Human actions are transforming ecosystems across the globe. Six frameworks aid in understanding the forces that drive human stress on the environment and human responses to this stress. Two of them, the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT) model and decomposition analysis, are approaches to analyzing data. Four describe the interrelated system of human actions and environmental responses: driving forces, pressures, states, impacts, responses (DPSIR); the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework; coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and telecoupling; and social-ecological systems (SES). In applying these frameworks, attention must be given to the scale of analysis and to the effects of context. In addition to the frameworks there are four substantial research literatures providing theory and empirical analysis of how drivers place stress on the environment: a macrocomparative tradition, work on household energy consumption, land change science, and research on commons. Although these traditions remain somewhat separate, they are largely complementary.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Crutzen PJ, Stoermer EF. 1.  2000. The Anthropocene. IGBP Newsl http://www.mpch-mainz.mpg.de/∼air/anthropocene
  2. Waters CN, Zalasiewicz J, Summerhayes C, Barnosky AD, Poirier C. 2.  et al. 2016. The Anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene. Science 351:aad2622 [Google Scholar]
  3. Lewis SL, Maslin MA. 3.  2015. Defining the Anthropocene. Nature 519:171–80 [Google Scholar]
  4. Steffen W, Grinevald J, Crutzen P, McNeill J. 4.  2011. The Anthropocene: conceptual and historical perspectives. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 369:842–67 [Google Scholar]
  5. Nelson DR, Adger WN, Brown K. 5.  2007. Adaptation to environmental change: contributions of a resilience framework. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 32:395–419 [Google Scholar]
  6. Young OR. 6.  2010. Institutional dynamics: resilience, vulnerability and adaptation in environmental and resource regimes. Glob. Environ. Change 20:378–85 [Google Scholar]
  7. Tierney K. 7.  2014. The Social Roots of Risk: Producing Disasters, Promoting Resilience Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  8. Norris FH, Stevens SP, Pfefferbaum B, Wyche KF, Pfefferbaum RL. 8.  2008. Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. Am. J. Community Psychol. 41:127–50 [Google Scholar]
  9. Nordhaus WD. 9.  1992. An optimal transition path for controlling greenhouse gases. Science 258:1315–19 [Google Scholar]
  10. Weyant J, Kriegler E. 10.  2014. Preface and introduction to EMF 27. Climatic Change 123:345–52 [Google Scholar]
  11. De Zeeuw A. 11.  2014. Regime shifts in resource management. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ. 6:85–104 [Google Scholar]
  12. Folke C, Carpenter S, Walker B, Scheffer M, Elmqvist T. 12.  et al. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 35:557–81 [Google Scholar]
  13. Hughes TP, Carpenter S, Rockström J, Scheffer M, Walker B. 13.  2013. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries. Trends Ecol. Evol. 28:389–95 [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. US National Research Council. 2007. Analysis of Global Change Assessments: Lessons Learned Washington, DC: Natl. Academy Press
  15. Meadows DH, Meadows DL, Randers J, Behrens WIII. 15.  1972. The Limits to Growth New York: Potomac Assoc.
  16. Worster D. 16.  2016. Shrinking the Earth: The Rise and Decline of American Abundance New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  17. Barney GO. 17.  1980. The Global 2000 Report to the President: The Technical Report Washington, DC: Gov. Print. Off.
