1932

Abstract

To satisfy a growing population, much of Earth's surface has been designed to suit humanity's needs. Although these ecosystem designs have improved human welfare, they have also produced significant negative environmental impacts, which applied ecology as a field has attempted to address and solve. Many of the failures in applied ecology to achieve this goal of reducing negative environmental impacts are design failures, not failures in the science. Here, we review () how humans have designed much of Earth's surface, () the history of design ideas in ecology and the philosophical and practical critiques of these ideas, () design as a conceptual process, () how changing approaches and goals in subfields of applied ecology reflect changes and failures in design, and () why it is important not only for ecologists to encourage design fields to incorporate ecology into their practice but also for design to be more thoroughly incorporated into ours.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-121012-100957
2015-11-04
2024-04-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/energy/40/1/annurev-environ-121012-100957.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-121012-100957&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Huxley TH. 1.  1899. Man's Place in Nature New York: Appleton
  2. Hooke R, Martín-Duque J, Pedraza J. 2.  2012. Land transformation by humans: a review. GSA Today 22:124–10 [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. United Nations 2015. World Population Prospectus. New York: United Nations
  4. Crutzen PJ. 4.  2002. Geology of mankind. Nature 415:686723 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ruddiman WF. 5.  2013. The Anthropocene. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 41:45–68 [Google Scholar]
  6. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM. 6.  1997. Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 277:5325494–99 [Google Scholar]
  7. Haberl H, Erb KH, Krausmann F, Gaube V, Bondeau A. 7.  et al. 2007. Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in Earth's terrestrial ecosystems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:3112942–47 [Google Scholar]
  8. Postel S, Daily G, Ehrlich P. 8.  1996. Human appropriation of renewable fresh water. Science 271:5250785–88 [Google Scholar]
  9. Vörösmarty C, Sahagian D. 9.  2000. Anthropogenic disturbance of the terrestrial water cycle. Bioscience 50:9753–65 [Google Scholar]
  10. Nilsson C, Reidy CA, Dynesius M, Revenga C. 10.  2005. Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world's large river systems. Science 308:5720405–8 [Google Scholar]
  11. Vörösmarty CJ, Pahl-Wostl C, Bunn SE, Lawford R. 11.  2013. Global water, the Anthropocene and the transformation of a science. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 5:6539–50 [Google Scholar]
  12. Canfield DE, Glazer AN, Falkowski PG. 12.  2010. The evolution and future of Earth's nitrogen cycle. Science 330:6001192–96 [Google Scholar]
  13. Barnosky AD, Matzke N, Tomiya S, Wogan GOU, Swartz B. 13.  et al. 2011. Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived?. Nature 471:733651–57 [Google Scholar]
  14. Simon HA. 14.  1969. Sciences of the Artificial Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  15. Palmer M, Bernhardt E, Chornesky E, Collins S, Dobson A. 15.  et al. 2004. Ecology for a crowded planet. Science 304:51251–52 [Google Scholar]
  16. Raudsepp-Hearne C, Peterson GD, Tengö M, Bennett EM, Holland T. 16.  et al. 2010. Untangling the environmentalist's paradox: Why is human well-being increasing as ecosystem services degrade?. Bioscience 60:8576–89 [Google Scholar]
  17. Foley J, DeFries R, Asner G, Barford C. 17.  2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309:5734570–74 [Google Scholar]
  18. Rockström J, Steffen W, Noone K, Persson A, Chapin FS, Lambin EF. 18.  2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461:Sept.472–75 [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well Being. Washington, DC: Island Press
  20. Foley JA, Ramankutty N, Brauman KA, Cassidy ES, Gerber JS. 20.  et al. 2011. Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature 478:7369337–42 [Google Scholar]
