1932

Abstract

Since prehistory, literature and the arts have been drawn to portrayals of physical environments and human-environment interactions. The modern environmentalist movement as it emerged first in the late-nineteenth century and, in its more recent incarnation, in the 1960s, gave rise to a rich array of fictional and nonfictional writings concerned with humans' changing relationship to the natural world. Only since the early 1990s, however, has the long-standing interest of literature studies in these matters generated the initiative most commonly known as “ecocriticism,” an eclectic and loosely coordinated movement whose contributions thus far have been most visible within its home discipline of literature but whose interests and alliances extend across various art forms and media. In such areas as the study of narrative and image, ecocriticism converges with its sister disciplines in the humanities: environmental anthropology, environmental history, and environmental philosophy. In the first two sections, we begin with a brief overview of the nature, significance, and evolution of literature-environment studies. We then summarize in more detail six specific centers of interest: () the imagination of place and place-attachment, () the enlistment and critique of models of scientific inquiry in the study of literature and the arts, () the examination of the significance of gender difference and environmental representation, () the cross-pollination of ecocritical and postcolonial scholarship as ecocriticism has extended its horizons beyond its original focus on Anglo-American imagination, () ecocriticism's evolving interest in indigenous art and thought, and () ecocri-ticism's no less keen and complex attentiveness to artistic representation and the ethics of relations between humans and animals.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-111109-144855
2011-11-21
2024-04-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/energy/36/1/annurev-environ-111109-144855.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-111109-144855&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Buell L.1.  2005. The Future of Environmental Criticism Oxford: Blackwell195
  2. Garrard G.2.  2004. Ecocriticism London: Routledge203
  3. Meeker J.3.  1972. The Comedy of Survival: Studies in Literary Ecology New York: Scribner's133
  4. Ruecker W.4.  1978. Literature and ecology: an experiment in ecocriticism. Iowa Rev. 9.1:71–86 [Google Scholar]
  5. Marx L.5.  1964. The Machine in the Garden. New York: Oxford Univ. Press392
  6. Williams R.6.  1973. The Country and the City. London: Chatto & Windus335
  7. Gifford T.7.  1999. Pastoral London: Routledge186
  8. Buell L.8.  1995. The Environmental Imagination Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press586
  9. Bate J.9.  1991. Romantic Ecology: Wordsworth and the Environmental Tradition London: Routledge131
  10. Kroeber K.10.  1994. Ecological Literary Criticism: Romantic Imagining and the Biology of Mind New York: Columbia Univ. Press185
  11. Oerlemans O.11.  2002. Romanticism and the Materiality of Nature. Toronto: Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press253
  12. Elder J.12.  1985. Imagining the Earth: Poetry and the Vision of Nature Athens, GA: Univ. Ga. Press246, 2nd. ed.
  13. Gifford T.13.  1995. Green Voices: Understanding Contemporary Nature Poetry Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press198
  14. McCusick J.14.  2000. Green Writing: Romanticism and Ecology. New York: St. Martin's261
  15. Fritzell P.15.  1990. Nature Writing and America: Essays upon a Cultural Type Ames: Iowa State Univ. Press354
  16. Slovic S.16.  1992. Seeking Awareness in American Nature Writing. Salt Lake City: Univ. Utah Press203
  17. Glotfelty C, Fromm H. 17.  1996. The Ecocriticism Reader. Athens, GA: Univ. Ga. Press415
  18. Coupe L. 18.  2000. The Green Studies Reader. London: Routledge315
  19. Adamson J, Evans MM, Stein R. 19.  2002. The Environmental Justice Reader. Tucson: Univ Ariz. Press395
