Climate change represents the most significant challenge of the twenty-first century and poses risks to water and sanitation services. Concerns for water supply include damage to infrastructure from flooding, loss of water sources due to declining rainfall and increasing demand, and changes in the water quality of water sources and within distribution of water. Sanitation concerns include damage and loss of services from floods and reduced carrying capacity of waters receiving wastewater. Key actions to reduce climate risks include the integration of measures of climate resilience into water safety plans, as well as improved accounting and management of water resources. Policy prescriptions on technologies for service delivery and changes in management models offer potential to reduce risks, particularly in low-income settings. Water and sanitation services contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Choice of wastewater treatment technologies, improved pumping efficiency, use of renewable sources of energy, and within-system generation of energy offer potential for reducing emissions. Overall, greater attention and research are required to understand, plan for, and adapt to climate change in water and sanitation services. As with many other climate change adaptations, the likely benefits from no-regrets solutions are likely to outweigh the costs of investment.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Stern N.1.  2006. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. United Nations Framew. Convention Climate Change 2015. Adoption of the Paris Agreement Decis. CP.21, Conf. Parties, 21st, Paris, Fr., Nov. 30–Dec. 11. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/cop21/eng/l09r01.pdf [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. Intergovern. Panel Climate Change (IPCC) 2014. Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report: Summary for Policymakers Geneva, Switz: IPCC [Google Scholar]
  4. Arnell NW, Gosling SN. 4.  2013. The impacts of climate change on river flow regimes at the global scale. J. Hydrol. 486351–64 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, Palutikof JP. 5.  2008. Climate change and water. Tech. Pap. VI, IPCC Geneva, Switz.: [Google Scholar]
  6. Taylor RG, Scanlon B, Döll P, Rodell M, van Beek R. 6.  et al. 2013. Ground water and climate change. Nat. Clim. Change 3322–29 [Google Scholar]
  7. Milly PCD, Wetherald RT, Dunne KA, Delworth TL. 7.  2002. Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate. Nature 415514–17 [Google Scholar]
  8. Jiménez Cisneros BE, Oki T, Arnell NW, Benito G, Cogley JG. 8.  et al. 2014. Freshwater resources. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects (Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) CB Field, VR Barros, DJ Dokken, KJ Mach, MD Mastrandrea et al.229–69 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  9. Rockström J, Steffen W, Noone K, Persson Å, Chapin FS. 9.  et al. 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461472–75 [Google Scholar]
  10. Vörösmarty CJ, McIntyre PB, Gessner MO, Dudgeon D, Prusevich A. 10.  et al. 2010. Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467555–61 [Google Scholar]
  11. MacDonald AM, Bonsor HC, Dochartaigh BÉÓ, Taylor RG. 11.  2012. Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa. Environ. Res. Lett. 7024009 [Google Scholar]
  12. Foster SSD, MacDonald AM. 12.  2014. The “water security” dialogue: why it needs to be better informed about groundwater. Hydrogeol. J. 221489–92 [Google Scholar]
  13. Niang I, Ruppel OC, Abdrabo MA, Essel A, Lennard C. 13.  et al. 2014. Africa. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Part B: Regional Aspects (Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) VR Barros, CB Field, DJ Dokken, MD Mastrandrea, KJ Mach et al.1199–265 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Bartram J, Cairncross S. 14.  2010. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: forgotten foundations of health. PLOS Med 7:11e1000367 [Google Scholar]
  15. Hunter PR, MacDonald AM, Carter RC. 15.  2010. Water supply and health. PLOS Med 7:11e1000361 [Google Scholar]
