1932

Abstract

Decarbonizing power grids is an essential pillar of global efforts to mitigate climate change impacts. Renewable energy generation is expected to play an important role in electricity decarbonization, although its variability and uncertainty are creating new flexibility challenges for electric grid operators that must match supply with constantly changing demand. Distributed energy resources (DERs)—including distributed generation, demand response, and distributed energy storage—can play an important role in providing the flexibility needed to integrate high penetrations of renewable energy. This article examines federal and state enabling policies and regulations for DER, market strategies and business models that have facilitated DER expansion, and key emerging challenges for DER in the United States. Based on a review of the US experience, the article offers lessons for other countries, focusing on the role and limits of policy, the facilitative role of utility regulatory reform, the need to balance different interests in tariff design, the benefits of DER participation in wholesale markets, and the importance of proactive interconnection policies.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-111320-071618
2021-10-18
2024-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/energy/46/1/annurev-environ-111320-071618.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-111320-071618&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    IPCC (Intergov. Panel Clim. Change) 2019. Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5°C Above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty V Masson-Delmotte, P Zhai, H-O Pörtner, D Roberts, J Skea et al. Geneva: IPCC https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2019/06/SR15_Full_Report_High_Res.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. 
    Williams J, Jones R, Haley B, Kwok G, Hargreaves J et al. 2021. Carbon-neutral pathways for the United States. AGU Adv 2:1e2020AV000284
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. 
    European Commission 2018. A clean planet for all: a European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy Commun. 773, Eur. Comm., Nov. 28. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52018DC0773&from=EN
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4. 
    Liu Q, Chen Y, Teng F, Tian C, Zheng X, Zhao X. 2017. Pathway and policy analysis to China's deep decarbonization. Chin. J. Popul. Resour. Environ. 15:39–49
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5. 
    IEA (Int. Energy Agency) 2019. Global energy & CO2 status report 2019: the latest trends in energy and emissions in 2018 Rep., IEA Paris: https://www.iea.org/reports/global-energy-co2-status-report-2019
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    Seel J, Mills AD, Wiser RH. 2018. Impacts of high variable renewable energy futures on wholesale electricity prices, and on electric-sector decision making. Rep. LBNL-2001163 LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab.) Berkeley: https://emp.lbl.gov/publications/impacts-high-variable-renewable
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. 
    Joskow P. 2019. Challenges for wholesale electricity markets with intermittent renewable generation at scale: the US experience. Oxf. Rev. Econ. Policy 35:2291–331
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8. 
    ECECP (EU-China Energy Coop. Platf.) 2020. Integration of variable renewables in the energy system of the EU and China Rep., ECECP Beijing: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/default/files/res_integration_report_en.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    IRENA (Int. Renew. Energy Agency) 2020. Renewable energy statistics 2020 Rep., IRENA Abu Dhabi, UAE: https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2020/Jul/IRENA_Renewable_Energy_Statistics_2020.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. 
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11. 
    EIA (Energy Inf. Adm.) 2019. U.S. renewable electricity generation has doubled since 2008 Washington, DC: EIA https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=38752
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12. 
    EIA (Energy Inf. Adm.) 2020. Electricity explained: electricity generation, capacity, and sales in the United States Washington, DC: EIA https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/electricity/electricity-in-the-us-generation-capacity-and-sales.php
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. 
    Barbose G. 2021. U.S. renewables portfolio standards: 2021 status update: early release Rep., Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab. Berkeley: https://eta-publications.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/rps_status_update-2021_early_release.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. 
    Bird L, Clevenger T. 2019. 2019 was a watershed year for clean energy commitments from U.S. states and utilities. World Resources Institute Insights Dec. 20. https://www.wri.org/blog/2019/12/2019-was-watershed-year-clean-energy-commitments-us-states-and-utilities
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    DOE (Dep. Energy) 2017. Staff report to the secretary on electricity markets and reliability Rep., DOE Washington, DC: https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/08/f36/Staff%20Report%20on%20Electricity%20Markets%20and%20Reliability_0.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. 
    FERC (Fed. Energy Regul. Comm.) 2018. Distributed energy resources: technical considerations for the bulk power system Staff Rep. AD18-10-000, FERC Washington, DC: https://www.ferc.gov/sites/default/files/2020-05/der-report_0.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. 
    NARUC (Natl. Assoc. Regul. Util. Comm.) 2016. NARUC manual on distributed energy resources rate design and compensation Rep., NARUC Washington, DC: https://pubs.naruc.org/pub.cfm?id=19FDF48B-AA57-5160-DBA1-BE2E9C2F7EA0
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. 