  20. Naess A.20.  1973. The shallow and the deep, long-range ecology movement. Inquiry 16:95–100 [Google Scholar]
  21. Harrison R.21.  1993. Forests: The Shadow of Civilization. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press288
  22. Westling L.22.  1999. Virginia Woolf and the flesh of the world. New Literary Hist. 30:855–76 [Google Scholar]
  23. Bate J.23.  2000. The Song of the Earth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press336
  24. Bennett M, Teague D. 24.  1999. The Nature of Cities. Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press311
  25. Dixon T. 25.  2002. City Wilds. Athens, GA: Univ. Ga. Press311
  26. Buell L.26.  2001. Writing for an Endangered World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press365
  27. Morton T.27.  2007. Ecology without Nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press249
  28. Morton T.28.  2010. The Ecological Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press163
  29. Heise U.29.  2008. Sense of Place and Sense of Planet: The Environmental Imagination of the Global. New York: Oxford Univ. Press250
  30. Handley G.30.  2007. New World Poetics. Athens, GA: Univ. Ga. Press442
  31. Mayer S. 31.  2003. Restoring the Connection to the Natural World: Essays on the African American Environmental Imagination Hamburg: LIT198
  32. Outka P.32.  2008. Race and Nature from Transcendentalism to the Harlem Renaissance. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan266
  33. Finseth I. 33.  2009. Shades of Green: Visions of Place in the Literature of American Slavery. Athens, GA: Univ. Ga. Press348
  34. Ruffin K.34.  2010. Black on Earth: African American Ecoliterary Traditions. Athens, GA: Univ. Ga. Press212
  35. Siewers A.35.  2009. Strange Beauty: Ecocritical Approaches to Early Medieval Landscape. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan224
  36. Rudd G.36.  2007. Greenery: Ecocritical Readings of Late Medieval Literature. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press221
  37. Watson R.37.  2006. Back to Nature: The Green and the Real in the Late Renaissance. Philadelphia: Univ. Penn. Press436
  38. McColley D.38.  2007. Poetry and Ecology in the Age of Milton and Marvell. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate252
  39. Killingsworth MJ, Palmer J. 39.  1992. Ecospeak: Rhetoric and Environmental Politics in America. Carbondale: S. Illinois Univ. Press312
  40. Herndl C, Brown C. 40.  1996. Green Culture: Environmental Rhetoric in Contemporary America. Madison: Univ. Wisc. Press315
  41. DeLuca K.41.  1999. Image Politics: The New Rhetoric of Environmental Activism. New York: Guilford203
  42. Buell F.42.  2003. From Apocalypse to Way of Life: Environmental Crisis in the American Century. London: Routledge390
  43. Kosek J.43.  2006. Understories: The Political Life of Forests in Northern New Mexico. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press380
  44. Dobrin S, Kidd K. 44.  2004. Wild Things: Children's Literature and Ecocriticism. Detroit, MI: Wayne State Univ. Press308
  45. Moore B.45.  2008. Ecology and Literature: Ecocentric Personification from Antiquity to the Twenty-First Century. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan247
  46. Fletcher A.46.  2004. A New Theory for American Poetry. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press316
  47. Fuchs E, Chaudhuri U. 47.  2002. Land/Scape/Theater. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press390
  48. Slovic S.48.  1994. Ecocriticism, storytelling, values, communication, contact http://www.asle.umn.edu/conf/other_conf/wla/1994/slovic.html
  49. Marshall I.49.  2003. Peak Experiences: Walking Meditations on Literature, Nation, and Need. Charlottesville: Univ. Press Va.267
  50. Adamson J.50.  2001. American Indian Literature, Environmental Justice, and Ecocriticism: The Middle Place. Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press213
  51. Phillips D.51.  2003. The Truth of Ecology: Nature, Culture, and Literature in America. New York: Oxford Univ. Press300
  52. Alaimo S.52.  2010. Bodily Natures: Science, Environment, and the Material Self Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press193
