1932

Abstract

The human body generates 10–100 billion cells every day, and the same number of cells die to maintain homeostasis in our body. Cells infected by bacteria or viruses also die. The cell death that occurs under physiological conditions mainly proceeds by apoptosis, which is a noninflammatory, or silent, process, while pathogen infection induces necroptosis or pyroptosis, which activates the immune system and causes inflammation. Dead cells generated by apoptosis are quickly engulfed by macrophages for degradation. Caspases are a large family of cysteine proteases that act in cascades. A cascade that leads to caspase 3 activation mediates apoptosis and is responsible for killing cells, recruiting macrophages, and presenting an “eat me” signal(s). When apoptotic cells are not efficiently engulfed by macrophages, they undergo secondary necrosis and release intracellular materials that represent a damage-associated molecular pattern, which may lead to a systemic lupus-like autoimmune disease.

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2018-04-26
2024-04-14
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