  21. Kareiva P, Marvier M, Lalasz R. 21.  2012. Conservation in the Anthropocene: beyond solitude and fragility. Breakthr. J. 2012:1 [Google Scholar]
  22. Zhang W, Ricketts TH, Kremen C, Carney K, Swinton SM. 22.  2007. Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecol. Econ. 64:2253–60 [Google Scholar]
  23. Suding KN. 23.  2011. Toward an era of restoration in ecology: successes, failures, and opportunities ahead. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 42:465–87 [Google Scholar]
  24. Larson EK, Earl S, Hagen EM, Hale R, Hartnett H. 24.  et al. 2013. Beyond restoration and into design: hydrologic alterations in aridland cities. Resilience in Ecology and Urban Design STA Pickett, ML Cadenasso, B McGrath 183–210 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  25. Sarr DA, Puettmann KJ. 25.  2008. Forest management, restoration, and designer ecosystems: integrating strategies for a crowded planet. Ecoscience 15:117–26 [Google Scholar]
  26. Roach WJ, Heffernan JB, Grimm NB, Arrowsmith JR, Eisinger C, Rychener T. 26.  2008. Unintended consequences of urbanization for aquatic ecosystems: a case study from the Arizona desert. Bioscience 58:8715–27 [Google Scholar]
  27. Allen CR, Fontaine JJ, Pope KL, Garmestani AS. 27.  2011. Adaptive management for a turbulent future. J. Environ. Manag. 92:51339–45 [Google Scholar]
  28. Walters CJ, Hilborn R. 28.  1978. Ecological optimization and adaptive management. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 9:157–88 [Google Scholar]
  29. Folke C, Hahn T, Olsson P, Norberg J. 29.  2005. Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 30:1441–73 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ehrlich P, Mooney H. 30.  1983. Extinction, substitution, and ecosystem services. Bioscience 33:4248–54 [Google Scholar]
  31. Brauman KA, Daily GC, Duarte TK, Mooney HA. 31.  2007. The nature and value of ecosystem services: an overview highlighting hydrologic services. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 32:167–98 [Google Scholar]
  32. Costanza R, D'Arge R, De Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M. 32.  et al. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:6630253–60 [Google Scholar]
  33. Schlesinger W. 33.  2004. Better living through biogeochemistry. Ecology 85:92402–7 [Google Scholar]
  34. Soulé M. 34.  2013. The “new conservation.”. Conserv. Biol. 27:5895–97 [Google Scholar]
  35. Tallis H, Lubchenco J. 35.  2014. A call for inclusive conservation. Nature 515:27–28 [Google Scholar]
  36. Jackson ST, Hobbs RJ. 36.  2009. Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history. Science 325:567567–69 [Google Scholar]
  37. Hobbs RJ, Higgs E, Hall CM, Bridgewater P, Chapin FS III. 37.  et al. 2014. Managing the whole landscape: historical, hybrid, and novel ecosystems. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12:10557–64 [Google Scholar]
  38. Martínez ML, López-Barrera F. 38.  2008. Special issue: restoring and designing ecosystems for a crowded planet. Ecoscience 15:11–5 [Google Scholar]
  39. Pimm S. 39.  1996. Designer ecosystems. Nature 379:1217–18 [Google Scholar]
  40. Minns CK. 40.  1995. Approaches to assessing and managing cumulative ecosystem change, with the Bay of Quinte as a case study: an essay. J. Aquat. Ecosyst. Heal. 4:11–24 [Google Scholar]
  41. Murcia C, Aronson J, Kattan GH, Moreno-Mateos D, Dixon K, Simberloff D. 41.  2014. A critique of the “novel ecosystem” concept. Trends Ecol. Evol. 29:10548–53 [Google Scholar]
  42. Seastedt TR, Hobbs RJ, Suding KN. 42.  2008. Management of novel ecosystems: Are novel approaches required?. Front. Ecol. Environ. 6:10547–53 [Google Scholar]
  43. Hobbs RJ, Higgs E, Harris JA. 43.  2009. Novel ecosystems: implications for conservation and restoration. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24:11599–605 [Google Scholar]
  44. Kueffer C, Kaiser-Bunbury CN. 44.  2014. Reconciling conflicting perspectives for biodiversity conservation in the Anthropocene. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12:2131–37 [Google Scholar]
  45. Nash R. 45.  1978. Historical roots of wilderness management. Wilderness Management JC Hendee, GH Stankey, RC Lucas 27–39 Washington, DC: US Forest Serv. [Google Scholar]