  18. Commoner B. 18.  1972. The environmental cost of economic growth. See Ref. 171 339–63
  19. Commoner B. 19.  1972. A Bulletin Dialogue on “The Closing Circle”: Response. Bull. At. Sci. 28:51742–56 [Google Scholar]
  20. Ehrlich PR, Holdren JP. 20.  1972. Impact of population growth. See Ref. 171 365–77
  21. Ehrlich PR, Holdren JP. 21.  1972. A bulletin dialogue on “The Closing Circle”: Critique. Bull. At. Sci. 28:5 16:18–27 [Google Scholar]
  22. Dietz T, Rosa EA. 22.  1994. Rethinking the environmental impacts of population, affluence and technology. Hum. Ecol. Rev. 1:277–300 [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. US Comm. Pop. Growth Am. Future. 1972. Population and the American Future New York: Signet
  24. Kaya Y. 24.  1990. Impact of Carbon Dioxide Emission Control on GNP Growth: Interpretation of Proposed Scenarios Presented at IPCC Energy and Industry Subgroup, Response Strategies Working Group Paris:
  25. Chertow M. 25.  2001. The IPAT equation and its variants: changing views of technology and environmental impact. J. Ind. Ecol. 4:13–29 [Google Scholar]
  26. Fischer-Kowalski M, Amann C. 26.  2001. Beyond IPAT and Kuznets curves: globalization as a vital factor in analysing the environmental impact of socio-economic metabolism. Popul. Environ. 23:7–47 [Google Scholar]
  27. York R, Rosa EA, Dietz T. 27.  2002. Bridging environmental science with environmental policy: plasticity of population, affluence and technology. Soc. Sci. Q. 83:18–34 [Google Scholar]
  28. Rosa EA, Dietz T. 28.  2012. Human drivers of national greenhouse gas emissions. Nat. Clim. Change 2:581–86 [Google Scholar]
  29. Su B, Ang B. 29.  2012. Structural decomposition analysis applied to energy and emissions: some methodological developments. Energy Econ 34:177–88 [Google Scholar]
  30. Duchin F. 30.  2015. The transformative potential of input–output economics for addressing critical resource challenges of the twenty-first century. Resources, Production and Structural Dynamics ML Baranzini, C Rotondi, R Scazzieri 136–54 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  31. Springer NP, Duchin F. 31.  2014. Feeding nine billion people sustainably: conserving land and water through shifting diets and changes in technologies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:4444–51 [Google Scholar]
  32. Duchin F. 32.  2016. A global case‐study framework applied to water supply and sanitation. J. Ind. Ecol. 20:387–95 [Google Scholar]
  33. Wernick IK, Ausubel JH. 33.  1995. National materials flows and the environment. Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 20:463–92 [Google Scholar]
  34. Ausubel JH, Wernick IK, Barrett AM, Waggoner PE. 34.  2006. Industrial ecology for leverage to let loose less cadmium. Prog. Ind. Ecol. Int. J. 3:522–37 [Google Scholar]
  35. Fischer-Kowalski M, Haberl H. 35.  2015. Social metabolism: a metric for biophysical growth and degrowth. Handbook of Ecological Economics J Martínez-Alier, R Muradian 100–38 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  36. Haberl H, Fischer-Kowalski M, Krausmann F, Winiwarter V. 36. , eds. 2016. Social Ecology: Society-Nature Relations Across Time and Space, Vol. 5 Basel, Switz.: Springer
  37. Azevedo IM. 37.  2014. Consumer end-use energy efficiency and rebound effects. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 39:393–418 [Google Scholar]
  38. Gillingham K, Rapson D, Wagner G. 38.  2016. The rebound effect and energy efficiency policy. Rev. Environ. Econ. Policy 10:68–88 [Google Scholar]
  39. York R. 39.  2006. Ecological paradoxes: William Stanley Jevons and the Paperless Office. Hum. Ecol. Rev. 13:143–47 [Google Scholar]
  40. York R. 40.  2012. Do alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels?. Nat. Clim. Change 2:441–43 [Google Scholar]
  41. Jorgenson AK. 41.  2012. Energy: analyzing fossil fuel displacement. Nat. Clim. Change 2:398–99 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kristensen P. 42.  2004. The DPSIR framework. Workshop on a comprehensive/detailed assessment of the vulnerability of water resources to environmental change in Africa using river basin approach Nairobi, Kenya: UN Environ. Program [Google Scholar]
  43. Gari SR, Newton A, Icely JD. 43.  2015. A review of the application and evolution of the DPSIR framework with an emphasis on coastal social-ecological systems. Ocean Coastal Manag 103:63–77 [Google Scholar]
