Much progress has been made in the identification of specific human gene variants that contribute to enhanced susceptibility or resistance to viral diseases. Herein we review multiple discoveries made with genome-wide or candidate gene approaches that have revealed significant insights into virus–host interactions. Genetic factors that have been identified include genes encoding virus receptors, receptor-modifying enzymes, and a wide variety of innate and adaptive immunity-related proteins. We discuss a range of pathogenic viruses, including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human T cell leukemia virus, human papilloma virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, herpes simplex virus, norovirus, rotavirus, parvovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. Understanding the genetic underpinnings that affect infectious disease outcomes should allow tailored treatment and prevention approaches in the future.


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