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Abstract

Coastal systems are sensitive to direct and indirect impacts of climate change. Approximately 90% of all coastal areas will be affected by climate change to varying degrees. Nearly half of the world's major cities are located within 50 km of a coast, and coastal population densities are 2.6 times greater than those of inland areas, with a steep rise over the years. While coastal critical infrastructure is expanding, more social and physical systems are increasingly exposed to climate-induced hazards. The interconnectedness and interdependencies of critical infrastructure systems increase their systemic instability and fragility, resulting in greater dynamic risk and cascading impacts. Coastal critical infrastructure systems on several continents are at risk from the effects of climate change, including sea level rise, storm surges, and extreme weather events. Therefore, it is necessary to build and run climate-resilient infrastructure that is planned, designed, implemented, and operated to predict, be prepared for, and adapt to changing climatic circumstances. This review provides an up-to-date, objective, and critical assessment based on the literature to help determine what is known and what needs the future attention of researchers.

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2023-11-13
2024-04-14
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