  46. Rist L, Felton A, Nyström M, Troell M, Sponseller RA. 46.  et al. 2014. Applying resilience thinking to production ecosystems. Ecosphere 5:61–11 [Google Scholar]
  47. Robertson GP, Swinton SMS. 47.  2005. Reconciling agricultural productivity and environmental integrity: a grand challenge for agriculture. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3:138–46 [Google Scholar]
  48. Mitsch WJ. 48.  1998. Ecological engineering—the 7 year itch. Ecol. Eng. 10:119–30 [Google Scholar]
  49. Macagno EO. 49.  1971. Engineering ecology and ecological engineering. Environ. Lett. 1:295–101 [Google Scholar]
  50. Bergen SD, Bolton SM, Fridley JL. 50.  2001. Design principles for ecological engineering. Ecol. Eng. 18:2201–10 [Google Scholar]
  51. Holling C, Meffe G. 51.  1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conserv. Biol. 10:2328–37 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hilderbrand RH, Watts AC, Randle AM. 52.  2005. The myths of restoration ecology. Ecol. Soc. 10:119 [Google Scholar]
  53. Higgs E, Falk DA, Guerrini A, Hall M, Harris J. 53.  et al. 2014. The changing role of history in restoration ecology. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12:9499–506 [Google Scholar]
  54. Hobbs RJ, Arico S, Aronson J, Baron JS, Cramer VA. 54.  et al. 2006. Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 15:1–7 [Google Scholar]
  55. Balaguer L, Escudero A, Martín-Duque JF, Mola I, Aronson J. 55.  2014. The historical reference in restoration ecology: re-defining a cornerstone concept. Biol. Conserv. 176:12–20 [Google Scholar]
  56. Marvier M. 56.  2014. New conservation is true conservation. Conserv. Biol. 28:11–3 [Google Scholar]
  57. Kareiva P, Marvier M. 57.  2012. What is conservation science?. Bioscience 62:11962–69 [Google Scholar]
  58. Kareiva P, Groves C, Marvier M. 58.  2014. The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at the nature conservancy. J. Appl. Ecol. 51:1137–47 [Google Scholar]
  59. Watson JEM, Dudley N, Segan DB, Hockings M. 59.  2014. The performance and potential of protected areas. Nature 515:752567–73 [Google Scholar]
  60. Mallon DP, Price MRS. 60.  2013. The fall of the wild. Oryx 47:4467–68 [Google Scholar]
  61. Odum HT. 61.  1962. Man and the ecosystem. Proceedings of the Lockwood Conference on the Suburban Forest and Ecology PE Waggoner, JD Ovington 57–75 New Haven, CT: United Print. Serv. Inc.
  62. Tansley AG. 62.  1922. Elements of Plant Biology London: Dodd, Mead & Co.
  63. Hutchinson GE. 63.  1948. Circular causal systems in ecology. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 50:4221–46 [Google Scholar]
  64. Odum HT. 64.  1951. The stability of the world strontium cycle. Science 114:407–11 [Google Scholar]
  65. Odum E. 65.  1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:3877262–70 [Google Scholar]
  66. Carson R. 66.  1962. Silent Spring Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  67. Patten B, Odum E. 67.  1981. The cybernetic nature of ecosystems. Am. Nat. 118:6886–95 [Google Scholar]
  68. McHarg IL. 68.  1969. Design with Nature New York: Am. Mus. Natl. History
  69. Harper JLL. 69.  1974. Agricultural ecosystems. Agro-Ecosystems 1:11–6 [Google Scholar]
  70. Koenig HE, Tummala RL. 70.  1972. Principles of ecosystem design and management. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 2:4449–59 [Google Scholar]
  71. Clark C. 71.  1990. Mathematical Bioeconomics New York: Wiley
  72. Costanza R. 72.  1989. What is ecological economics?. Ecol. Econ. 1:11–7 [Google Scholar]
  73. Elliot R. 73.  1982. Faking nature. Inquiry 25:181–93 [Google Scholar]
  74. Katz E. 74.  1992. The big lie: human restoration of nature. Res. Philos. Technol. 12:390–97 [Google Scholar]
  75. Leopold A. 75.  1979. A Sand County Almanac New York: Ballantine
  76. Taylor P. 76.  1988. Technocratic optimism, H.T. Odum, and the partial transformation of ecological metaphor after World War II. J. Hist. Biol. 21:213–44 [Google Scholar]
  77. Meffe GK. 77.  1992. Techno-arrogance and halfway technologies: salmon hatcheries on the Pacific coast of North America. Conserv. Biol. 6:350–54 [Google Scholar]
