Consumption, although often considered an individual choice, is deeply ingrained in behaviors, cultures, and institutions, and is driven and supported by corporate and government practices. Consumption is also at the heart of many of our most critical ecological, health, and social problems. What is referred to broadly as sustainable consumption has primarily focused on making consumption more efficient and gradually decoupling it from energy and resource use. We argue for the need to focus sustainable consumption initiatives on the key impact areas of consumption—transport, housing, energy use, and food—and at deeper levels of system change. To meet the scale of the sustainability challenges we face, interventions and policies must move from relative decoupling via technological improvements, to strategies to change the behavior of individual consumers, to broader initiatives to change systems of production and consumption. We seek to connect these emerging literatures on behavior change, structural interventions, and sustainability transitions to arrive at integrated frameworks for learning, iteration, and scaling of sustainability innovations. We sketch the outlines of research and practice that offer potentials for system changes for truly sustainable consumption.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Jackson T. 1.  2009. Prosperity Without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet London: Earthscan
  2. Robins N. 2.  1999. Making sustainability bite: transforming global consumption patterns. J. Sustain. Prod. Des. 1999:7–16 [Google Scholar]
  3. Speth JG. 3.  2008. The Bridge at the Edge of the World: Capitalism, the Environment, and Crossing from Crisis to Sustainability New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  4. Meadows DH, Meadows DL, Randers J, Behrens WW. 4.  1972. The Limits to Growth New York: Taylor & Francis
  5. Kallis G. 5.  2015. Social limits of growth. Degrowth: A Vocabulary for a New Era G D'Alisa, F Demaria, G Kallis 137–40 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  6. Victor PA. 6.  2012. Growth, degrowth and climate change: a scenario analysis. Ecol. Econ. 84:206–12 [Google Scholar]
  7. Hoekstra AY, Wiedmann TO. 7.  2014. Humanity's unsustainable environmental footprint. Science 344:61881114–17 [Google Scholar]
  8. Rockström J, Steffen W, Noone K, Persson Å, Chapin FS. 8.  et al. 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461:7263472–75 [Google Scholar]
  9. Dasgupta PS, Ehrlich PR. 9.  2013. Pervasive externalities at the population, consumption, and environment nexus. Science 340:6130324–28 [Google Scholar]
  10. Le Quéré C, Moriarty R, Andrew RM, Peters GP, Ciais P. 10.  et al. 2014. Global carbon budget 2014. Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss. 7:2521–610 [Google Scholar]
  11. Druckman A, Jackson T. 11.  2009. The carbon footprint of UK households 1990–2004: a socio-economically disaggregated, quasi-multi-regional input-output model. Ecol. Econ. 68:72066–77 [Google Scholar]
  12. Martínez-Alier J. 12.  2012. Environmental justice and economic degrowth: an alliance between two movements. Cap. Nat. Soc. 23:151–73 [Google Scholar]
  13. McKibben B. 13.  1989. The End of Nature New York: Random House
  14. Calderón F, Oppenheim J, Stern N. 14.  New Climate Economy 2014. Better Growth, Better Climate: The New Climate Economy Report—The Synthesis Report Washington, DC: Global Comm. Econ. Climate http://2014.newclimateeconomy.report/
  15. Akenji L, Bengtsson M. 15.  2014. Making sustainable consumption and production the core of sustainable development goals. Sustainability 6:2513–29 [Google Scholar]
  16. Galli A, Wiedmann T, Ercin E, Knoblauch D, Ewing B, Giljum S. 16.  2012. Integrating ecological, carbon and water footprint into a “footprint family” of indicators: definition and role in tracking human pressure on the planet. Ecol. Indic. 16:100–112 [Google Scholar]
  17. Easterlin R. 17.  1974. Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence. Nations Househ. Econ. Growth 1974:89–125 [Google Scholar]
  18. Di Giulio A, Fischer D, Schäfer M, Blättel-Mink B. 18.  2014. Conceptualizing sustainable consumption: toward an integrative framework. Sustain Sci. Pract. Policy 10:145–61 [Google Scholar]