  16. Howard G, Bartram J. 16.  2003. Domestic water quantity, service level and health. Rep. WHO/SDE/WSH/03.02, World Health Organ., Sustain. Dev. Healthy Environ. Geneva, Switz.: [Google Scholar]
  17. Gleick P.17.  2008. The World's Water 2008–2009: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Washington, DC: Island Press [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. World Health Organ. (WHO) 2014. Preventing Diarrhoea Through Better Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Exposures and Impact in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Geneva, Switz.: WHO [Google Scholar]
  19. Prüss A, Kay D, Fewtrell L, Bartram J. 19.  2002. Estimating the burden of disease from water, sanitation and hygiene at a global level. Environ. Health Perspect. 1105537–42 [Google Scholar]
  20. Prüss-Üstün A, Bos R, Gore F, Bartram J. 20.  2008. Safer Water, Better Health: Costs, Benefits and Sustainability of Interventions to Protect and Promote Health. Geneva, Switz.: WHO [Google Scholar]
  21. Esrey SA, Potash JB, Roberts L, Shiff C. 21.  1991. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Bull. World Health Org. 69:5609–21 [Google Scholar]
  22. Fewtrell L, Kaufmann RB, Kay D, Enanoria W, Haller L, Colford JM Jr.. 22.  2005. Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 5:42–52 [Google Scholar]
  23. Waddington H, Snilstveit B, White H, Fewtrell L. 23.  2009. International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie): Synthetic Review 001, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Combat Childhood Diarrhoea in Developing Countries. New Delhi, Ind.: Int. Initiat. Impact Eval. http://www.3ieimpact.org/media/filer_public/2012/05/07/17.pdf [Google Scholar]
  24. Wolf J, Prüss-Üstün A, Cumming O, Bartram J, Bonjour S. 24.  et al. 2014. Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: systematic review and meta-regression. Trop. Med. Int. Health 19:8928–42 [Google Scholar]
  25. Freeman MC, Stocks ME, Cumming O, Jeandron A, Higgins JPT. 25.  et al. 2014. Hygiene and health: systematic review of handwashing practices worldwide and update of health effects. Trop. Med. Int. Health 19:8906–16 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hunter PR, Zmirou-Navier D, Hartemann P. 26.  2009. Estimating the impact on health of poor reliability of drinking water interventions in developing countries. Sci. Total Environ. 407:2621–24 [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. UNICEF, WHO 2015. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2015 Update and MDG Assessment Geneva, Switz.: WHO [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. UNICEF and WHO 2012. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2012 Update. Geneva, Switz.: WHO [Google Scholar]
  29. Bain R, Wright J, Christenson E, Bartram J. 29.  2014. Rural:urban inequalities in post 2015 targets and indicators for drinking-water. Sci. Total Environ. 490:509–13 [Google Scholar]
  30. Bain RES, Cronk R, Wright JA, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Bartram JK. 30.  2014. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Med 11:e1001644 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kostyla C, Bain R, Cronk R, Bartram J. 31.  2015. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review. Sci. Total Environ. 514:333–43 [Google Scholar]
  32. Baum R, Luh J, Bartram J. 32.  2013. Sanitation: a global estimate of sewerage connections without treatment and the resulting impact on MDG progress. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:1994–2000 [Google Scholar]
  33. Strande L.33.  2014. Global situation. Faecal Sludge Management: Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation L Strande, M Ronteltap, D Brdjanovic 1–18 London: IWA Publ. [Google Scholar]
  34. Harvey P, Reed B. 34.  2006. Sustainable supply chains for rural water supplies in Africa. Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. Eng. Sustain. 159:ES131–39 [Google Scholar]
  35. Burr P, Ross I, Zaman R, Mujica A, Tincani L. 35.  et al. 2015. Improving Value for Money and Sustainability in WASH Programmes (VFM-WASH): Regional Assessment of the Operational Sustainability of Water and Sanitation Services in South Asia. Oxford, UK: Oxford Policy Manag. http://vfm-wash.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/VFM-WASH-South-Asia-RegAsst-FINAL-v.2.pdf [Google Scholar]