  44. Niemeijer D, de Groot RS. 44.  2008. A conceptual framework for selecting environmental indicator sets. Ecol. Indic. 8:14–25 [Google Scholar]
  45. Linster M, Fletcher J. 45.  2001. Using the Pressure-State-Response model to develop indicators of sustainability: OECD framework for environmental indicators Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Paris:
  46. 46. European Environmental Agency (EEA). 1999. Environmental Indicators: Typology and Overview Copenhagen, Den.: EEA
  47. Patrício J, Elliott M, Mazik K, Papadopoulou K-N, Smith CJ. 47.  2016. DPSIR—two decades of trying to develop a unifying framework for marine environmental management?. Front. Mar. Sci. 3:1–14 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gomez CM, Delacamara G, Jaehnig S, Langhans SD, Domisch S. 48.  et al. 2017. Developing the AQUACROSS Assessment Framework Brussels, Belg.: Eur. Union
  49. Kelble CR, Loomis DK, Lovelace S, Nuttle WK, Ortner PB. 49.  et al. 2013. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model: integrating ecosystem services into the DPSIR framework. PLOS ONE 8:e70766 [Google Scholar]
  50. Alcalmo J, Ash NJ, Butler CD, Callicot JB, Capistrano D. 50.  et al. 2003. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Framework for Analysis Washington, DC: Island Press
  51. Reid WV, Mooney HA, Cropper A, Capistrano D, Carpenter SR. 51.  et al. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis Washington, DC: Island Press
  52. Tomich TP, Argumedo A, Baste I, Camac E, Filer C. 52.  et al. 2010. Conceptual frameworks for ecosystem assessment: their development, ownership, and use. See Ref. 91 71–114
  53. Lambin EF, Geist HJ, Lepers E. 53.  2003. Dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in tropical regions. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28:205–41 [Google Scholar]
  54. Geist HJ, Lambin EF. 54.  2001. What Drives Tropical Deforestation Louvain-la-Neuve, Belg.: LUCC Intl. Proj. Off., Univ. Louvain
  55. 55. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 1980. World Conservation Strategy Gland, Switz.: IUCN
  56. 56. World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our Common Future Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  57. Cardonna JL. 57.  2014. Sustainability: A History New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  58. Jorgenson AK. 58.  2014. Economic development and the carbon intensity of human well-being. Nat. Clim. Change 4:186–89 [Google Scholar]
  59. Jorgenson AK, Givens J. 59.  2015. The changing effect of economic development on the consumption-based carbon intensity of well-being, 1990–2008. PLOS ONE 10:e0123920 [Google Scholar]
  60. Jorgenson AK. 60.  2015. Inequality and the carbon intensity of human well-being. J. Environ. Stud. Sci. 5:277–82 [Google Scholar]
  61. Jorgenson AK, Dietz T. 61.  2015. Economic growth does not reduce the ecological intensity of human well-being. Sustain. Sci. 10:149–56 [Google Scholar]
  62. Dietz T, Rosa EA, York R. 62.  2009. Environmentally efficient well-being: rethinking sustainability as the relationship between human well-being and environmental impacts. Hum. Ecol. Rev. 16:113–22 [Google Scholar]
  63. Knight K, Rosa EA. 63.  2011. The environmental efficiency of well-being: a cross-national analysis. Soc. Sci. Res. 40:931–49 [Google Scholar]
  64. Lamb WF, Steinberger JK, Bows-Larkin A, Peters GP, Roberts JT, Wood FR. 64.  2014. Transitions in pathways of human development and carbon emissions. Environ. Res. Lett. 9:014011 [Google Scholar]
  65. Yang W, Dietz T, Kramer DB, Chen X, Liu J. 65.  2013. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human well-being. PLOS ONE 8:e64582 [Google Scholar]
  66. Yang W, Dietz T, Liu W, Luo J, Liu J. 66.  2013. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human dependence on ecosystem services. PLOS ONE 8:e64581 [Google Scholar]
  67. Yang W, Dietz T, Kramer DB, Ouyang Z, Liu J. 67.  2015. An integrated approach to understand the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being. Ecosyst. Health Sustain. 1:19 [Google Scholar]
  68. Yang W, Viña A, Dietz T, Hull V, Kramer DB. 68.  et al. 2016. Vulnerability and adaptation to natural disasters. Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability J Liu, V Hull, W Yang, A Viña, X Chen et al.148–58 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  69. Yang W, McKinnon MC, Turner WR. 69.  2015. Quantifying human well‐being for sustainability research and policy. Ecosyst. Health Sustain. 1:1–13 [Google Scholar]