  19. Lorek S, Spangenberg JH. 19.  2014. Sustainable consumption within a sustainable economy—beyond green growth and green economies. J. Clean Prod. 63:33–44 [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. OECD 2011. Towards green growth: monitoring progress. Paris: OECD http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264111356-en [Google Scholar]
  21. Barbier E. 21.  2012. The green economy post Rio+20. Science 338:6109887–88 [Google Scholar]
  22. Tukker A. 22.  2014. Strategies for enhancing resource efficiency. Factor X M Angrick, A Burger, H Lehmann 103–21 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer [Google Scholar]
  23. O'Rourke D. 23.  2014. The science of sustainable supply chains. Science 344:61881124–27 [Google Scholar]
  24. Schoettle B, Sivak M. 24.  2013. A comparison of CAFE standards and actual CAFE performance of new light-duty vehicles Rep. UMTRI-2013-35, Transp. Res. Inst., Univ. Mich. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/100179/102966.pdf
  25. Meyers S, McMahon J, McNeil M. 25.  2005. Realized and prospective impacts of U.S. energy efficiency standards for residential appliances: 2004 update. Rep. LBNL-56417, Environ. Energy Technol. Div., Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab. http://eetd.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/lbnl-56417_0.pdf
  26. Gleick PH. 26.  2003. Water use. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28:1275–314 [Google Scholar]
  27. Ausubel JH. 27.  2015. The return of nature: how technology liberates the environment. Breakthr. J. 5. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/journal/issue-5/the-return-of-nature
  28. Hobson K. 28.  2002. Competing discourses of sustainable consumption: Does the “rationalisation of lifestyles” make sense?. Environ. Polit. 11:295–120 [Google Scholar]
  29. O'Shea T, Golden JS, Olander L. 29.  2013. Sustainability and earth resources: life cycle assessment modeling. Bus. Strategy Environ. 22:7429–41 [Google Scholar]
  30. Tukker A. 30.  2015. Product services for a resource-efficient and circular economy—a review. J. Clean Prod. 97:76–91 [Google Scholar]
  31. Boons F, Lüdeke-Freund F. 31.  2013. Business models for sustainable innovation: state-of-the-art and steps towards a research agenda. J. Clean Prod. 45:9–19 [Google Scholar]
  32. Botsman R, Rogers R. 32.  2010. Beyond Zipcar: collaborative consumption. Harv. Bus. Rev. 88:1030 [Google Scholar]
  33. Hamari J, Sjöklint M, Ukkonen A. 33.  2015. The sharing economy: why people participate in collaborative consumption. J. Assoc. Info. Sci. Technol. In press
  34. Leismann K, Schmitt M, Rohn H, Baedeker C. 34.  2013. Collaborative consumption: towards a resource-saving consumption culture. Resources 2:3184–203 [Google Scholar]
  35. Schor J. 35.  2014. Debating the sharing economy Rep., Great Transit. Initiat., Tellus Inst. Great Transit. http://www.greattransition.org/publication/debating-the-sharing-economy
  36. 36. Ellen Macarthur Foundation 2013. Towards the circular economy: opportunities for the consumer goods sector. Rep. Vol. 2, Ellen Macarthur Found.
  37. Walls M. 37.  2006. Extended producer responsibility and product design: economic theory and selected case studies. Discuss. Pap. 06-08, Res. Future
  38. Geng Y, Sarkis J, Ulgiati S, Zhang P. 38.  2013. Measuring China's circular economy. Science 339:1526–27 [Google Scholar]
  39. Holdren JP, Ehrlich PR. 39.  1972. Human population and the global environment: Population growth, rising per capita material consumption, and disruptive technologies have made civilization a global ecological force. Am. Sci. 62:282–92 [Google Scholar]
  40. Knight K, Schor J. 40.  2014. Economic growth and climate change: a cross-national analysis of territorial and consumption-based carbon emissions in high-income countries. Sustainability 6:63722–31 [Google Scholar]
  41. Jorgenson AK, Clark B. 41.  2012. Are the economy and the environment decoupling? A comparative international study, 1960–2005. Am. J. Sociol. 118:11–44 [Google Scholar]
  42. Antal M, Van Den Bergh JCJM. 42.  2014. Green growth and climate change: conceptual and empirical considerations. Clim. Policy. doi 10.1080/14693062.2014.992003