  53. Berry W.53.  1977. The Unsettling of America San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club.228
  54. Berry W.54.  1983. Standing by Words San Francisco, CA: North Point.213
  55. Snyder G.55.  1990. The Practice of the Wild San Francisco, CA: North Point.190
  56. Snyder G.56.  1995. A Place in Space Washington, DC: Counterpoint263
  57. McGinnis M. 57.  1999. Bioregionalism London: Routledge231
  58. Peck H.58.  1990. Thoreau's Morning Work New Haven: Yale Univ. Press194
  59. Elder J.59.  1998. Reading the Mountains of Home Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press253
  60. Holmes S.60.  1999. The Young John Muir: An Environmental Biography. Madison: Univ. Wisc. Press309
  61. Kerridge R.61.  2001. Ecological Hardy. Beyond Nature Writing: Expanding the Boundaries of Ecocriticism K Armbruster, KR Wallace 126–42 Charlottesville: Univ. Press Va. [Google Scholar]
  62. Tallmadge J.62.  2004. The Cincinnati Arch: Learning from Nature in the City Athens, GA: Univ. Ga. Press226
  63. Peña DG.63.  2002. Endangered landscapes and disappearing peoples? Identity, place, and community in ecological politics. See Ref. 19 58–81
  64. Comfort S.64.  2002. Struggle in Ogoniland: Ken Saro-Wiwa and the cultural politics of environmental justice. See Ref. 19 229–46
  65. Thomashow M.65.  2004. Bringing the Biosphere Home: Learning to Perceive Global Environmental Change Cambridge, MA: MIT Press244
  66. Beck U.66.  1999. World Risk Society Cambridge, UK: Polity Press184
  67. Nixon R.67.  2005. Environmentalism and postcolonialism. Postcolonial Studies and Beyond A Loomba, S Kaul, M Bunzl, A Burton, J Esty 233–51 Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  68. O'Brien S.68.  2001. Articulating a world of difference: ecocriticism, postcolonialism and globalization. Can. Lit. 170–71:140–58 [Google Scholar]
  69. Carroll J.69.  204. Literary Darwinism: Evolution, Human Nature, and Literature New York: Routledge276
  70. Love G.70.  2003. Practical Ecocriticism: Literature, Biology, and the Environment. Charlottesville: Univ. Press Va.212
  71. Boyd B.71.  2009. On the Origin of Stories: Evolution, Cognition, and Fiction Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press640
  72. Gottschall J, Wilson D. 72.  2005. The Literary Animal: Evolution and the Nature of Narrative. Evanston, IL: Northwestern Univ. Press304
  73. Sugiyama M.73.  2001. Narrative theory and function: why evolution matters. Philos. Lit. 25:233–50 [Google Scholar]
  74. Bryson S. 74.  2002. Ecopoetry: A Critical Introduction Salt Lake City: Univ. Utah Press272
  75. Scigaj L.75.  1999. Sustainable Poetry: Four American Ecopoets Lexington: Univ. Press Kentucky311
  76. Cohen M.76.  2004. Blues in the green: ecocriticism under critique. Environ. Hist. 9:9–36 [Google Scholar]
  77. Worster D.77.  1994. Nature's Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press505, 2nd. ed.
  78. White R.78.  1990. Environmental history, ecology, and meaning. J. Am. Hist. 76:1111–16 [Google Scholar]
  79. Sandilands C.79.  1999. The Good-Natured Feminist: Ecofeminism and the Quest for Democracy Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press244
  80. Mortimer-Sandilands C, Erickson B. 80.  2010. Sex, Nature, Politics, Desire Bloomington: Univ. Indiana Press410
  81. Takacs D.81.  1996. The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press393
  82. Deitering C.82.  1996. The postnatural novel: toxic consciousness in fiction of the 1980s. See Ref. 17 196–203
  83. Waddell C. 83.  2000. And No Birds Sing: Rhetorical Analyses of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring Carbondale: S. Illinois Univ. Press232
  84. Page T.84.  2008. The problem of the land is the problem of the woman: a genealogy of ecofeminism at Grailville. PhD thesis Harvard Univ. Cambridge, MA:321
  85. Rosser S. 85.  2008. Women, Science, and Myth: Gender Beliefs from Antiquity to the Present Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO502
  86. Merchant C.86.  1995. Earthcare: Women and the Environment New York: Routledge280