  78. Wiener N. 78.  1948. Cybernetics Paris: Hermann
  79. Odum HT. 79.  1971. Environment, Power, and Society New York: Wiley-Intersci.
  80. Ewel JJ. 80.  1986. Designing agricultural ecosystems for the humid tropics. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17:207245–71 [Google Scholar]
  81. Tilley DR. 81.  2003. Industrial ecology and ecological engineering opportunities for symbiosis. J. Ind. Ecol. 7:213–32 [Google Scholar]
  82. Mitsch WJ, Jørgensen SE. 82.  2003. Ecological engineering: a field whose time has come. Ecol. Eng. 20:363–77 [Google Scholar]
  83. Wild AM. 83.  2013. Capability Brown, the aristocracy, and the cultivation of the eighteenth-century British landscaping industry. Enterp. Soc. 14:2237–70 [Google Scholar]
  84. McHarg IL. 84.  1964. The place of nature in the city of man. Ann. Am. Acad. Pol. Soc. Sci. 352:11–12 [Google Scholar]
  85. Spirn A. 85.  1996. Constructing nature: the legacy of Frederic Law Olmsted. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature W Cronon 91–113 New York: Norton & Co. [Google Scholar]
  86. Holden C. 86.  1977. Ian McHarg: champion for design with nature. Science 195:4276379–82 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lyle JT. 87.  1985. Design for Human Ecosystems New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
  88. Sagoff M. 88.  1978. On restoring and reproducing art. J. Philos. 75:9453–70 [Google Scholar]
  89. Light A. 89.  2006. Ethics and ecological restoration. Healing Natures, Repairing Relationships: Landscape Architecture and the Restoration of Ecological Spaces R France Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  90. Light A, Higgs ES. 90.  1992. The politics of ecological restoration. Environ. Ethics 18:227–47 [Google Scholar]
  91. Mora C, Aburto-Oropeza O, Ayala Bocos A, Ayotte PM, Banks S. 91.  et al. 2011. Global human footprint on the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in reef fishes. PLoS Biol. 9:4e1000606 [Google Scholar]
  92. Vitousek PM, Reiners WA. 92.  1975. Ecosystem succession and nutrient retention: a hypothesis. Bioscience 25:6376–81 [Google Scholar]
  93. Månsson B, McGlade J. 93.  1993. Thermodynamics and H.T. Odum's conjectures. Oecologia 93:4582–96 [Google Scholar]
  94. Holling CS. 94.  1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4:11–23 [Google Scholar]
  95. Scheffer M, Carpenter S, Foley JA, Folke C, Walker B. 95.  2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413:Oct.591–96 [Google Scholar]
  96. Schulze PC. 96.  1996. Engineering Within Ecological Constraints Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  97. Felson AJ, Pickett STA. 97.  2005. Designed experiments: new approaches to studying urban ecosystems. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3:10549–56 [Google Scholar]
  98. Musacchio LR. 98.  2009. The scientific basis for the design of landscape sustainability: a conceptual framework for translational landscape research and practice of designed landscapes and the six Es of landscape sustainability. Landsc. Ecol. 24:8993–1013 [Google Scholar]
  99. Neuhart J, Neuhart M. 99.  1989. Eames Design: The Work of the Office of Charles and Ray Eames New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
  100. Jones KB, Zurlini G, Kienast F, Petrosillo I, Edwards T. 100.  et al. 2012. Informing landscape planning and design for sustaining ecosystem services from existing spatial patterns and knowledge. Landsc. Ecol. 28:61175–92 [Google Scholar]
  101. Higgs ES. 101.  2003. Nature by Design: People, Natural Process, and Ecological Restoration Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  102. Bernhardt ES, Palmer MA. 102.  2011. River restoration: the fuzzy logic of repairing reaches to reverse catchment scale degradation. Ecol. Appl. 21:61926–31 [Google Scholar]
  103. Ahern J. 103.  2012. Urban landscape sustainability and resilience: the promise and challenges of integrating ecology with urban planning and design. Landsc. Ecol. 28:61203–12 [Google Scholar]
  104. Simon HA. 104.  1956. Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psychol. Rev. 63:2129–38 [Google Scholar]
  105. Neumann PG. 105.  1986. On hierarchical design of computer systems for critical applications. Softw. Eng. IEEE Trans. SE-129905–20
  106. Allen J, Krishnamachari R, Masetta J, Pearce D, Rigby D, Mistree F. 106.  1992. Fuzzy compromise: an effective way to solve hierarchical design problems. Struct. Optim. 120:115–20 [Google Scholar]
  107. Zavadskas EK, Turskis Z. 107.  2011. Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) methods in economics: an overview. Technol. Econ. Dev. Econ. 17:2397–427 [Google Scholar]
  108. Weber M. 108.  1987. Decision making with incomplete information. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 28:144–57 [Google Scholar]
  109. Wright FL. 109.  1958. The Living City Norfolk, UK: Horizon Press
  110. Nielsen J. 110.  1993. Iterative user-interface design. Computer 26:1132–41 [Google Scholar]
  111. Bernhardt ES, Palmer MA, Allan JD, Alexander G, Barnas K. 111.  et al. 2005. Synthesizing U.S. river restoration efforts. Science 308:April636–37 [Google Scholar]
  112. Court FE. 112.  2012. Pioneers of Ecological Restoration: The People and Legacy of the University of Wisconsin Arboretum Madison, WI: Univ. Wis. Press
  113. Higgs ES. 113.  1997. What is good ecological restoration?. Conserv. Biol. 11:2338–48 [Google Scholar]
  114. Higgs E. 114.  2005. The two-culture problem: ecological restoration and the integration of knowledge. Restor. Ecol. 13:1159–64 [Google Scholar]
  115. Temperton V. 115.  2007. The recent double paradigm shift in restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol. 15:2344–47 [Google Scholar]