  70. Liu J, Dietz T, Carpenter SR, Folke C, Alberti M. 70.  et al. 2007. Coupled human and natural systems. Ambio 36:639–49 [Google Scholar]
  71. Liu J, Dietz T, Carpenter SR, Alberti M, Folke C. 71.  et al. 2007. Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317:1513–16 [Google Scholar]
  72. Folke C. 72.  2006. Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Glob. Environ. Change 16:235–67 [Google Scholar]
  73. Renn O, Klinke A. 73.  2015. Risk governance and resilience: new approaches to cope with uncertainty and ambiguity. Risk Governance: The Articulation of Hazard, Politics and Ecology U Fra.Paleo 19–41 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  74. 74. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2014. Human Development Report 2014: Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience New York: UNDP
  75. Lockie S. 75.  2016. Beyond resilience and systems theory: reclaiming justice in sustainability discourse. Environ. Sociol. 2:115–17 [Google Scholar]
  76. Liu J, Hull V, Batistella M, DeFries R, Dietz T. 76.  et al. 2013. Framing sustainability in a telecoupled world. Ecol. Soc. 18:26 [Google Scholar]
  77. Liu J, Hull V, Luo J, Yang W, Liu W. 77.  et al. 2015. Multiple telecouplings and their complex interrelationships. Ecol. Soc. 20:44 [Google Scholar]
  78. Jorgenson AK, Kick EL. 78.  2015. Introduction: globalization and the environment. J. World-Syst. Res. 9:195–203 [Google Scholar]
  79. Jorgenson AK. 79.  2016. Environment, development, and ecologically unequal exchange. Sustainability 8:227 [Google Scholar]
  80. Liu W, Vogt CA, Luo J, He G, Frank KA, Liu J. 80.  2012. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas. PLOS ONE 7:4e35420 [Google Scholar]
  81. Chen X, Lupi F, He G, Ouyang Z, Liu J. 81.  2009. Factors affecting land reconversion plans following a payment for ecosystem service program. Biol. Conserv. 142:1740–47 [Google Scholar]
  82. Ostrom E. 82.  2009. A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science 325:419–22 [Google Scholar]
  83. Ostrom E. 83.  2009. Beyond markets and states: polycentric governance of complex economic systems. Nobel Lecture Stockholm, Swed.: Nobel Found. [Google Scholar]
  84. Ostrom E. 84.  2010. Polycentric systems for coping with collective action and global environmental change. Glob. Environ. Change 20:550–57 [Google Scholar]
  85. Mayr E. 85.  1959. Typological versus population thinking. Evolution and Anthropology: A Centennial Appraisal BJ Meggers 409–12 Washington, DC: Anthro. Soc. Washington [Google Scholar]
  86. Sober E. 86.  1980. Evolution, population thinking, and essentialism. Philos. Sci. 47:350–83 [Google Scholar]
  87. McLaughlin P. 87.  2012. The second Darwinian revolution: steps toward a new evolutionary environmental sociology. Nat. Cult. 7:231–58 [Google Scholar]
  88. McLaughlin P, Dietz T. 88.  2008. Structure, agency and environment: toward an integrated perspective on vulnerability. Glob. Environ. Change 18:99–111 [Google Scholar]
  89. McLaughlin P. 89.  2012. Climate change, adaptation, and vulnerability: reconceptualizing societal–environment interaction within a socially constructed adaptive landscape. Organ. Environ. 24:269–91 [Google Scholar]
  90. Dietz T, Rosa EA, York R. 90.  2010. Human driving forces of global change: examining current theories. Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability EA Rosa, A Diekmann, T Dietz, C Jaeger 83–134 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  91. Ash N, Blanco H, Brown C, Garcia K, Henrichs T. 91.  et al. 2010. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: A Manual for Assessment Practitioners Washington, DC: Island Press
  92. Liu J, Hull V, Yang W, Viña A, Chen X. 92.  et al. 2016. Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  93. Snijders TAB. 93.  2011. Multilevel analysis. International Encyclopedia of Statistical Science M Lovric 879–82 Berlin/Heidelberg, Ger.: Springer Berlin Heidelberg [Google Scholar]
  94. Raudenbush SW, Bryk AS. 94.  2002. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods Thousand Oak, CA: Sage
  95. Rosa EA, Dietz T. 95.  2012. Human drivers of national greenhouse-gas emissions. Nature Clim. Change 2:581–86 [Google Scholar]
  96. Wackernagel M, Rees W. 96.  1996. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing the Human Impact on the Earth Gabriola Island, BC, Can.: New Soc. Publ.
