1932

Abstract

Ciliated protozoa extensively remodel their somatic genomes during nuclear development, fragmenting their chromosomes and removing large numbers of internal eliminated sequences (IESs). The sequences eliminated are unique and repetitive DNAs, including transposons. Recent studies have identified transposase proteins that appear to have been domesticated and are used by these cells to eliminate DNA not wanted in the somatic macronucleus. This DNA elimination process is guided by meiotically produced small RNAs, generated in the germline nucleus, that recognize homologous sequences leading to their removal. These scan RNAs are found in complexes with PIWI proteins. Before they search the developing genome for IESs to eliminate, they scan the parental somatic nucleus and are removed from the pool if they match homologous sequences in that previously reorganized genome. In , the scan RNAs target heterochromatin modifications to mark IESs for elimination. This DNA elimination pathway in ciliates shares extensive similarity with piRNA-mediated silencing of metazoans and highlights the remarkable ability of homologous RNAs to shape developing genomes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-genet-110410-132432
2011-12-15
2024-04-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-genet-110410-132432
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-genet-110410-132432
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error