Plastids are semiautonomous organelles derived from cyanobacterial ancestors. Following endosymbiosis, plastids have evolved to optimize their functions, thereby limiting metabolic redundancy with other cell compartments. Contemporary plastids have also recruited proteins produced by the nuclear genome of the host cell. In addition, many genes acquired from the cyanobacterial ancestor evolved to code for proteins that are targeted to cell compartments other than the plastid. Consequently, metabolic pathways are now a patchwork of enzymes of diverse origins, located in various cell compartments. Because of this, a wide range of metabolites and ions traffic between the plastids and other cell compartments. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the well-known, and of the as yet uncharacterized, chloroplast/cytosol exchange processes, which can be deduced from what is currently known about compartmentation of plant-cell metabolism.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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