food Policy Res. Inst., Washington, DC
  139. Doss CR, Kovarik C, Peterman A, Quisumbing AR, van den Bold M. 139.  2013. Gender inequalities in ownership and control of land in Africa: myths versus reality IFPRI Discuss. Pap. 01308, Int. Food Policy Res. Inst., Washington, DC
  140. Place F, Adato M, Hebinck P, Omosa M. 140.  2007. The impacts of agroforestry-based soil fertility replenishment practices on the poor in western Kenya. Agricultural Research, Livelihoods, and Poverty M Adato, RS Meinzen-Dick 149–97 Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  141. Magnan N, Spielman D, Gulati K, Lybbert T. 141.  2013. Gender dimensions of social networks and technology adoption: evidence from a field experiment in Uttar Pradesh, India GAAP Note, Nov., Int. Food Policy Res. Inst., Washington, DC. http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/gaapnote10.pdf
  142. Godquin M, Quisumbing AR. 142.  2008. Separate but equal? The gendered nature of social capital in rural Philippine communities. J. Int. Dev. 20:113–33 [Google Scholar]
  143. Jagger P, Pender J. 143.  2006. Influences of programs and organizations on the adoption of sustainable land management technologies in Uganda. Strategies for Sustainable Land Management in the East African Highlands J Pender, F Place, S Ehui 277–308 Washington, DC: IFPRI [Google Scholar]
  144. Pretty J. 144.  2003. Social capital and the collective management of resources. Science 302:56521912–14 [Google Scholar]
  145. Singh K, Ballabh V. 145.  1997. Cooperative Management of Natural Resources New Delhi: Sage
  146. Krishna A. 146.  2002. Active Social Capital: Tracing the Roots of Development and Democracy New York: Columbia Univ. Press
  147. Uphoff N. 147.  2002. Agroecological Innovations London: Earthscan
  148. McNeely JA, Scherr SJ. 148.  2003. Ecoagriculture: Strategies to Feed the World and Save Biodiversity Washington, DC: Island
  149. Pretty J, Smith D. 149.  2004. Social capital in biodiversity conservation and management. Conserv. Biol. 18:3631–38 [Google Scholar]
  150. Njuki JM, Mapila MT, Zingore S, Delve R. 150.  2008. The dynamics of social capital in influencing use of soil management options in the Chinyanja Triangle of southern Africa. Ecol. Soc. 13:29 [Google Scholar]
  151. Rathgeber EM, Adera EO. 151.  2000. Gender and the Information Revolution in Africa Ottowa, Can: Int. Dev. Res. Cent.
  152. Malapit HJ, Sproule K, Kovarik C, Meinzen-Dick R, Quisumbing A. 152.  et al. 2014. Measuring progress toward empowerment WEAI Baseline Rep., Int. Food Policy Res. Inst., Washington, DC. http://feedthefuture.gov/sites/default/files/resource/files/ftf_progress_weai_baselinereport_may2014.pdf
  153. Kumar SK, Hotchkiss D. 153.  1988. Consequences of deforestation for women's time allocation, agricultural production, and nutrition in hill areas of Nepal IFPRI Res. Rep. No. 69, Int. Food Policy Res. Inst., Washington, DC
  154. Arku FS, Arku C. 154.  2010. I cannot drink water on an empty stomach: a gender perspective on living with drought. Gender Dev. 18:1115–24 [Google Scholar]
  155. Torri MC. 155.  2010. Power, structure, gender relations and community-based conservation: the cawswe study of the Sariska region, Rajasthan, India. J. Int. Women's Stud. 11:41–18 [Google Scholar]
  156. Fisher MG, Warner RL, Masters WA. 156.  2000. Gender and agricultural change: crop-livestock integration in Senegal. Soc. Nat. Resour. 13:3203–22 [Google Scholar]
  157. van Staveren I. 157.  2001. Gender biases in finance. Gender Dev. 9:19–17 [Google Scholar]
  158. Hunt J, Kasynathan N. 158.  2001. Pathways to empowerment? Reflections on microfinance and transformation in gender relations in South Asia. Gender Dev. 9:142–52 [Google Scholar]
  159. D'Espallier B, Guerin I, Mersland R. 159.  2011. Women and repayment in microfinance: a global analysis. World Dev. 39:5758–72 [Google Scholar]
  160. Hill K. 160.  2011. “Male providers” and “responsible mothers”: gender and livelihood politics in the rural Philippines. Gender Technol. Dev. 15:223 [Google Scholar]
  161. Goetz AM, Sen Gupta R. 161.  1996. Who takes the credit? Gender, power, and control over loan use in rural credit programs in Bangladesh. World Dev. 24:145–63 [Google Scholar]
  162. Anderson CL, Locker L, Nugent R. 162.  2002. Microcredit, social capital, and common pool resources. World Dev. 30:195–105 [Google Scholar]
  163. Herrold-Menzies M. 163.  2008. Gender, microcredit and conservation at Caohai: an attempt to link women, conservation and development in China. Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility and Interventions BP Resurreccion, R Elmhirst 175–94 London: Earthscan [Google Scholar]
  164. Zwarteveen M, Neupane N. 164.  1995. Gender aspects of irrigation management: the Chhattis Mauja irrigation system in Nepal. Asia-Pacific J. Rural Dev. 5:1–26 [Google Scholar]
  165. Davis B, Carletto G, Winters PC. 165.  2010. Migration, transfers, and economic decision making among agricultural households: an introduction. J. Dev. Stud. 46:11–13 [Google Scholar]
  166. Mosse D. 166.  2013. The anthropology of international development. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 42:227–46 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-101813-013240
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-101813-013240
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error