    Cook J, Ardani K, O'Shaughnessy E, Smith B, Margolis R 2018. Expanding PV value: lessons learned from utility-led distributed energy resource aggregation in the United States. Tech. Rep. NREL/TP-6A20-71984 Natl. Renew. Energy Lab. Golden, CO: https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy19osti/71984.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    EIA (Energy Inf. Adm.) 2020. Battery storage in the United States: an update on market trends Rep., EIA Washington, DC: https://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/electricity/batterystorage/pdf/battery_storage.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. 
    EIA (Energy Inf. Adm.) 2018. U.S. battery storage market trends Rep., EIA, Washington, DC https://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/electricity/batterystorage/archive/2018/pdf/battery_storage.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21. 
    FERC (Fed. Energy Regul. Comm.) 2007. 2007 assessment of demand response and advanced metering. Staff Rep., FERC Washington, DC: https://www.ferc.gov/sites/default/files/2020-04/09-07-demand-response.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22. 
    EIA (Energy Inf. Adm.) 2021. Annual electric power industry report: Table 10.8. Demand response - yearly energy and demand savings Washington, DC: EIA https://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_10_08.html
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. 
    DOE (Dep. Energy) 2016. Advanced metering infrastructure and customer systems: results from the Smart Grid Investment Grant program Rep., DOE Washington, DC: https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2016/12/f34/AMI%20Summary%20Report_09-26-16.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. 
    FERC (Fed. Energy Regul. Comm.) 2020. 2020 assessment of demand response and advanced metering Staff Rep., FERC Washington, DC: https://cms.ferc.gov/sites/default/files/2020-12/2020%20Assessment%20of%20Demand%20Response%20and%20Advanced%20Metering_December%202020.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25. 
    Tascıkaraoglu A, Erdinc O 2019. Pathways to a Smarter Power System Cambridge, MA: Acad. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. 
    Obi M, Slay T, Bass R. 2020. Distributed energy resource aggregation using customer-owned equipment: a review of literature and standards. Energy Rep 6:2358–69
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. 
    NARUC (Natl. Assoc. Regul. Util. Comm.) 2019. The value of resilience for distributed energy resources: an overview of current analytical practices Rep., NARUC Washington, DC: https://pubs.naruc.org/pub/531AD059-9CC0-BAF6-127B-99BCB5F02198
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. 
    IRENA (Int. Renew. Energy Agency) 2019. Innovation landscape brief: market integration of distributed energy resources Rep., IRENA Abu Dhabi, UAE: https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2019/Feb/IRENA_Market_integration_distributed_system_2019.pdf?la=en&hash=2A67D3A224F1443D529935DF471D5EA1E23C774A
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29. 
    RMI (Rocky Mt. Inst.) 2015. The economics of battery energy storage: how multi-use, customer-sited batteries deliver the most services and value to customers and the grid Rep., RMI Basalt, CO: https://rmi.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/RMI-TheEconomicsOfBatteryEnergyStorage-FullReport-FINAL.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. 
    Zhai P. 2013. Analyzing solar energy policies using a three-tier model: a case study of photovoltaics adoption in Arizona, United States. Renew. Energy 57:317–22
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. 
    Schelly C, Louie EP, Pearce JM. 2017. Examining interconnection and net metering policy for distributed generation in the United States. Renew. Energy Focus 22–23:10–19
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32. 
    Darghouth NR, Wiser RH, Barbose G, Mills AD. 2016. Net metering and market feedback loops: exploring the impact of retail rate design on distributed PV deployment. Appl. Energy 162:713–22
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33. 
    Boampong R, Brown D. 2020. On the benefits of behind-the-meter rooftop solar and energy storage: the importance of retail rate design. Energy Econ 86:104682
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34. 
    Foster N, Orrell A, Homer J, Tagestad J. 2020. The “perfect storm” for distributed wind markets. Renew. Energy 145:1033–39
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35. 
    Stephens JC, Kopin DJ, Wilson EJ, Peterson TR. 2017. Framing of customer engagement opportunities and renewable energy integration by electric utility representatives. Util. Policy 47:69–74
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. 
    Hess D, Lee D. 2020. Energy decentralization in California and New York: conflicts in the politics of shared solar and community choice. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 121:109716
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37. 
    Hess D. 2016. The politics of niche-regime conflicts: distributed solar energy in the United States. Environ. Innov. Soc. Transit. 19:42–50
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38. 