  97. Mancini MS, Galli A, Niccolucci V, Lin D, Bastianoni S. 97.  et al. 2016. Ecological footprint: refining the carbon Footprint calculation. Ecol. Indic. 61:390–403 [Google Scholar]
  98. Shandra JM, Rademacher H, Coburn C. 98.  2016. The World Bank and organized hypocrisy? A cross-national analysis of structural adjustment and forest loss. Environ. Sociol. 2:192–207 [Google Scholar]
  99. Shandra J. 99.  2007. The world polity and deforestation: a quantitative, cross-national analysis. Int. J. Comp. Sociol. 48:5–27 [Google Scholar]
  100. Jorgenson AK. 100.  2006. Unequal ecological exchange and environmental degradation: a theoretical proposition and cross‐national study of deforestation, 1990–2000. Rural Sociol 71:685–712 [Google Scholar]
  101. Shandra JM, Shor E, London B. 101.  2009. World polity, unequal ecological exchange, and organic water pollution: a cross-national analysis of developing nations. Hum. Ecol. Rev. 16:53–63 [Google Scholar]
  102. York R, Rosa EA. 102.  2012. Choking on modernity: a human ecology of air pollution. Soc. Probl. 59:282–300 [Google Scholar]
  103. Jorgenson AK. 103.  2007. Does foreign investment harm the air we breathe and the water we drink? A cross-national study of carbon dioxide emissions and organic water pollution in less-developed countries, 1975 to 2000. Organ. Environ. 20:137–56 [Google Scholar]
  104. Selden TM, Song D. 104.  1994. Environmental quality and development: Is there a Kuznets curve for air pollution emissions?. J. Environ. Econ. Manag. 27:147–62 [Google Scholar]
  105. York R, Rosa EA, Dietz T. 105.  2010. Ecological modernization theory: theoretical and empirical challenges. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology, Second Edition MR Redclift, G Woodgate 77–90 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  106. Mol APJ. 106.  2010. Ecological modernization as social theory of environmental reform. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology, Second Edition MR Redclift, G Woodgate 63–76 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  107. Jorgenson AK, Clark B. 107.  2012. Are the economy and the environment decoupling? A comparative international study, 1960–2005. Am. J. Soc. 118:1–44 [Google Scholar]
  108. York R. 108.  2012. Asymmetric effects of economic growth and decline on CO2 emissions. Nat. Clim. Change 2:762–64 [Google Scholar]
  109. Jorgenson AK, Clark B. 109.  2010. Assessing the temporal stability of the population/environment relationship in comparative perspective: a cross-national panel study of carbon dioxide emissions, 1960–2005. Popul. Environ. 32:27–41 [Google Scholar]
  110. Cramer JC. 110.  1998. Population growth and air quality in California. Demography 35:45–56 [Google Scholar]
  111. Liu J, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR, Luck GW. 111.  2003. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity. Nature 421:530–33 [Google Scholar]
  112. Jorgenson AK, Givens J. 112.  2014. The emergence of new world-systems perspectives on global environmental change. The Routledge International Handbook of Social and Environmental Change S Lockie, DA Sonnenfeld, D Fisher 31–44 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  113. Jorgenson A. 113.  2016. Income inequality and carbon emissions in the United States: a state-level analysis, 1997–2012. Ecol. Econ. 134:40–48 [Google Scholar]
  114. Dietz T, Frank KA, Whitley C, Kelly J, Kelly R. 114.  2015. Political influences on greenhouse gas emissions from US states. PNAS 112:8254–59 [Google Scholar]
  115. Cramer JC, Hackett B, Craig PP, Vine E, Levine M. 115.  et al. 1984. Structural-behavioral determinants of residential energy use: summer electricity use in Davis. Energy 9:207–16 [Google Scholar]
  116. Stern PC, Black JS, Elsworth JT. 116.  1983. Adaptations to changing energy conditions among Massachusetts households. Energy 12:339–53 [Google Scholar]
  117. Dietz T, Gardner GT, Gilligan J, Stern PC, Vandenbergh MP. 117.  2009. Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce U.S. carbon emissions. PNAS 106:18452–56 [Google Scholar]
  118. Vandenbergh MP, Stern PC, Gardner GT, Dietz T, Gilligan JM. 118.  2010. Implementing the behavioral wedge: designing and adopting effective carbon emissions reduction programs. Environ. Law Rep. 40:10547–54 [Google Scholar]
  119. Stern PC, Gardner GT, Vandenbergh MP, Dietz T, Gilligan JM. 119.  2010. Design principles for carbon emissions reduction programs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44:4847–48 [Google Scholar]