  43. Pothen F, Schymura M. 43.  2015. Bigger cakes with fewer ingredients? A comparison of material use of the world economy. Ecol. Econ. 109:109–21 [Google Scholar]
  44. Allievi F, Vinnari M, Luukkanen J. 44.  2015. Meat consumption and production—analysis of efficiency, sufficiency and consistency of global trends. J. Clean Prod. 92:142–51 [Google Scholar]
  45. Figge F, Young W, Barkemeyer R. 45.  2014. Sufficiency or efficiency to achieve lower resource consumption and emissions? The role of the rebound effect. J. Clean Prod. 69:216–24 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gerland P, Raftery AE, Sevčíková H, Li N, Gu D. 46.  et al. 2014. World population stabilization unlikely this century. Science 346:6206234–37 [Google Scholar]
  47. Georgescu-Roegen N. 47.  1975. Energy and economic myths. S. Econ. J. 41:347–81 [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. United Nations 2015. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2015: Mid-2015 Update New York: United Nations http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/index.shtml
  49. Steffen W, Broadgate W, Deutsch L, Gaffney O, Ludwig C. 49.  2015. The trajectory of the Anthropocene: the Great Acceleration. Anthropocene Rev 2:81–98 [Google Scholar]
  50. Mace GM, Terama E, Coulson T. 50.  2013. Perspectives on international trends and dynamics in population and consumption. Environ. Resour. Econ. 55:4555–68 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kharas H. 51.  2010. The emerging middle class in developing countries Work. Pap. 285, Dev. Cent., OECD, Paris. http://www.oecd.org/dev/44457738.pdf
  52. Jones CM, Kammen DM. 52.  2011. Quantifying carbon footprint reduction opportunities for U.S. households and communities. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45:94088–95 [Google Scholar]
  53. Jones C, Kammen DM. 53.  2014. Spatial distribution of U.S. household carbon footprints reveals suburbanization undermines greenhouse gas benefits of urban population density. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:2895–902 [Google Scholar]
  54. Sivak M. 54.  2014. Has motorization in the US peaked? Part 5: Update through 2012. Rep. UMTRI-2014-11, Univ. Michigan Transport. Res. Inst.
  55. Cohen MJ. 55.  2013. Collective dissonance and the transition to post-consumerism. Futures 52:42–51 [Google Scholar]
  56. Kent JL, Dowling R. 56.  2013. Puncturing automobility? Carsharing practices. J. Transp. Geogr. 32:86–92 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hopkins D, Stephenson J. 57.  2014. Generation Y mobilities through the lens of energy cultures: a preliminary exploration of mobility cultures. J. Transp. Geogr. 38:88–91 [Google Scholar]
  58. Barker T, Bashmakov I, Bernstein L, Bogner J, Bosch P. 58.  et al. 2007. Summary for policymakers. Assess. Rep. 4, Work. Group III, IPCC. https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/spm.html
  59. Myers N, Kent J. 59.  2003. New consumers: the influence of affluence on the environment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100:84963–68 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hubacek K, Feng K, Chen B. 60.  2011. Changing lifestyles towards a low carbon economy: an IPAT analysis for China. Energies 5:1222–31 [Google Scholar]
  61. Schroeder P. 61.  2014. Assessing effectiveness of governance approaches for sustainable consumption and production in China. J. Clean Prod. 63:64–73 [Google Scholar]
  62. Anantharaman M. 62.  2014. Networked ecological citizenship, the new middle classes and the provisioning of sustainable waste management in Bangalore, India. J. Clean Prod. 63:173–83 [Google Scholar]
  63. Asafu-Adjaye J, Blomqvist L, Brand S, Brook B, Defries R. 63.  et al. 2015. An Ecomodernist Manifesto. http://www.ecomodernism.org/manifesto-english/
  64. Schmalensee R. 64.  2012. From “green growth” to sound policies: an overview. Energy Econ. 34:S2–6 [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. IPCC 2014. Climate change 2014 Assess. Rep. 5, Work. Groups I, II, III, IPCC
  66. Alexander S. 66.  2014. A critique of techno-optimism: efficiency without sufficiency is lost Work. Pap. 1/14, Sustain. Soc. Inst., Univ. Melb.