  87. Salleh A.87.  1989. Stirrings of a new renaissance. Island 38:26–31 [Google Scholar]
  88. Hay P.88.  2002. Main Currents in Western Environmental Thought Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press400
  89. Wall D. 89.  1994. Green History: A Reader in Environmental Literature, Philosophy and Politics. London: Routledge273
  90. Gaard G, Murphy PD. 90.  1998. Introduction. Ecofeminist Literary Criticism: Theory, Interpretation, Pedagogy G Gaard, P Murphy 1–13 Urbana: Univ. Illinois Press [Google Scholar]
  91. Ortner S.91.  1974. Is female to male as nature is to culture?. Woman, Culture, and Society M Rosaldo, L Lamphere 68–87 Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  92. Spretnak C.92.  1989. Towards an ecofeminist spirituality. Healing the Wounds: The Promise of Ecofeminism J Plant 127–52 London: Green Print [Google Scholar]
  93. Alaimo S.93.  2000. Undomesticated Ground: Recasting Nature as Feminist Space Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press225
  94. Mellor M.94.  2009. Ecofeminist political economy and the politics of money. Eco-Sufficiency and Global Justice A Salleh 251–69 New York: Pluto [Google Scholar]
  95. Quartarone L.95.  2002. Pietas, furor, and ecofeminism in the Aeneid. Approaches to Teaching Vergil's Aeneid W Anderson, L Quartone 147–58 New York: Modern Lang. Assoc. Am. [Google Scholar]
  96. Kolodny A.96.  The Land Before Her: Fantasy and Experience of the American Frontiers, 1630 1860. Chapel Hill: Univ. N. Carolina Press293 [Google Scholar]
  97. Crosby A.97.  1986. Ecological Imperialism: Biological Expansion of Europe, 9001900 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press368 [Google Scholar]
  98. Grove R.98.  1995. Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens, and the Origins of Environmentalism, 16001860 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press540 [Google Scholar]
  99. Bewell A.99.  1999. Romanticism and Colonial Disease. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press373
  100. Morton T.100.  2000. The Poetics of Spice: Romantic Consumerism and the Exotic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press282
  101. Huggan G.101.  2004. “Greening” postcolonialism: ecocritical perspectives. Modern Fiction Stud. 50:701–33 [Google Scholar]
  102. Marzec RP. 102.  2007. An Ecological and Postcolonial Study of Literature: From Daniel Defoe to Salman Rushdie New York: Palgrave-Macmillan200
  103. Huggan G, Tiffin H. 103.  2010. Postcolonial Ecocriticism: Literature, Animals, Environment London: Routledge245
  104. Wright L.104.  2010. “Wilderness into Civilized Shapes”: Reading the Postcolonial Environment Athens: Univ. Ga. Press213
  105. DeLoughrey E, Gosson R, Handley G. 105.  2005. Caribbean Literature and the Environment: Between Nature and Culture Charlottesville: Univ. Press Va.303
  106. Campbell C, Somerville E. 106.  2007. “What is the Earthly Paradise?” Ecocritical Responses to the Caribbean Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Schol. Publ.173
  107. Mukherjee U.107.  2010. Postcolonial Environments: Nature, Culture, and the Contemporary Indian Novel in English London: Palgrave-Macmillan203
  108. Volkmann L, Grimm N, Detmers I, Thomson K. 108.  2010. Local Natures, Global Responsibilities: Ecocritical Perspectives on the New English Literatures Amsterdam: Rodopi.370
  109. Thornber K.109.  2011. Ecoambiguity: Environmental Crises and East Asian Literatures Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press In press
  110. Gannon T.110.  2009. Skylark Meets Meadowlark. Lincoln: Univ. Nebraska Press416
  111. Krech S III. 111.  1996. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History New York: Norton.318
  112. Kolodny A.112.  2007. Rethinking the “ecological Indian”: a Penobscot precursor. ISLE 14:1–24 [Google Scholar]
  113. Schweninger L.113.  2008. Listening to the Land: Native American Literary Responses to the Landscape. Athens, GA: Univ. Georgia Press242
