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Abstract

Autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation process evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and combating diverse cellular stresses. Autophagy involves de novo synthesis of a double-membrane autophagosome, sequestration of selected cellular contents, and subsequent delivery of sequestrated contents to the vacuole (in yeasts and plants) or to lysosomes (in animal cells) for degradation and recycling. Genetic studies in unicellular and multicellular model organisms have systematically revealed the molecular machinery, regulation, and function of autophagy in physiological settings. I review genetic studies in model organisms—from yeast to worm to fly—that enable us to not only identify autophagy genes, including genes and the metazoan-specific genes, but also uncover variants of autophagy in developmental contexts, novel regulatory mechanisms, and signaling events involved in mediating systemic autophagy response. Genetic analysis also helps us understand the liquid–liquid phase separation and transition that control autophagic degradation of protein aggregates. The emerging role of autophagy in zebrafish tissue regeneration is also discussed.

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2022-11-30
2024-06-13
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