  67. Girod B, van Vuuren DP, Hertwich EG. 67.  2014. Climate policy through changing consumption choices: options and obstacles for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Glob. Environ. Change 25:5–15 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kallis G, Kerschner C, Martinez-Alier J. 68.  2012. The economics of degrowth. Ecol. Econ. 84:172–80 [Google Scholar]
  69. Loftus PJ, Cohen AM, Long JCS, Jenkins JD. 69.  2015. A critical review of global decarbonization scenarios: What do they tell us about feasibility? A critical review of global decarbonization scenarios. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Clim. Change 6:193–112 [Google Scholar]
  70. Druckman A, Chitnis M, Sorrell S, Jackson T. 70.  2011. Missing carbon reductions? Exploring rebound and backfire effects in UK households. Energy Policy 39:63572–81 [Google Scholar]
  71. Chitnis M, Sorrell S, Druckman A, Firth SK, Jackson T. 71.  2013. Turning lights into flights: estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for UK households. Energy Policy 55:234–50 [Google Scholar]
  72. Wiedenhofer D, Lenzen M, Steinberger JK. 72.  2013. Energy requirements of consumption: urban form, climatic and socio-economic factors, rebounds and their policy implications. Energy Policy 63:696–707 [Google Scholar]
  73. Saunders H. 73.  2013. Is what we think of as “rebound” really just income effects in disguise?. Energy Policy 57:308–17 [Google Scholar]
  74. Murray CK. 74.  2013. What if consumers decided to all “go green”? Environmental rebound effects from consumption decisions. Energy Policy 54:240–56 [Google Scholar]
  75. Azevedo IML. 75.  2014. Consumer end-use energy efficiency and rebound effects. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 39:1393–418 [Google Scholar]
  76. Antal M, van den Bergh JCJM. 76.  2014. Re-spending rebound: a macro-level assessment for OECD countries and emerging economies. Energy Policy 68:585–90 [Google Scholar]
  77. Costanza R, Alperovitz G, Daly HE, Farley J, Franco C. 77.  et al. 2013. Building a sustainable and desirable economy-in-society-in-nature. See Ref. 189 126–42
  78. Fuchs D, Di Giulio A, Glaab K, Lorek S, Maniates M. 78.  et al. 2015. Power: the missing element in sustainable consumption and absolute reductions research and action. J. Clean Prod. In press. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.02.006
  79. Druckman A, Jackson T. 79.  2010. The bare necessities: How much household carbon do we really need?. Ecol. Econ. 69:91794–804 [Google Scholar]
  80. Barrett J, Scott K. 80.  2012. Link between climate change mitigation and resource efficiency: a UK case study. Glob. Environ. Change 22:1299–307 [Google Scholar]
  81. Spangenberg JH. 81.  2014. Institutional change for strong sustainable consumption: sustainable consumption and the degrowth economy. Sustain. Sci. Pract. Policy 10:162–77 [Google Scholar]
  82. Speth JG. 82.  2012. American passage: towards a new economy and a new politics. Ecol. Econ. 84:181–86 [Google Scholar]
  83. Costanza R. 83.  2014. A theory of socio-ecological system change. J. Bioeconomics 16:139–44 [Google Scholar]
  84. Lorek S, Fuchs D. 84.  2013. Strong sustainable consumption governance—precondition for a degrowth path?. J. Clean Prod. 38:36–43 [Google Scholar]
  85. Veblen T. 85.  1899. The Theory of the Leisure Class New York: Macmillan
  86. Sekulova F, Kallis G, Rodríguez-Labajos B, Schneider F. 86.  2013. Degrowth: from theory to practice. J. Clean Prod. 38:1–6 [Google Scholar]
  87. Assadourian E. 87.  2010. The rise and fall of consumer cultures. State of the World 2010 2010:3–20 [Google Scholar]
  88. Cherrier H. 88.  2009. Anti-consumption discourses and consumer-resistant identities. J. Bus. Res. 62:2181–90 [Google Scholar]
  89. Markkula A, Moisander J. 89.  2012. Discursive confusion over sustainable consumption: a discursive perspective on the perplexity of marketplace knowledge. J. Consum. Policy 35:1105–25 [Google Scholar]
  90. Jackson T. 90.  2005. Motivating sustainable consumption: a review of evidence on consumer behavior and behavior change. Sustain. Dev. Res. Netw. 29:30 [Google Scholar]
  91. Gifford R. 91.  2014. Environmental psychology matters. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 65:1541–79 [Google Scholar]
  92. Ölander F, Thøgersen J. 92.  2014. Informing versus nudging in environmental policy. J. Consum. Policy 37:3341–56 [Google Scholar]
  93. Kahneman D. 93.  2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow London: Macmillan
  94. Simonson I. 94.  2014. Mission accomplished: What's next for consumer BDT-JDM researchers? Res. Pap. 14-05, Grad. Sch. Bus., Stanford Univ.