  36. Tincani L, Ross I, Zaman R, Burr P, Mujica A, Evans B. 36.  2015. Improving Value for Money and Sustainability in WASH Programmes (VFM-WASH): Regional Assessment of the Operational Sustainability of Water and Sanitation Services in Sub-Saharan Africa Oxford, UK: Oxford Policy Manag. http://vfm-wash.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/VFM-WASH-2015-Africa-RegAsst-FINAL_website.pdf [Google Scholar]
  37. McConville JR, Mihelcic JR. 37.  2007. Adapting life-cycle thinking tools to evaluate project sustainability in international water and sanitation development work. Environ. Eng. Sci. 24:7937–48 [Google Scholar]
  38. Bonsor HC, Oates N, Chilton PJ, Carter RC, Casey V. 38.  et al. 2015. A hidden crisis: strengthening the evidence base on the current failure of rural groundwater supplies. 38th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 27–31 July 2015. Nottingham, UK: Brit. Geol. Surv. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/510650/ [Google Scholar]
  39. McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S. 39.  2006. Climate change and human health: present and future risks. Lancet 367:9513859–69 [Google Scholar]
  40. Kolstad EW, Johannson KA. 40.  2011. Uncertainties associated with quantifying climate change impacts on human health: a case study for diarrhea. Environ. Health Perspect. 119:3299–305 [Google Scholar]
  41. Carlton EJ, Woster AP, DeWitt P, Goldstein RS, Levy K. 41.  2015. A systematic review and meta-analysis of ambient temperature and diarrhoeal diseases. Int. J. Epidemiol. 45:1117–30 [Google Scholar]
  42. 42. WHO 2014. Quantitative Risk Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Selected Causes of Death, 2030s and 2050s. Geneva, Switz.: WHO [Google Scholar]
  43. Philipsborn R, Ahmed SM, Bsrosi BJ, Levy K. 43.  2016. Climatic drivers of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Infect. Dis. 214:6–15 [Google Scholar]
  44. Cann KF, Thomas DR, Salmon RL, Wyn-Jone AP, Kay D. 44.  2013. Extreme water-related weather events and waterborne disease. Epidemiol. Infect. 141:4671–86 [Google Scholar]
  45. Alderman K, Turner LR, Tong S. 45.  2012. Floods and human health: a systematic review. Environ. Int. 47:37–47 [Google Scholar]
  46. Davies GI, McIver L, Kim Y, Hashizume M, Iddings S, Chan V. 46.  2015. Water-borne disease and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12:1191–213 [Google Scholar]
  47. Carlton EJ, Eisenberg JNS, Goldstick J, Cevallos W, Trostle J, Kevy K. 47.  2014. Heavy rainfall events and diarrhea incidence: the role of social and environmental factors. Am. J. Epidemiol. 173:3344–52 [Google Scholar]
  48. Wade TJ, Lin CJ, Jagai JS, Hilborn ED. 48.  2014. Flooding and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness in Massachusetts: a case-crossover study. PLOS ONE 9:10e110474 [Google Scholar]
  49. Schwartz BS, Harris JB, Khan AI, Larocque RC, Sack DA. 49.  et al. 2006. Diarrheal epidemics in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during three consecutive floods: 1988, 1998, and 2004. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 74:61067–73 [Google Scholar]
  50. Akanda AS, Jutla AS, Alam M, Constantin de Magny G, Siddique AK. 50.  et al. 2011. Hydroclimatic influences on seasonal and spatial cholera transmission cycles: implications for public health intervention in the Bengal Delta. Water Resour. Res. 47:W00H07 [Google Scholar]
  51. Rebaudet S, Sudre B, Faucher B, Piarroux R. 51.  2013. Environmental determinants of cholera outbreaks in inland Africa: a systematic review of main transmission foci and propagation routes. J. Infect. Dis. 208:Suppl.1S46–S54 [Google Scholar]
  52. Khan AE, Ireson A, Kovats S, Mojumder SK, Khusru A. 52.  et al. 2011. Drinking water salinity and maternal health in coastal Bangladesh: implications of climate change. Environ. Health Perspect. 119:91328–32 [Google Scholar]
  53. Chong YJ, Khan A, Scheelbeek P, Butler A, Boiwers D, Veneis P. 53.  2006. Climate change and salinity in drinking water as a global problem: using remote-sensing methods to monitor surface water salinity. Int. J. Remote Sensing 35:41585–99 [Google Scholar]