    Martinot E. 2016. Grid integration of renewable energy: flexibility, innovation, and experience. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 41:223–51
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39. 
    Satchwell A, Cappers P. 2015. A framework for organizing electric utility regulatory and business models. Electricity J 28:8119–29
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40. 
    Off. Energy Effic. Renew. Energy 2021. The SunShot Initiative. Department of Energy https://www.energy.gov/eere/solar/sunshot-initiative
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    ARPA-E (Adv. Res. Proj. Agency–Energy) 2021. Duration Addition to electricitY Storage (DAYS) overview Doc., ARPA-E https://arpa-e.energy.gov/sites/default/files/documents/files/DAYS_ProgramOverview_FINAL.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42. 
    DOE (Dep. Energy) 2020. Grid-interactive Efficient Buildings: Projects summary. Department of Energy https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/09/f79/bto-geb-project-summary-093020.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43. 
    DOE (Dep. Energy) 2020. Energy Storage Grand Challenge overview workshop May 1. https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/07/f76/ESGC_Overview_Deck_May2020_Final_508.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44. 
    Wilson R, Biewald B. 2013. Best practices in electric utility integrated resource planning. Regulatory Assistance Project https://www.raponline.org/knowledge-center/best-practices-in-electric-utility-integrated-resource-planning/
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45. 
    Wilson R, Biewald B. 2013. Best practices in electric utility integrated resource planning: examples of state regulations and recent utility plans Rep., Regul. Assis. Proj. Montpelier, VT: https://www.synapse-energy.com/sites/default/files/SynapseReport.2013-06.RAP_.Best-Practices-in-IRP.13-038.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46. 
    Kahrl F, Mills AD, Lavin L, Ryan N, Olsen A 2016. The future of electricity resource planning Rep. LBNL-1006269 LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab.) Berkeley: https://emp.lbl.gov/publications/future-electricity-resource-planning
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. 
    Girouard C. 2018. Top 10 utility regulation trends of 2018—so far. Greentech Media July 27. https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/top-10-utility-regulation-trends-of-2018-so-far
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. 
    Shields L. 2021. State renewable portfolio standards and goals. National Conference of State Legislatures https://www.ncsl.org/research/energy/renewable-portfolio-standards.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49. 
    Lips B. 2018. Credit multipliers in renewable portfolio standards Rep., RPS Collab., Clean Energy States Alliance Montpelier, VT: https://www.cesa.org/wp-content/uploads/RPS-Multipliers.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50. 
    Schwartz L. 2020. PUC distribution planning practices Presented at Distribution Systems and Planning Training for Southeast Region, March 11–12 https://eta-publications.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/12_-_schwartz_puc_distribution_planning_practices.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51. 
    Satchwell A, Cappers P. 2018. Recent developments in competition and innovation for regulated electric utilities. Util. Policy 55:110–14
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. 
    Darghoutha NR, Barbose G, Zuboy J, Gagnon PJ, Mill AD, Bird L. 2020. Demand charge savings from solar PV and energy storage. Energy Policy 146:111766
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. 
    Satchwell AJ, Cappers PA, Barbose GL. 2019. Current developments in retail rate design: implications for solar and other distributed energy resources Rep., Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab. Berkeley: https://emp.lbl.gov/publications/current-developments-retail-rate
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54. 
    Washington State Legislature 2019. SB 5223 - 2019-20 concerning net metering. Bill SB 5223 Washington State Legis Olympia: https://app.leg.wa.gov/billsummary?BillNumber=5223&Initiative=false&Year=2019
  55. 55. 
    CPUC (Calif. Public Util. Comm.) 2021. Net energy metering rulemaking (R.)14-07-002. California Public Utilities Commission https://www.cpuc.ca.gov/General.aspx?id=3934
  56. 56. 
    Eid C, Guillén JR, Marína PF, Hakvoort R. 2014. The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives. Energy Policy 75:244–54
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57. 
    MPSC (Mich. Public Serv. Comm.) 2018. MPSC adopts distributed generation billing method News Release, MPSC April 18. https://mi-psc.force.com/sfc/servlet.shepherd/version/download/068t00000022KjgAAE
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58. 
    HSEO (Hawaii State Energy Off.) 2018. Hawaii energy facts & figures Rep., Dep. Bus. Econ. Dev. Tour. HSEO, Honolulu: http://energy.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/HSEO_2018_EnergyFactsFigures.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. 