  95. Abraham C, Michie S. 95.  2008. A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychol. 27:3379–87 [Google Scholar]
  96. Ariely D. 96.  2008. Predictably Irrational New York: HarperCollins
  97. Ghazeli A, Antal M, Van Den Bergh JCJM. 97.  2012. Behavioral foundations of sustainability transitions. Work Pap. 3, WWWforEurope
  98. Tsuda K, Hara K, Uwasu M. 98.  2013. Prospects and challenges for disseminating life cycle thinking towards environmental conscious behaviors in daily lives. Sustainability 5:1123–35 [Google Scholar]
  99. Hallstein E, Villas-Boas SB. 99.  2013. Can household consumers save the wild fish? Lessons from a sustainable seafood advisory. J. Environ. Econ. Manag. 66:152–71 [Google Scholar]
  100. Bratt C, Hallstedt S, Robèrt K-H, Broman G, Oldmark J. 100.  2011. Assessment of eco-labelling criteria development from a strategic sustainability perspective. J. Clean Prod. 19:141631–38 [Google Scholar]
  101. Dendler L. 101.  2014. Sustainability meta labelling: an effective measure to facilitate more sustainable consumption and production?. J. Clean Prod. 63:74–83 [Google Scholar]
  102. Thogersen J. 102.  2010. Country differences in sustainable consumption: the case of organic food. J. Macromarketing 30:2171–85 [Google Scholar]
  103. Sunstein CR. 103.  2015. Behavioral economics, consumption, and environmental protection. Handbook of Research on Sustainable Consumption L Reisch, J Thøgersen 313–27 Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publ. [Google Scholar]
  104. Eppel S, Sharp V, Davies L. 104.  2013. A review of Defra's approach to building an evidence base for influencing sustainable behaviour. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 79:30–42 [Google Scholar]
  105. Moseley A, Stoker G. 105.  2013. Nudging citizens? Prospects and pitfalls confronting a new heuristic. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 79:4–10 [Google Scholar]
  106. Sunstein C, Reisch L. 106.  2014. Automatically green: behavioral economics and environmental protection. Harv. Int. Law Rev. 38:12014 [Google Scholar]
  107. Salazar HA, Oerlemans L, van Stroe-Biezen S. 107.  2013. Social influence on sustainable consumption: evidence from a behavioural experiment. Int. J. Consum. Stud. 37:2172–80 [Google Scholar]
  108. Thomas C, Sharp V. 108.  2013. Understanding the normalisation of recycling behaviour and its implications for other pro-environmental behaviours: a review of social norms and recycling. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 79:11–20 [Google Scholar]
  109. Steg L, Bolderdijk JW, Keizer K, Perlaviciute G. 109.  2014. An integrated framework for encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: the role of values, situational factors and goals. J. Environ. Psychol. 38:104–15 [Google Scholar]
  110. Dietz T. 110.  2014. Understanding environmentally significant consumption. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111:145067–68 [Google Scholar]
  111. Tukker A, Cohen MJ, Hubacek K, Mont O. 111.  2010. The impacts of household consumption and options for change. J. Ind. Ecol. 14:113–30 [Google Scholar]
  112. Osbaldiston R. 112.  2013. Synthesizing the experiments and theories of conservation psychology. Sustainability 5:62770–95 [Google Scholar]
  113. Duhigg C. 113.  2012. The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business New York: Random House
  114. Willis MM, Schor JB. 114.  2012. Does changing a light bulb lead to changing the world? Political action and the conscious consumer. Ann. Am. Acad. Pol. Soc. Sci. 644:1160–90 [Google Scholar]
  115. Power K, Oksana M. 115.  2013. Analysis of latest outcomes of academic work on sustainable consumption 2010–2012. Work. Pap. 3/2013, EU. Topic Cent. Sustain Consum. Prod.