  54. Howard G, Charles K, Pond K, Brookshaw A, Hossian R, Bartram J. 54.  2010. Securing 2020 vision for 2030: climate change and ensuring resilience in water and sanitation services. J. Water Climate 1:12–16 [Google Scholar]
  55. Howard G, Bartram J. 55.  2009. Vision 2030: the resilience of water supply and sanitation in the face of climate change. Tech. Rep., WHO Geneva, Switz.: [Google Scholar]
  56. Ramirez E, Francou B, Ribstein P, Descloitres M, Guerin R. 56.  et al. 2001. Small glaciers disappearing in the tropical Andes: a case-study in Bolivia: Glaciar Chacaltaya (16°S). J. Glaciol. 47:187–94 [Google Scholar]
  57. Bricker SH, Yadav SK, MacDonald AM, Satyal Y, Dixit A, Bell R. 57.  2014. Groundwater resilience Nepal: preliminary findings from a case study in the Middle Hills. Open Rep. OR/14/069, Br. Geolog. Surv. Nottingham, UK: [Google Scholar]
  58. Pitt M.58.  2007. Learning lessons from the 2007 floods. Rep. Cabinet Off., HMG London: http://archive.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/pittreview/thepittreview/final_report.html [Google Scholar]
  59. Howard G, Teuton J, Luyima P, Odongo R. 59.  2002. Water usage patterns in low-income urban communities in Uganda: implications for surveillance. Int. J. Environ. Health Res. 12:163–73 [Google Scholar]
  60. Katsi L, Siwadi J, Guzha E, Makoni FS, Smets S. 60.  2007. Assessment of factors which affect multiple uses of water sources at household level in rural Zimbabwe—a case study of Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts. Phys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C 32:15–181157–66 [Google Scholar]
  61. Neuman LE, Moglia M, Cook S, Nguyen MN, Sharma AK. 61.  et al. 2014. Water use, sanitation and health in a fragmented urban water system: case study and household survey. Urban Water J 11:3198–210 [Google Scholar]
  62. Brown C, Lall U. 62.  2006. Water and economic development: the role of variability and a framework for resilience. Nat. Resour. Forum 30:306–17 [Google Scholar]
  63. Grey D, Sadoff C. 63.  2007. Sink or swim? Water security for growth and development. Water Policy 9:545–71 [Google Scholar]
  64. Sadoff CW, Muller M. 64.  2009. Better Water Resources Management—Greater Resilience Today, More Effective Adaptation Tomorrow. Stockholm, Swed.: Glob. Water Partnersh. [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. Hatfield-Dodds 2006. ‘Water strategies for sustainable development: What is required to ensure ‘responsible growth?’ A response by Steve Hatfield Dodds, CSIRO (Australia) to ‘Water for growth and development’ theme document for the 4th World Water Forum by David Grey and Claudia Sadoff. Clayton, World Bank. Discuss. Pap., Unit Soc. Environ. Res. http://www.sea-user.org/download_pubdoc.php?doc=3332 [Google Scholar]
  66. Calow R, Mason N. 66.  2014. The real water crisis: Inequality in a fast changing world Framing Pap., Overseas Dev. Inst. London: http://www.odi.org/publications/8399-water-crisis-development [Google Scholar]
  67. Smith MD, Barchiesi S. 67.  2010. Environment as infrastructure: Resilience to Climate Change Impacts on Water Through Investments in Nature. Gland, Switz.: Int. Union Conserv. Nat. http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_environment_as_infrastructure_1.pdf [Google Scholar]
  68. Pittock J.68.  2008. Water for Life: Lessons for Climate Change Adaptation from Better Management of Rivers. Goldalming, UK: WWF-UK [Google Scholar]
  69. Casassa G, Lopez P, Pouyaud B, Escobar F. 69.  2009. Detection of changes in glacial run-off in alpine basins: examples from North America, the Alps, central Asia and the Andes. Hydrol. Process. 23:31–41 [Google Scholar]
  70. Immerzeel WW, Van Beek LPH, Bierkens MFP. 70.  2010. Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science 328:1382–85 [Google Scholar]
  71. Immerzeel WW, Wanders N, Lutz AHF, Shea JM, Bierkens MFP. 71.  2015. Reconciling high-altitude precipitation in the upper Indus basin with glacier mass balances and runoff. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 19:4673–87 [Google Scholar]