    NYPSC (New York Public Serv. Comm.) 2017. Order on net energy metering transition, phase one of value of distributed energy resources, and related matters CASE 15-E-0751/CASE 15-E-0082, NYPSC, Albany, March 9. http://documents.dps.ny.gov/public/Common/ViewDoc.aspx?DocRefId=%7b5B69628E-2928-44A9-B83E-65CEA7326428%7d
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60. 
    Faruqui A, Hledik R, Tsoukalis J. 2009. The power of dynamic pricing. Electricity J 22:342–56
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. 
    Kind P. 2013. Disruptive challenges: financial implications and strategic responses to a changing retail electric business Rep., Edison Elec. Inst. Washington, DC: https://www.ourenergypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/disruptivechallenges-1.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62. 
    Orans R, Kahrl F, Aas D. 2016. Envisioning the electric utility in 2030: “fat” or “skinny”? Rep., Energy Environ Econ, San Francisco: https://www.ethree.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/E3_Envisioning-the-Electric-Utility-in-2030.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63. 
    Ardani K, Davidson C, Margolis R, Nobler E. 2015. A state-level comparison of processes and timelines for distributed photovoltaic interconnection in the United States. Tech Rep. NREL/TP-7A40-63556 Natl. Renew. Energy Lab. Golden, CO: https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/63556.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. 
    ACEEE (Am. Counc. Energy-Eff. Econ.) 2018. State and local policy database: interconnection standards ACEEE: Washington, DC https://database.aceee.org/state/interconnection-standards
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. 
    Lowry MN, Woolf T. 2016. Performance-based regulation in a high distributed energy resources future Rep. LBNL-1004130 LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab) Berkeley: https://emp.lbl.gov/publications/performance-based-regulation-high
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. 
    MPUC (Minn. Public Util. Comm.) 2019. In the matter of a commission investigation to identify performance metrics, and potentially, incentives for Xcel Energy's electric utility operation Docket E-002/CI-17-401 MPUC St. Paul: Sept. 18. https://www.edockets.state.mn.us/EFiling/edockets/searchDocuments.do?method=showPoup&documentId={0082456D-0000-CA1F-9241-23A4FFF7C2FB}&documentTitle=20199-155917-01
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67. 
    PUCN (Public Util. Comm. Nev.) 2021. State of Nevada Public Utilities Commission. Docket 19-06008 PUCN Carson City: July 8, 2019–Jan. 15, 2021. http://pucweb1.state.nv.us/PUC2/DktDetail.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68. 
    NYPSC (New York Public Serv. Comm.) 2016. Order adopting a ratemaking and utility revenue model policy framework Case 14-M-0101 NYPSC Albany: May 19. http://documents.dps.ny.gov/public/Common/ViewDoc.aspx?DocRefId={D6EC8F0B-6141-4A82-A857-B79CF0A71BF0}
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69. 
    NYPSC (New York Public Serv. Comm.) 2016. Public Service Commission approves restructuring of utility regulations to combat climate change & achieve nation-leading clean energy goals Press Release 16028, NYPSC, Albany, May 19. http://www3.dps.ny.gov/pscweb/WebFileRoom.nsf/ArticlesByCategory/9B4FB5513905CB5985257FB8006DAD48/$File/pr16028.pdf?OpenElement
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70. 
    Averch H, Johnson L 1962. The behavior of the firm under regulatory constraint. Am. Econ. Rev. 52:1052–69
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71. 
    AEE (Adv. Energy Econ.) 2017. Illinois Commerce Commission on its own motion. Docket 17-0855 AEE Washington, DC: Dec. 6. https://powersuite.aee.net/dockets/il-17-0855
  72. 72. 
    AEE (Adv. Energy Econ.) 2018. Optimizing capital and service expenditures: providing utilities with financial incentives for a changing grid Rep., AEE Washington, DC: https://info.aee.net/hubfs/PDF/Opex-Capex.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  73. [Google Scholar]
  74. 74. 
    Lambin X. 2020. Integration of demand response in electricity market capacity mechanisms. Util. Policy 64:101033
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75. 
    Dupuy M, Kahrl F, Weston F, Shen B, Satchwell AJ et al. 2017. Power consumption, demand and competition cooperation: recommendations for the pilots in Guangdong, Jilin, Jiangsu, and Shanghai Rep., LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab) Berkeley:
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76. 