  116. Assadourian E. 116.  2013. Re-engineering cultures to create a sustainable civilization. See Ref. 189 113–25
  117. Akenji L. 117.  2014. Consumer scapegoatism and limits to green consumerism. J. Clean Prod. 63:13–23 [Google Scholar]
  118. Isenhour C. 118.  2011. Can consumer demand deliver sustainable food? Recent research in sustainable consumption policy and practice. Environ. Soc. Adv. Res. 2:15–28 [Google Scholar]
  119. Sandel M. 119.  2012. What Money Can't Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets New York: Macmillan
  120. Thompson CJ, Schor JB. 120.  2014. Cooperative networks, participatory markets, and rhizomatic resistance: situating plenitude within contemporary political economy debates. See Ref.190, pp 233–50 [Google Scholar]
  121. O'Neill DW. 121.  2012. Measuring progress in the degrowth transition to a steady state economy. Ecol. Econ. 84:221–31 [Google Scholar]
  122. Fremstad A. 122.  2014. Gains from sharing: sticky norms, endogenous preferences, and the economics of shareable goods Work. Pap. 2014-02, Dep. Econ., Univ. Mass.
  123. Heinrichs H. 123.  2013. Sharing economy: a potential new pathway to sustainability. GAIA-Ecol. Perspect. Sci. Soc. 22:4228–31 [Google Scholar]
  124. Belk R. 124.  2014. You are what you can access: sharing and collaborative consumption online. J. Bus. Res. 67:81595–600 [Google Scholar]
  125. Carfagna LB, Dubois EA, Fitzmaurice C, Ouimette MY, Schor JB. 125.  et al. 2014. An emerging eco-habitus: the reconfiguration of high cultural capital practices among ethical consumers. J. Consum. Cult. 14:2158–78 [Google Scholar]
  126. Ely A, Smith A, Stirling A, Leach M, Scoones I. 126.  2013. Innovation politics post-rio+20: Hybrid pathways to sustainability?. Environ. Plan. C Gov. Policy. 31:61063–81 [Google Scholar]
  127. Hallstedt SI, Thompson AW, Lindahl P. 127.  2013. Key elements for implementing a strategic sustainability perspective in the product innovation process. J. Clean Prod. 51:277–88 [Google Scholar]
  128. Robins N. 128.  2014. Integrating environmental risks into asset valuations: the potential for stranded assets and the implications for long-term investors. Rep., Int. Inst. Sustain. Dev. http://www.iisd.org/publications/integrating-environmental-risks-assetvaluations-potential-stranded-assets
  129. Seuring S, Gold S. 129.  2013. Sustainability management beyond corporate boundaries: from stakeholders to performance. J. Clean Prod. 56:1–6 [Google Scholar]
  130. O'Rourke D. 130.  2005. Market movements: nongovernmental organization strategies to influence global production and consumption. J. Ind. Ecol. 9:1–2115–28 [Google Scholar]
  131. Kanig I. 131.  2012. Sustainable capitalism through the benefit corporation: enforcing the procedural duty of consideration to protect non-shareholder interests. Hastings LJ 64:863 [Google Scholar]
  132. Anderson K, Bows A. 132.  2011. Beyond “dangerous” climate change: emission scenarios for a new world. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 3691934:20–44 [Google Scholar]
  133. Knight KW, Rosa EA, Schor JB. 133.  2013. Could working less reduce pressures on the environment? A cross-national panel analysis of OECD countries, 1970–2007. Glob. Environ. Change 23:4691–700 [Google Scholar]
  134. Keynes JM. 134.  2006. General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money Ocala, FL: Atl. Publ.
  135. Spangenberg JH. 135.  2010. The growth discourse, growth policy and sustainable development: two thought experiments. J. Clean Prod. 18:6561–66 [Google Scholar]
  136. Kubiszewski I, Costanza R, Franco C, Lawn P, Talberth J. 136.  et al. 2013. Beyond GDP: measuring and achieving global genuine progress. Ecol. Econ. 93:57–68 [Google Scholar]
  137. Norgaard RB. 137.  2011. Weighing climate futures: a critical review of the application of economic valuation. See Ref. 191 190–204
  138. Bagstad KJ, Berik G, Gaddis EJB. 138.  2014. Methodological developments in US state-level genuine progress indicators: Toward GPI 2.0. Ecol. Indic. 45:474–85 [Google Scholar]
  139. Van den Bergh J, Antal M. 139.  2014. Evaluating alternatives to GDP as measures of social welfare/progress Work. Pap. 56, WWWforEurope
  140. Brooks J. 140.  2013. Avoiding the limits to growth: gross national happiness in Bhutan as a model for sustainable development. Sustainability 5:93640–64 [Google Scholar]
  141. Pizer W, Adler M, Aldy J, Antohoff D, Cropper M. 141.  et al. 2014. Using and improving the social cost of carbon. Science 346:62141189–90 [Google Scholar]
  142. Wilk R. 142.  2010. Consumption embedded in culture and language: implications for finding sustainability. Sustain. Sci. Pract. Policy 6:238–48 [Google Scholar]
  143. Moloney S, Strengers Y. 143.  2014. “Going green”? The limitations of behaviour change programmes as a policy response to escalating resource consumption. Environ. Policy Gov. 24:294–107 [Google Scholar]
  144. Schor JB. 144.  2014. Climate discourse and economic downturns: the case of the United States, 2008–2013. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 13:6–20 [Google Scholar]
  145. Collins DE, Genet RM, Christian D. 145.  2013. Crafting a new narrative to support sustainability. See Ref. 189 218–24