  72. 72. WHO 2011. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Geneva, Switz.: WHO, 4th. [Google Scholar]
  73. Howard G, Pedley S, Tibatemwa S. 73.  2006. Quantitative microbial risk assessments to estimate health risks in water supply: Can they be applied in developing countries with limited data?. J. Water Health 4:149–65 [Google Scholar]
  74. Khan SJ, Deere D, Leusch FDL, Humpage A, Jenkins M, Cunliffe D. 74.  2015. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?. Water Res 85:124–36 [Google Scholar]
  75. Jöhnk KD, Huisman JEF, Sharples J, Sommeijer BEN, Visser PM, Stroom JM. 75.  2008. Summer heatwaves promote blooms of harmful cyanobacteria. Glob. Change Biol. 14:3495–512 [Google Scholar]
  76. Anneville O, Domaizon I, Kerimoglu O, Rimet F, Jacquet S. 76.  2015. Blue-green algae in a “Greenhouse Century”? New insights from field data on climate change impacts on cyanobacteria abundance. Ecosystems 18:3441–58 [Google Scholar]
  77. Delpla I, Jones TG, Monteith DT, Hughes DD, Baurès E. 77.  et al. 2015. Heavy rainfall impacts on trihalomethane formation in contrasting northwestern European potable waters. J. Environ. Qual. 44:41241–51 [Google Scholar]
  78. Jaliffer-Verne I, Leconte R, Huaringa-Alvarez U, Madoux-Humery AS, Galarneau M. 78.  et al. 2015. Impacts of global change on the concentrations and dilution of combined sewer overflows in a drinking water source. Sci. Total Environ. 508:462–76 [Google Scholar]
  79. Kundzewicz ZW, Döll P. 79.  2009. Will groundwater ease freshwater stress under climate change?. Hydrol. Sci. J. 54:4665–75 [Google Scholar]
  80. Taylor RG, Todd MC, Kongola L, Maurice L, Nahozya E. 80.  et al. 2013. Evidence of the dependence of groundwater resources on extreme rainfall in East Africa. Nat. Clim. Change 3:374–78 [Google Scholar]
  81. MacDonald AM, Calow RC, Macdonald DMJ, Darling WG, Ó Dochartaigh . 81.  2009. What impact will climate change have on rural groundwater supplies in Africa?. Hydrol. Sci. J. 54:690–703 [Google Scholar]
  82. Lapworth DJ, MacDonald AM, Tijani MN, Darling WG, Gooddy DC. 82.  et al. 2013. Residence times of shallow groundwater in West Africa: implications for hydrogeology and resilience to future changes in climate. Hydrogeol. J. 21:673–86 [Google Scholar]
  83. Calow RC, MacDonald AM, Nicol AL, Robins NS. 83.  2010. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access and demand. Ground Water 48:246–56 [Google Scholar]
  84. Jasechko S, Taylor RG. 84.  2015. Intensive rainfall recharges tropical groundwaters. Environ. Res. Lett. 10:124015 [Google Scholar]
  85. Tourfique KA, Islam A. 85.  2014. Assessing risks from climate variability and change for disaster-prone zones in Bangladesh. Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduction 10:PA)L236–49 [Google Scholar]
  86. Bonte M, Zwolsman JJG. 86.  2010. Climate induced salinisation of artificial lakes in the Netherlands and consequences for drinking water production. Water Res 44:154411–24 [Google Scholar]
  87. Sherpa AM, Koottatep T, Zurbruegg C, Cissé G. 87.  2014. Vulnerability and adaptability of sanitation systems to climate change. J. Water Climate Change 5:4487–95 [Google Scholar]
  88. Christenson E, Elliott M, Banerjee O, Hamrick Bartram J. 88.  2014. Exposure to climate related hazards: a global assessment of population exposure to cyclone, drought and flood. Int. J. Environ. Resour. Public Health 11:22169–92 [Google Scholar]
  89. Howard G, Pedley S, Barrett M, Nalubega M, Johal K. 89.  2003. Risk factors contributing to microbiological contamination of shallow groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Water Res 37:143421–29 [Google Scholar]
  90. Lloyd B, Bartram J. 90.  1991. Surveillance solutions to microbiological problems in water quality control in developing countries. Water Sci. Technol. 24:261–75 [Google Scholar]
  91. Gélinas Y, Randall H, Robidoux L, Schmit J-P. 91.  1996. Well water survey in two districts of Conakry (Republic of Guinea) and comparison with the piped city water. Water Resour 30:92017–26 [Google Scholar]
  92. Godfrey S, Timo F, Smith M. 92.  2006. Microbiological risk assessment and management of shallow groundwater sources in Lichinga, Mozambique. Water Environ. J. 20:3194–202 [Google Scholar]
