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Abstract

Virtually all cell types have the same DNA, yet each type exhibits its own cell-specific pattern of gene expression. During the brief period of mitosis, the chromosomes exhibit changes in protein composition and modifications, a marked condensation, and a consequent reduction in transcription. Yet as cells exit mitosis, they reactivate their cell-specific programs with high fidelity. Initially, the field focused on the subset of transcription factors that are selectively retained in, and hence bookmark, chromatin in mitosis. However, recent studies show that many transcription factors can be retained in mitotic chromatin and that, surprisingly, such retention can be due to nonspecific chromatin binding. Here, we review the latest studies focusing on low-level transcription via promoters, rather than enhancers, as contributing to mitotic memory, as well as new insights into chromosome structure dynamics, histone modifications, cell cycle signaling, and nuclear envelope proteins that together ensure the fidelity of gene expression through a round of mitosis.

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2022-08-31
2024-06-17
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