  146. Meadows DH. 146.  1999. Leverage Points: Places to Intervene in a System. Hartland, VT: Sustain. Inst.
  147. Gudynas E. 147.  2011. Buen Vivir: today's tomorrow. Development 54:4441–47 [Google Scholar]
  148. Forrest N, Wiek A. 148.  2014. Learning from success—toward evidence-informed sustainability transitions in communities. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 12:66–88 [Google Scholar]
  149. Farla J, Markard J, Raven R, Coenen L. 149.  2012. Sustainability transitions in the making: a closer look at actors, strategies and resources. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 79:6991–98 [Google Scholar]
  150. Videira N, Schneider F, Sekulova F, Kallis G. 150.  2014. Improving understanding on degrowth pathways: an exploratory study using collaborative causal models. Futures 55:58–77 [Google Scholar]
  151. Levin S, Xepapadeas T, Crépin A-S, Norberg J, de Zeeuw A. 151.  et al. 2013. Social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems: modeling and policy implications. Environ. Dev. Econ. 18:02111–32 [Google Scholar]
  152. Loorbach D, Wijsman K. 152.  2013. Business transition management: exploring a new role for business in sustainability transitions. J. Clean Prod. 45:20–28 [Google Scholar]
  153. Schor JB. 153.  2013. Exit ramp to sustainability: the plenitude path. Clivatge Estud. Testimonis Sobre El Conflicte El Canvi Soc. 1:1 [Google Scholar]
  154. Alexander S. 154.  2012. Degrowth implies voluntary simplicity: overcoming barriers to sustainable consumption. SSRN Work. Pap. 2009698
  155. Backstrand K. 155.  2011. The democratic legitimacy of global governance after Copenhagen. See Ref. 191 669–84
  156. Seyfang G, Longhurst N. 156.  2013. Desperately seeking niches: grassroots innovations and niche development in the community currency field. Glob. Environ. Change 23:5881–91 [Google Scholar]
  157. Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J. 157.  et al. 2008. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319:5864756–60 [Google Scholar]
  158. Hinton E, Bickerstaff K, Bulkeley H. 158.  2011. “Citizen-practitioners”: the critical path for a low-carbon transition?. Energy and People: Futures, Complexity and Challenges20–21 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  159. Seyfang G, Haxeltine A. 159.  2012. Growing grassroots innovations: exploring the role of community-based initiatives in governing sustainable energy transitions. Environ. Plan. C 30:3381–400 [Google Scholar]
  160. Lachman DA. 160.  2013. A survey and review of approaches to study transitions. Energy Policy 58:269–76 [Google Scholar]
  161. Geels FW. 161.  2011. The multi-level perspective on sustainability transitions: responses to seven criticisms. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 1:124–40 [Google Scholar]
  162. Geels FW, Schot J. 162.  2007. Typology of sociotechnical transition pathways. Res. Policy 36:3399–417 [Google Scholar]
  163. Markard J, Raven R, Truffer B. 163.  2012. Sustainability transitions: an emerging field of research and its prospects. Res. Policy 41:6955–67 [Google Scholar]
  164. Lipschutz RD, McKendry C. 164.  2011. Social movements and global civil society. See Ref. 191 369–83
  165. Feola G, Nunes R. 165.  2014. Success and failure of grassroots innovations for addressing climate change: the case of the transition movement. Glob. Environ. Change 24:232–50 [Google Scholar]
  166. Stutz J. 166.  2012. Response to Creating the future we want by Alan D. Hecht, Joseph, Fiksel, Scott C. Fulton, Terry F. Yosie, Neil C. Hawkins, Heinz Leuenberger, Jay Golden, & Thomas E. Lovejoy.. Sustainability: Science, Practice, Policy 8:76–78 [Google Scholar]
  167. Ghazeli A, Antal M, Drake B, Jackson T, Stagl S. 167.  et al. 2013. Policy responses by different agents/stakeholders in a transition: integrating the multi-level perspective and behavioral economics Work. Pap. 8, WWWForEurope