  93. Taylor R, Miret-Gaspa M, Tumwine J, Mileham L, Flynn R. 93.  et al. 2009. Increased risk of diarrhoeal diseases from climate change: evidence from urban communities supplied by groundwater in Uganda. Groundwater and Climate in Africa R Taylor, C Tindimunga, M Owor, M Shamsudduha 15–19 Wallingford, UK: IAHS. Publ. 334 [Google Scholar]
  94. Hrudey SE, Payment P, Huck PM, Gillham RW, Hrudey EJ. 94.  2003. A fatal waterborne disease epidemic in Walkerton, Ontario: comparison with other waterborne outbreaks in the developed world. Water Sci. Technol. 4737–14 [Google Scholar]
  95. Gunnarsdottir MJ, Gardarsson SM, Bartram J. 95.  2012. Icelandic experience with water safety plans. Water Sci. Technol. 65:2277–88 [Google Scholar]
  96. Gunnarsdottir MJ, Gardarsson SM, Elliott M, Sigmundsdottir G, Bartram J. 96.  2012. Benefits of water safety plans: microbiology, compliance and public health. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46:7782–89 [Google Scholar]
  97. Mahmud SG, Shamsuddin SAJ, Ahmed MF, Davison A, Deere D, Howard G. 97.  2007. Development and implementation of water safety plans for small water supplies in Bangladesh: benefits and lessons learnt. J. Water Health 5:4585–97 [Google Scholar]
  98. Howard G, Reed B, McChesney D, Taylor R. 98.  2006. Human excreta and sanitation: control and protection. Protecting Groundwater for Health: Managing the Quality of Groundwater Sources O Schmoll, G Howard, J Chilton, I Chorus 587–612 London: IWA Publ. [Google Scholar]
  99. Al-Rashed MN, Al-Senafy MN, Viswanathan Al-Sumait A. 99.  1998. Groundwater utilization in Kuwait: some problems and solutions. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. 14:191–105 [Google Scholar]
  100. Gualbert HP, Essink O. 100.  2001. Improving fresh groundwater supply—problems and solutions. Ocean Coastal Manag 44:5–6429–49 [Google Scholar]
  101. Nilsson A.101.  1988. Groundwater Dams for Small-Scale Water Supply. London: Intermed. Technol. Publ.
  102. Hut R, Ertsen M, Joeman N, Vergeer N, Winsemiius H, van de Giesen. 102.  2008. Effects of sand storage dams on groundwater levels with examples from Kenya. Phys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C 33:1–256–66 [Google Scholar]
  103. Lasage R, Aerts JCJJ, Verburg PH, Sileshi AS. 103.  2015. The role of small scale sand dams in securing water supply under climate change in Ethiopia. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Change 20:2317–39 [Google Scholar]
  104. Molden D, Sakthivadivel. 104.  1999. Water accounting to assess use and productivity of water. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. 15:1–255–71 [Google Scholar]
  105. Perry C.105.  2007. Efficient irrigation; inefficient communication; flawed recommendations. Irrig. Drain. 56:367–78 [Google Scholar]
  106. Perry C.106.  2011. Accounting for water use: terminology and implications for saving water and increasing production. Agric. Water Manag. 98:1840–46 [Google Scholar]
  107. Heath TT, Parker AH, Weatherhead EK. 107.  2012. Testing a raid climate change adaptation assessment for water and sanitation providers in informal settlements in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa. Environ. Urban. 24:2619–37 [Google Scholar]
  108. Oates N, Ross I, Calow R, Carter R, Doczi J. 108.  2014. Adaptation to Climate Change in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Assessing Risks and Appraising Options for Africa London: ODI http://www.odi.org/publications/8154-climate-change-adaptation-wash-water-sanitation [Google Scholar]
  109. 109. WHO 2016. Climate Resilient Water Safety Plans: Managing Risks Associated with Climate Variability and Change Geneva, Switz.: WHO. In press [Google Scholar]
  110. 110. Global Water Partnership (GWP), UNICEF 2015. WASH Climate Resilient Development Strategic Framework Stockholm, Swed.: GWP [Google Scholar]
  111. Danilenko A, Dickson E, Jacobsen M. 111.  2010. Climate change and urban water utilities: challenges and opportunities Work. Pap. Water 24 World Bank Washington, DC: [Google Scholar]
  112. Ensink J, van der Hoek W, Matsuno Y, Munir S, Aslam R. 112.  2002. Use of untreated wastewater in peri-urban agriculture in Pakistan: risks and opportunities. Res. Rep. 64, Int. Water Manag. Inst. Colombo, Sri Lanka: [Google Scholar]