    Hogan M, O'Boyle M, Aggarwal S 2015. Do pay-for-performance capacity markets deliver the grid resiliency outcomes we need?. Greentech Media Apr. 28. https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/do-pay-for-performance-capacity-markets-deliver-the-outcomes-we-need
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77. 
    ERCOT (Electr. Reliab. Counc. TX) 2013. Future ancillary services in ERCOT Concept Pap., ERCOT Austin: http://www.ercot.com/content/committees/other/fast/keydocs/2014/ERCOT_AS_Concept_Paper_Version_1.1_as_of_11-01-13_1445_black.doc
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78. 
    NERC (N. Am. Elect. Reliab. Corp.) 2017. Distributed energy resources: connection modeling and reliability considerations Rep., NERC Atlanta: https://www.nerc.com/comm/Other/essntlrlbltysrvcstskfrcDL/Distributed_Energy_Resources_Report.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79. 
    CPUC (Calif. Public Util. Comm.) 2019. Decision addressing auction mechanism, baselines, and auto demand response for battery storage Decis. 19-07-009 CPUC San Francisco: July 11. http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/PublishedDocs/Published/G000/M309/K713/309713644.PDF
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80. 
    Barbose G, Satchwell AJ. 2020. Benefits and costs of a utility-ownership business model for residential rooftop solar photovoltaics. Nat. Energy 5:750–58
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81. 
    Bade G. 2016. REV in 2016: the year that could transform utility business models in New York. Utility Dive Jan. 20. https://www.utilitydive.com/news/rev-in-2016-the-year-that-could-transform-utility-business-models-in-new-y/412410/
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82. 
    NYPSC (New York Public Serv. Comm.) 2015. Proceeding on motion of the commission in regard to Reforming the Energy Vision: order adopting regulatory policy framework and implementation plan. Case 14-M-0101 NYPSC Albany: Febr. 26. http://documents.dps.ny.gov/public/Common/ViewDoc.aspx?DocRefId=%7B0B599D87-445B-4197-9815-24C27623A6A0%7D
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83. 
    NYDPS (New York Dep. Public Serv.). Hosting capacity maps and useful links Doc., NYDPS: Albany, NY https://www3.dps.ny.gov/W/PSCWeb.nsf/All/6143542BD0775DEC85257FF10056479C?OpenDocument
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. 
    Forrester SP, Zaman A, Mathieu JL, Johnson JX. 2017. Policy and market barriers to energy storage providing multiple services. Electricity J 30:50–56
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85. 
    Hledik R, Lueken R, McIntyre C, Bishop H. 2017. Stacked benefits: comprehensively valuing battery storage in California Rep., Brattle Grp. Boston: https://brattlefiles.blob.core.windows.net/system/news/pdfs/000/001/302/original/stacked_benefits_-_final_report.pdf?1505227794
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86. 
    Gheorghiu I. 2019. The future of energy storage is here: an inside look at Rocky Mountain Power's 600-battery DR project. Utility Dive Sept. 30. https://www.utilitydive.com/news/virtual-power-plant-utah-sonnen-rocky-mountain-power-future-of-storage-distributed-energy/563734/
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87. 
    Feldman D, Brockway AM, Ulrich E, Margolis R 2015. Shared solar: current landscape, market potential, and the impact of federal securities regulation. Tech. Rep. NREL/TP-6A20-63892 Natl. Renew. Energy Lab. Golden, CO: https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/63892.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88. 
    SEIA (Solar Energy Ind. Assoc.) 2016. Residential consumer guide to community solar Rep., SEIA Washington, DC: https://www.seia.org/sites/default/files/Residential%20Consumer%20Guide%20to%20Community%20Solar%20-%20FINAL.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89. 
    Solar Energy Technologies Office, DOE (Department of Energy). Community solar basics https://www.energy.gov/eere/solar/community-solar-basics
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90. 
    Gilbert M. 2020. Perspectives on community solar policy adoption across the United States. Renew. Energy Focus 33:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91. 
    Augustine P. 2015. The time is right for utilities to develop community shared solar programs. Electricity J 28:10107–8
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92. 
    Booth S. 2014. Here comes the sun: how securities regulations cast a shadow on the growth of community solar in the United States. UCLA Law Rev 760:760–811
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93. 
    Coughlin J, Grove J, Irvine L, Jacobs JF, Johnson Phillips S et al. 2010. A guide to community solar: utility, private, and non-profit project development Rep., Off. Energy Effic. Renew. Energy, Dep. Energy Washington, DC: https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/49930.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94. 