  168. Shove E, Walker G. 168.  2010. Governing transitions in the sustainability of everyday life. Res. Policy 39:4471–76 [Google Scholar]
  169. Ayres RU, Campbell CJ, Casten TR, Horne PJ, Kümmel R. 169.  et al. 2013. Sustainability transition and economic growth enigma: Money or energy?. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 9:8–12 [Google Scholar]
  170. Antal M, van den Bergh JCJM. 170.  2013. Macroeconomics, financial crisis and the environment: strategies for a sustainability transition. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 6:47–66 [Google Scholar]
  171. Piketty T, Goldhammer A. 171.  2014. Capital in the Twenty-First Century Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press
  172. Jackson TD, Victor P. 172.  2014. Does slow growth increase inequality? Some reflections on Picketty's ‘fundamental’ laws of capitalism Work. Pap. 14/01, PASSAGE
  173. Nørgård JS. 173.  2013. Happy degrowth through more amateur economy. J. Clean Prod. 38:61–70 [Google Scholar]
  174. Dietz T, Gardner GT, Gilligan J, Stern PC, Vandenbergh MP. 174.  2009. Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce U.S. carbon emissions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106:4418452–56 [Google Scholar]
  175. Castán Broto V, Glendinning S, Dewberry E, Walsh C, Powell M. 175.  2014. What can we learn about transitions for sustainability from infrastructure shocks?. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 84:186–96 [Google Scholar]
  176. Muraca B. 176.  2012. Towards a fair degrowth-society: justice and the right to a “good life” beyond growth. Futures 44:6535–45 [Google Scholar]
  177. Hoornweg D, Bhada-Tata P, Kennedy C. 177.  2014. Peak waste: When is it likely to occur?. J. Ind. Ecol. 19:117–28 [Google Scholar]
  178. Wiedmann TO, Schandl H, Lenzen M, Moran D, Suh S. 178.  et al. 2013. The material footprint of nations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112:6271–76 [Google Scholar]
  179. Wiedmann T. 179.  2009. A review of recent multi-region input-output models used for consumption-based emission and resource accounting. Ecol. Econ. 69:2211–22 [Google Scholar]
  180. Davis SJ, Caldeira K. 180.  2010. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107:125687–92 [Google Scholar]
  181. DeCanio SJ, Fremstad A. 181.  2011. Economic feasibility of the path to zero net carbon emissions. Energy Policy 39:31144–53 [Google Scholar]
  182. Alexander S. 182.  2013. Post-growth economics: a paradigm shift in progress Post carbon pathways. Work. Pap. 2/14, Melb. Sustain. Soc. Inst., Melb. Univ.
  183. Demaria F, Schneider F, Sekulova F, Martinez-Alier J. 183.  2013. What is degrowth? From an activist slogan to a social movement. Environ. Values 22:2191–215 [Google Scholar]
  184. Schumacher EF. 184.  1973. Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered London: Blond & Briggs
  185. Howarth RB. 185.  2011. Intergenerational justice. See Ref. 191 338–52
  186. Holt DB. 186.  2014. Why the sustainable economy movement hasn't scaled: toward a strategy that empowers Main Street. See Ref. 190 202–32
  187. Trainer T. 187.  2014. Some inconvenient theses. Energy Policy 64:168–74 [Google Scholar]
  188. Rezai A, Taylor L, Mechler R. 188.  2013. Ecological macroeconomics: an application to climate change. Ecol. Econ. 85:69–76 [Google Scholar]
  189. 189. Worldwatch Institute 2013. State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? New York: Springer
  190. Schor JB, Thompson CJ. 190.  2014. Sustainable Lifestyles and the Quest for Plenitude: Case Studies of the New Economy. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  191. Dryzek JS, Norgaard RB, Schlosberg D. 191.  2011. The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error