  120. Stern PC, Dietz T, Ruttan VW, Socolow RH, Sweeney JL. 120.  1997. Environmentally Significant Consumption: Research Directions Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  121. Stern PC. 121.  2000. Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. J. Soc. Issues 56:407–24 [Google Scholar]
  122. Stern PC. 122.  1986. Blind spots in policy analysis: what economics doesn't say about energy use. J. Policy Anal. Manag. 5:200–27 [Google Scholar]
  123. Stern PC, Janda KB, Brown MA, Steg L, Vine EL, Lutzenhiser L. 123.  2016. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations. Nat. Energy 1:16043 [Google Scholar]
  124. Stern PC. 124.  2014. Individual and household interactions with energy systems: toward integrated understanding. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 1:41–48 [Google Scholar]
  125. Stern PC. 125.  2008. Environmentally significant behavior in the home. The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour A Lewis 363–82 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  126. Dietz T, Stern PC, Weber E. 126.  2013. Reducing carbon-based energy consumption through changes in household behavior. Daedalus 142:78–89 [Google Scholar]
  127. Steg L. 127.  2016. Values, norms, and intrinsic motivation to act proenvironmentally. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 41:277–92 [Google Scholar]
  128. Shwom R, Lorenzen JA. 128.  2012. Changing household consumption to address climate change: social scientific insights and challenges. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev.: Climate Change 3:379–95 [Google Scholar]
  129. Steg L, Bolderdijk JW, Keizer K, Perlaviciute G. 129.  2014. An integrated framework for encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: the role of values, situational factors and goals. J. Environ. Psychol. 38:104–15 [Google Scholar]
  130. Schultz PW, Kaiser FG. 130.  2012. Promoting proenvironmental behavior. Handbook of Environmental and Conservation Psychology S Clayton 556–80 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  131. Dietz T. 131.  2015. Environmental values. Oxford Handbook of Values T Brosch, D Sander 329–49 Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  132. Ajzen I. 132.  1985. From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior. Action Control J Kuhl, J Beckmann 11–39 Berlin/Heidelberg, Ger.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  133. Ajzen I. 133.  1991. The theory of planned behavior. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 50:172–211 [Google Scholar]
  134. Klöckner CA. 134.  2013. A comprehensive model of the psychology of environmental behaviour—a meta-analysis. Glob. Environ. Change 23:1028–38 [Google Scholar]
  135. Ajzen I. 135.  2012. Values, attitudes, and behavior. Methods, Theories, and Empirical Applications in the Social Sciences: Festschrift for Peter Schmidt S Salzborn, E Davidov, J Reinecke 33–38 Berlin: Springer VS [Google Scholar]
  136. Schultz PW, Nolan JM, Cialdini RB, Goldstein NJ, Griskevicius V. 136.  2007. The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms. Psychol. Sci. 18:429–34 [Google Scholar]
  137. Cialdini RB, Demaine LJ, Sagarin BJ, Barrett DW, Rhoads K, Winter PL. 137.  2006. Managing social norms for persuasive impact. Soc. Influence 1:3–15 [Google Scholar]
  138. Attari SZ, DeKay ML, Davidson CI, De Bruien WB. 138.  2010. Public perceptions of energy consumption and savings. PNAS 107:16054–59 [Google Scholar]
  139. Attari SZ. 139.  2014. Perceptions of water use. PNAS 111:5129–34 [Google Scholar]
  140. Cialdini RB. 140.  2007 (1984). Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion New York: HarperCollins
  141. Sunstein CR. 141.  2014. Why Nudge? The Politics of Libertarian Paternalism New Haven: Yale Univ. Press
  142. Thaler RH, Sunstein CR. 142.  2009. Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness London: Penguin
  143. Stern PC. 143.  2011. Design principles for global commons: natural resources and emerging technologies. Int. J. Commons 5:213–32 [Google Scholar]
  144. Stern PC, Aronson E, Darley J, Hill DH, Hirst E. 144.  et al. 1986. The effectiveness of incentives for residential energy conservation. Eval. Rev. 10:147–76 [Google Scholar]
  145. Asenio OI, Delmas MA. 145.  2015. Non-price incentives and energy conservation. Proc. Nat. Academy Sci. 112:E510–15 [Google Scholar]
  146. Selinger E, Whyte K. 146.  2011. Is there a right way to nudge? The practice and ethics of choice architecture. Sociol. Compass 5:923–35 [Google Scholar]