  113. Perry CJ, Rock M, Seckler D. 113.  1997. Water as an economic good: a solution or a problem? Res. Rep. 14, Int. Water Manag. Inst. Colombo, Sri Lanka: [Google Scholar]
  114. Luby SP, Gupta SK, Sheikh MA, Johnston RB, Ram PK, Islam MS. 114.  2008. Tubewell water quality and predictors of contamination in three flood-prone areas in Bangladesh. J. Appl. Microbiol. 105:1002–8 [Google Scholar]
  115. Carter RC, Tyrrel SF, Howsam P. 115.  1999. The impact and sustainability of community water supply and sanitation programmes in developing countries. Water Environ. J. 13:4292–96 [Google Scholar]
  116. Calow R, Ludi E, Tucker J. 116.  2013. Achieving Water Security: Lessons from Research in the Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector in Ethiopia. Rugby, UK: Practical Action Publ. [Google Scholar]
  117. Howard G, Bartram J. 117.  2005. Effective water supply surveillance in urban areas of developing countries. J. Water Health 3:131–43 [Google Scholar]
  118. Evans BE, Webster MJ, Peal AJ. 118.  2009. Do under-performing water utilities need to adapt to climate change? Experience from Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Waterlines 28:3196–209 [Google Scholar]
  119. Johannessen Å, Rosemarin A, Swartling ÅG, Stenström TA, Vulturius G. 119.  2014. Strategies for building resilience to hazards in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) systems: the role of public private partnerships. Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduction 10:102–15 [Google Scholar]
  120. Sy J, Warner R, Jamieson J. 120.  2014. Tapping the Markets: Opportunities for Domestic Investments in Water and Sanitation for the Poor (Directions in Development: Private Sector Development). Washington, DC: World Bank [Google Scholar]
  121. Julliard H, Opu MI. 121.  2014. Scoping Study: Emergency Cash Transfer Programming in the WASH and Shelter Sectors Oxford, UK: Cash Learn. Partnersh. [Google Scholar]
  122. Twomey KM, Webber ME. 122.  2011. Evaluating the energy intensity of the US public water supply. Proc. ASME 2011 5th Int. Conf. Energy Sustain. ES2011–54165:1735–48 [Google Scholar]
  123. Bogner J, Ahmed MA, Diaz C, Faaij S, Gao Q. 123.  et al. 2007. Waste management. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change B Metz, OR Davidson, PR Bosch, R Dave, LA Meyer 585–618 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  124. Fischedick M, Roy J, Abdel-Aziz A, Acquaye A, Allwood JM. 124.  et al. 2014. Industry. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change O Edenhofer, R Pichs-Madruga, Y Sokona, E Farahani, S Kadner, K Seyboth et al.739–810 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  125. Cakir FY, Stenstrom MK. 125.  2005. Greenhouse gas production: a comparison between aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment technology. Water Res 39:4197–203 [Google Scholar]
  126. El-Fadel M, Massoud M. 126.  2001. Methane emissions from wastewater management. Environ. Pollut. 114:177–85 [Google Scholar]
  127. Prendez M, Lara-Gonzalez S. 127.  2008. Application of strategies for sanitation management in wastewater treatment plants in order to control/reduce greenhouse gas emissions. J. Environ. Manag. 88:658–64 [Google Scholar]
  128. Santos JO, Andrade JCS, Marinho MMO, Noyola A, Güereca LP. 128.  2015. Greenhouse gas inventory of a state water and wastewater utility in Northeast Brazil. J. Cleaner Prod. 104:168–76 [Google Scholar]
  129. Freidrich E, Pillay S, Buckley CA. 129.  2009. Carbon footprint analysis for increasing water supply and sanitation in South Africa: a case study. J. Cleaner Prod. 17:11–12 [Google Scholar]
  130. Qi C, Chang N-B. 130.  2013. Integrated carbon footprint and cost evaluation of a drinking water infrastructure system for screening expansion alternatives. J. Cleaner Prod. 60:170–81 [Google Scholar]
  131. Ramos HM, Mello M, De PK. 131.  2010. Clean power in water supply systems as a sustainable solution: from planning to practical implementation. Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply 10:139–49 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error