  116. Shirley E. 116.  1867. Some Account of English Deer Parks London: Spottiswoode & Co.
  117. Van Cleef JS. 117.  1885. How to restore our trout streams. Trans. Am. Fish. Assoc. 14:50–55 [Google Scholar]
  118. Hubbs CL, Tarzwell CM, Greeley JR. 118.  1932. Methods for the improvements of Michigan trout streams. Bull. Inst. Fish. Res. 1:54 [Google Scholar]
  119. Thompson D, Stull G. 119.  2002. The development and historic use of habitat structures in channel restoration in the United States: the grand experiment in fisheries management. Géogr. Phys. Quat. 56:145–60 [Google Scholar]
  120. 120. Soc. Ecol. Restor. (SER) 2014. SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration Washington, DC: SER
  121. Soulé M. 121.  1985. What is conservation biology?. Bioscience 35:11727–34 [Google Scholar]
  122. Mace BGM. 122.  2014. Whose conservation?. Science 345:62041558 [Google Scholar]
  123. Robertson MM. 123.  2006. The nature that capital can see: science, state, and market in the commodification of ecosystem services. Environ. Plan. D 24:3367–87 [Google Scholar]
  124. Davidson MD. 124.  2013. On the relation between ecosystem services, intrinsic value, existence value and economic valuation. Ecol. Econ. 95:171–77 [Google Scholar]
  125. Ludwig D, Mangel M, Haddad B. 125.  2001. Ecology, conservation, and public policy. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11999:481–517 [Google Scholar]
  126. Spash CL. 126.  2008. How much is that ecosystem in the window? The one with the bio-diverse trail. Environ. Val. 17:2259–84 [Google Scholar]
  127. Robertson M, BenDor TK, Lave R, Riggsbee A, Ruhl J, Doyle M. 127.  2014. Stacking ecosystem services. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12:3186–93 [Google Scholar]
  128. Patten BC. 128.  2010. Natural ecosystem design and control imperatives for sustainable ecosystem services. Ecol. Complex 7:3282–91 [Google Scholar]
  129. Courvisanos J. 129.  2009. Optimize versus satisfice: two approaches to an investment policy in sustainable development. Post Keynesian and Ecological Economics: Confronting Environmental Issues RPF Holt, S Pressman, CL Spash 279 Cheltenhan, UK: Edward Elgar Pub. [Google Scholar]
  130. Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S. 130.  2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:6898671–77 [Google Scholar]
  131. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D. 131.  et al. 2010. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327:5967812–18 [Google Scholar]
  132. McGrath B, Pickett STA. 132.  2011. The metacity: a conceptual framework for integrating ecology and urban design. Challenges 2:455–72 [Google Scholar]
  133. Childers DL, Pickett STA, Grove JM, Ogden L, Whitmer A. 133.  2014. Advancing urban sustainability theory and action: challenges and opportunities. Landsc. Urban Plan. 125:320–28 [Google Scholar]
  134. O'Farrell PJ, Anderson PM. 134.  2010. Sustainable multifunctional landscapes: a review to implementation. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain 2:1–259–65 [Google Scholar]
  135. Milly PCD, Betancourt J, Falkenmark M, Hirsch RM, Zbigniew W. 135.  et al. 2008. Stationarity is dead: whither water management?. Science 319:Febr.573–74 [Google Scholar]
  136. Mueller ND, Gerber JS, Johnston M, Ray DK, Ramankutty N, Foley JA. 136.  2012. Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management. Nature 490:7419254–57 [Google Scholar]
  137. Grayson DK. 137.  2005. A brief history of great basin pikas. J. Biogeogr. 32:122103–11 [Google Scholar]
  138. Gilbert N. 138.  2014. Cross-bred crops get fit faster. Nature 513:292 [Google Scholar]
  139. Mascarelli A. 139.  2014. Designer reefs. Nature 508:444–46 [Google Scholar]