  147. von Thünen JH. 147.  1966 (1826). Von Thünen's (The) Isolated State (in its relation to agriculture and national economy) Oxford: Pergamon Press
  148. Turner BLI, Lambin EF, Reenberg A. 148.  2007. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability. PNAS 104:20666–71 [Google Scholar]
  149. DeFries R, Rudel T, Uriarte M, Hansen M. 149.  2010. Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century. Nat. Geosci. 3:178–81 [Google Scholar]
  150. Rudel TK. 150.  1989. Population, development and tropical deforestation: a cross-national study. Rural Sociol 54:327–38 [Google Scholar]
  151. Shandra J, Leckband C, London B. 151.  2009. Ecologically unequal exchange and deforestation: a cross-national analysis of forestry export flows. Organ. Environ. 22:293–310 [Google Scholar]
  152. Burns TJ, Kick EL, Davis B. 152.  2003. Theorizing and rethinking linkages between the natural environment and the modern world-system: deforestation in the late 20th century. J. World-Syst. Res. 9:357–90 [Google Scholar]
  153. Rindfuss RR, Turner BL, Entwisle B, Walsh SJ. 153.  2004. Land cover/use and population. Land Change Science: Observing, Monitoring and Understanding Trajectories of Change on the Earth's Surface G Gutman, AC Janetos, CO Justice, EF Moran, JF Mustard, et al. 351–66 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  154. Liverman D, Moran EF, Rindfuss RR, Stern PC. 154. , eds. 1998. People and Pixels: Linking Remote Sensing and Social Science Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  155. Entwistle B, Stern PC. 155. , eds. 2005. Population, Land Use and Environment: Research Directions Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  156. Margulies JD, Magliocca NR, Schmill MD, Ellis EC. 156.  2016. Ambiguous geographies: connecting case study knowledge with global change science. Ann. Am. Assoc. Geogr. 106:572–96 [Google Scholar]
  157. Rudel TK. 157.  2008. Meta-analyses of case studies: a method for studying regional and global environmental change. Glob. Environ. Change 18:18–25 [Google Scholar]
  158. Rudel TK. 158.  2016. Land use and the great acceleration in human activities. The Sociology of Development Handbook G Hooks 190–206 Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  159. Dietz T, Ostrom E, Stern PC. 159.  2003. The struggle to govern the commons. Science 301:1907–12 [Google Scholar]
  160. Ostrom E. 160.  2007. A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas. PNAS 104:15181–87 [Google Scholar]
  161. Pottete AR, Janssen MA, Ostrom E. 161.  2010. Working Together: Collective Action, the Commons, and Multiple Methods in Practice Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  162. Wollenberg E, Merino L, Agrawal A, Ostrom E. 162.  2007. Fourteen years of monitoring community-managed forests: learning from IFRI's experience. Int. Forestry Rev. 9:670–84 [Google Scholar]
  163. Chhatre A, Agrawal A. 163.  2008. Forest commons and local enforcement. PNAS 105:13286–91 [Google Scholar]
  164. Dietz T, Ostrom E, Dolsak N, Stern PC. 164.  2001. The drama of the commons. The Drama of the Commons E Ostrom, T Dietz, N Dolsak, PC Stern, S Stonich, E Weber 3–35 Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  165. McCay BJ, Acheson JM. 165.  1990. The Question of the Commons: The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources Tucson, AZ: Univ. Arizona Press
  166. 166. US National Research Council. 1986. Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  167. Marquart-Pyatt ST. 167.  2012. Contextual influences on environmental concern cross-nationally: a multilevel investigation. Soc. Sci. Res. 41:1085–99 [Google Scholar]
  168. Givens JE, Jorgenson AK. 168.  2013. Individual environmental concern in the world polity: a multilevel analysis. Soc. Sci. Res. 42:418–31 [Google Scholar]
  169. Allen S, Dietz T, McCright AM. 169.  2015. Measuring household energy efficiency behaviors with attention to behavioral plasticity in the United States. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 10:133–40 [Google Scholar]
  170. Frank KA, Maroulis S, Duong MQ, Kelcey B. 170.  2013. What would it take to change an inference? Using Rubin's causal model to interpret the robustness of causal inferences. Educ. Eval. Policy Anal. 35:437–60 [Google Scholar]
  171. Ridker RG. 171.  1972. Population, Resources and the Environment Washington, DC: US Gov. Print. Off.

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error