  114. Basso K.114.  1996. Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language among the Western Apache Albuquerque: Univ. New Mexico Press171
  115. Lopez B.115.  1989. Crossing Open Ground. New York: Vintage208
  116. Dreese D.116.  2002. Ecocriticism: Creating Self and Place in Environmental and American Indian Literatures New York: Lang.131
  117. Abram D.117.  1996. The Spell of the Sensuous. New York: Pantheon326
  118. Hunt A.118.  2005. In search of Anaya's carp: mapping ecological consciousness and Chicano myth. ISLE 12:179–206 [Google Scholar]
  119. Christie S.119.  2009. Plural Sovereignties and Contemporary Indigenous Literature. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan280
  120. DeLoughrey E.120.  2007. Routes and Roots: Navigating Caribbean and Pacific Island Literatures. Honolulu: Univ. Hawai'i Press334
  121. Adams W.121.  2004. Against Extinction: The Story of Conservation London: Earthscan311
  122. Wilson EO.122.  1984. Biophilia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press157
  123. Shepard P, Sanders B. 123.  1985. The Sacred Paw: The Bear in Nature, Myth, and Literature. New York: Viking243
  124. Highfield J.124.  2006. Suckling from the crocodile's tit: wildlife and nation formation in Australian narratives. Antipodes N. Am. J. Aust. Lit. 20:127–40 [Google Scholar]
  125. Marcone J.125.  1998. De retorno a lo natural: la serpiente de oro, la “novela de la selva” y la crítica ecológica. Hispania 81:299–308 [Google Scholar]
  126. Marcone J.126.  2000. Jungle fever: Primitivism in environmentalism: Rómulo Gallegos's Canaima and the romance of the jungle. Primitivism and Identity in Latin America: Essays on Art, Literature, and Culture E Camayd-Freixas, J González 157–72 Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press [Google Scholar]
  127. Biedler P.127.  2002. Animals and theme in Ceremony. Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony: A Casebook A Chavkin 17–22 Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  128. Shepard P.128.  1996. The Others: How Animals Made Us Human Washington, DC: Island374
  129. Haraway D.129.  2003. The Companion Species Manifesto: Dogs, People, and Significant Otherness Chicago: Prickly Paradigm100
  130. Haraway D.130.  2008. When Species Meet Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press423
  131. Nabhan G.131.  2004. Why Some Like It Hot: Food, Genes, and Cultural Diversity Washington, DC: Island233
  132. Wolfe C.132.  2003. Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press237
  133. Westling L.133.  1996. The Green Breast of the New World: Landscape, Gender, and American Fiction Athens: Univ. Ga. Press211
  134. Armbruster K.134.  2004. Creating the world we must save: the paradox of television nature documentaries. Writing the Environment R Kerridge, N Sammells 218–38 London: Zed [Google Scholar]
  135. Mitman G.135.  1999. Reel Nature: America's Romance with Wildlife on Film Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press263
  136. Whitley D.136.  2008. The Idea of Nature in Disney Animation Aldershot, UK: Ashgate154
  137. De Waal F. 137.  1997. Are we in anthropodenial?. Discover 18:50–53 [Google Scholar]
  138. Johnson L.138.  2009. Greening the library: the fundamentals and future of ecocriticism. Choice Dec. 7–13
  139. Hochman J.139.  1998. Green Cultural Studies: Nature in Film, Novel, and Theory. Moscow, ID Univ. Idaho Press234
  140. Ingram D.140.  2000. Green Screen: Environmentalism and Hollywood Cinema. Exeter: Univ. Exeter Press206
  141. Murray R, Heumann J. 141.  2009. Ecology and Popular Film. Albany: State Univ. NY Press228
  142. Braddock A, Irmscher C. 142.  2009. A Keener Perception: Ecocritical Studies in American Art History. Tuscaloosa: Univ. Ala. Press298
  143. Rothenberg D.143.  2002. Sudden Music: Improvisation, Sound, Nature. Atlanta: Univ. Ga. Press214
  144. Dunaway F.144.  2003. Natural Visions: The Power of Images in American Environmental Reform. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press246
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-111109-144855
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error