    Kahrl F, Patel K, Orans R. 2019. Distributed utility 2.0: re-envisioning the electric distribution utility. Public Utilities Fortnightly Aug. https://www.fortnightly.com/fortnightly/2019/08/distributed-utility-20
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95. 
    Kristov L, De Martini P, Taft JD. 2016. A tale of two visions: designing a decentralized transactive electric system. IEEE Power Energy Magazine May/June. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7452738&casa_token=n7_SvGT22U8AAAAA:VMNUJwlcXeu-CZzALLPpdba0lzMMwj51-dRUMeQtvds6N6xszS3GPoOahiKvil8df60imeNKxpA&tag=1
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96. 
    Patel K, Allen D, Schneiderman B, Jones R et al. 2016. Full value tariff design and retail rate choices Rep., Energy Environ. Econ. San Francisco: http://documents.dps.ny.gov/public/Common/ViewDoc.aspx?DocRefId=%7BA0BF2F42-82A1-4ED0-AE6D-D7E38F8D655D%7D
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97. 
    Sweco 2015. Study on the effective integration of distributed energy resources for providing flexibility to the electricity system: a final report to the European Commission Rep. Proj. 54697590000, Sweco, Stockholm https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/5469759000%20Effective%20integration%20of%20DER%20Final%20ver%202_6%20April%202015.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  98. [Google Scholar]
  99. 99. 
    Pyper J. 2021. How India's renewable energy sector survived and thrived in a turbulent 2020. . Greentech Media Jan. 6. https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/india-solar-energy-transition-pandemic-2020
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100. 
    Xi JP. 2021. Carrying on the past and opening up a new journey of global response to climate change: speech at the Climate Ambition Summit. Xinhua Net, December 12. http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/leaders/2020-12/12/c_1126853600.htm (From Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101. 
    NEA (Natl. Energy Adm.) 2016. Electric power planning administrative measures Doc. 139 NEA Beijing: http://zfxxgk.nea.gov.cn/auto84/201606/t20160606_2258.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102. 
    Brinker L, Satchwell AJ. 2020. A comparative review of municipal energy business models in Germany, California, and Great Britain: institutional context and forms of energy decentralization. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 119:109521
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103. 
    Girouard C. 2019. UK RIIO sets out to demonstrate how a performance-based regulatory model can deliver value. Utility Dive. May 30. https://www.utilitydive.com/news/uk-riio-sets-out-to-demonstrate-how-a-performance-based-regulatory-model-ca/555761/
  104. 104. 
    Stede J, Arnold K, Dufter C, Holtz G, Roon S, Richstein J. 2020. The role of aggregators in facilitating industrial demand response: evidence from Germany. Energy Policy 147:111893
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105. 
    Thakur J, Chakraborty B. 2016. Sustainable net metering model for diversified India. Energy Procedia 88:336–40
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106. 
    Thakur J, Chakraborty B. 2019. Impact of compensation mechanisms for PV generation on residential consumers and shared net metering model for developing nations: a case study of India. J. Cleaner Prod. 218:696–707
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107. 
    Chaianong A, Bangviwat A, Menke C, Darghouth N. 2019. Cost–benefit analysis of rooftop PV systems on utilities and ratepayers in Thailand. Energies 12:122265
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108. 
    Luhmann T, Wieben E, Treydel R, Stadler M, Kumm T 2015. An approach for cost-efficient grid integration of distributed renewable energy sources. Engineering 4:447–52
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109. 
    NEA (Natl. Energy Adm.) 2017. Notice of improving power ancillary services compensation (market) mechanism work plan Doc. 67 NEA Beijing: http://zfxxgk.nea.gov.cn/auto92/201711/t20171122_3058.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110. 
    Guo PP, Yang D, Chen C 2020. Development status and analysis of demand response in China. Heneng Net August 10. http://www.heneng.net.cn/index.php?mod=news&article_id=46331&action=show&article_id=59999 (From Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111. 
    Feng Y, Wang SJ, Sha Y, Ding QZ, Yuan JH, Guo XP. 2018. Coal power overcapacity in China: province-level estimates and policy implications. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 137:89–100
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112. 
    Zeng M, Ouyang SJ, Shi H, Ge YJ, Qian QQ. 2015. Overall review of distributed energy development in China: status quo, barriers and solutions. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 50:1226–38
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113. 
    Energy Netw. Assoc 2021. Open Networks. Energy Network Association. https://www.energynetworks.org/creating-tomorrows-networks/open-networks
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-111320-071618
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-111320-071618
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error