  140. Walsh C, Fletcher T, Ladson A. 140.  2005. Stream restoration in urban catchments through redesigning stormwater systems: looking to the catchment to save the stream. J. North Am. Benthol. Soc. 24:3690–705 [Google Scholar]
  141. Radeloff V, Hammer R. 141.  2005. The wildland-urban interface in the United States. Ecol. Appl. 15:3799–805 [Google Scholar]
  142. Carpenter S, Gunderson L. 142.  2001. Coping with collapse: ecological and social dynamics in ecosystem management. Bioscience 51:6451–57 [Google Scholar]
  143. Humphries C, Williams P, Vane-Wright R. 143.  1995. Measuring biodiversity value for conservation. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 26:3793–111 [Google Scholar]
  144. Shaffer M. 144.  1981. Minimum population size for species conservation. Bioscience 31:2131–34 [Google Scholar]
  145. Harding KH, Crone EE, Elderd BD, Hoekstra JM, McKerrow AJ. 145.  et al. 2001. The scientific foundations of habitat conservation plans: a quantitative assessment. Conserv. Biol. 15:2488–500 [Google Scholar]
  146. Urban DL, Minor ES, Treml EA, Schick RS. 146.  2009. Graph models of habitat mosaics. Ecol. Lett. 12:3260–73 [Google Scholar]
  147. McKinney M. 147.  2008. The realities of regional stewardship: from urban issues to natural landscapes. Public Land Resour. Law Rev. 29:123–40 [Google Scholar]
  148. Harting A, Johanos T, Littnan C. 148.  2014. Benefits derived from opportunistic survival-enhancing interventions for the Hawaiian monk seal: the silver BB paradigm. Endanger. Species Res. 25:189–96 [Google Scholar]
  149. Holling CS. 149.  1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management Chichester, UK: Wiley-Intersci.
  150. Allen CR, Gunderson LH. 150.  2011. Pathology and failure in the design and implementation of adaptive management. J. Environ. Manag. 92:51379–84 [Google Scholar]
  151. Lee KN. 151.  1999. Appraising adaptive management. Ecol. Soc. 3:23 [Google Scholar]
  152. Gunderson LH. 152.  2000. Ecological resilience in theory and application. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:425–39 [Google Scholar]
  153. Peterson G, Carpenter S, Brock W. 153.  2003. Uncertainty and the management of multistate ecosystems: an apparently rational route to collapse. Ecology 84:61403–11 [Google Scholar]
  154. Bernhardt ES, Sudduth EB, Palmer MA, Allan JD, Meyer JL. 154.  et al. 2007. Restoring rivers one reach at a time: results from a survey of U.S. river restoration practitioners. Restor. Ecol. 15:3482–93 [Google Scholar]
  155. McCarthy MA, Possingham HP. 155.  2007. Active adaptive management for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 21:4956–63 [Google Scholar]
  156. Hobbs RJ, Cramer VA. 156.  2008. Restoration ecology: interventionist approaches for restoring and maintaining ecosystem function in the face of rapid environmental change. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 33:139–61 [Google Scholar]
  157. Noyes J. 157.  1983. The QWERTY keyboard: a review. Int. J. Man Mach. Stud. 18:265–81 [Google Scholar]
  158. McRuer D, Graham D. 158.  1981. Eighty years of flight control: triumphs and pitfalls of the systems approach. J. Guid. Control 4:4353–62 [Google Scholar]
  159. Felson AJ, Pavao-Zuckerman M, Carter T, Montalto F, Springer N. 159.  2013. Mapping the design process for urban ecology researchers. BioScience 63:854–65 [Google Scholar]
  160. Felson AJ, Oldfield EE, Bradford MA. 160.  2013. Involving ecologists in shaping large-scale green infrastructure projects. BioScience 63:882–90 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-121012-100957
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-environ-121012-100957
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error