1932

Abstract

This article analyzes the implications of the Anthropocene for the governance of security. Drawing on environmental law, green criminology, and international relations, the article examines the development of environmental security scholarship over recent decades and shows similarities and differences in perspectives across the three disciplines. It demonstrates that the Anthropocene represents a significant challenge for thinking about and responding to security and the environment. It argues a rethinking is needed, and this can benefit from reaching across the disciplinary divide in three key areas that have become a shared focus of attention and debate regarding security in the Anthropocene. These are, first, examining the implications of the Anthropocene for our understanding of the environment and security; second, addressing and resolving contests between environmental securities; and third, developing new governance responses that mix polycentric and state-backed regulation to bring safety and security to the planet.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101317-030945
2018-10-13
2024-06-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lawsocsci/14/1/annurev-lawsocsci-101317-030945.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101317-030945&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adamson J, Davis M 2017. Humanities for the Environment: Integrating Knowledge, Forging New Constellations of Practice London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Agnew R 2012. Dire forecast: a theoretical model of the impact of climate change on crime. Theor. Criminol. 16:21–42
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Agnew R 2013. The ordinary acts that contribute to ecocide: a criminological analysis. Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology N South, A Brisman 58–72 Abingdon, UK: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ait-Kadi M, Lincklaen Arriens W 2012. Increasing water security: a development imperative Work. Pap. Global Water Partnersh. Stockholm, Swed.:
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ang B, Choong W, Ng T 2015. Energy security: definitions, dimensions and indexes. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 42:1077–93
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bakker K, Morinville C 2013. The governance dimensions of water security: a review. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 371:20130116
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baldwin D 1997. The concept of security. Rev. Int. Stud. 23:5–26
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barnett J 2001. The Meaning of Environmental Security: Ecological Politics and Policy in the New Security Era London: Zed Books
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Barnett J, Matthew R, O'Brien K 2010. Global environmental change and human security: an introduction. Global Environmental Change and Human Security R Matthew, J Barnett, B McDonald, K O'Brien 3–32 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bayley D, Shearing C 2001. The New Structure of Policing: Description, Conceptualization, and Research Agenda Washington, DC: US Dep. Justice
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bazilian M, Rogner H, Howells M, Hermann S, Arent D et al. 2011. Considering the energy, water and food nexus: towards an integrated modelling approach. Energy Policy 39:127896–906
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Beck J 2014. The call of the Anthropocene. Cult. Politics 10:3303–414
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Beck U 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity Los Angeles, CA: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bennett E, Solan M, Biggs R, McPhearson T, Norström A et al. 2016. Bright spots: Seeds of a good Anthropocene. Front. Ecol. Environ. 14:8441–48
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Berry E, Dernini S, Burlingame B, Meybeck A, Conforti P 2015. Food security and sustainability: Can one exist without the other. Public Health Nutr 18:132293–302
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Biber E 2017. Law in the Anthropocene epoch. Georgetown Law J 106:1
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Biermann F 2014. The Anthropocene: a governance perspective. Anthr. Rev. 1:157–61
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Biermann F, Bai X, Bondre N, Broadgate W, Chen C et al. 2016. Down to Earth: contextualizing the Anthropocene. Glob. Environ. Change 39:341–50
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Biggs E, Bruce E, Boruff B, Duncan J, Horsley J et al. 2015. Sustainable development and the water–energy–food nexus: a perspective on livelihoods. Environ. Sci. Policy 54:389–97
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brauch H 2008. Conceptualising the environmental dimension of human security in the UN. Int. Soc. Sci. J. 59:19–48
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Brodeur J 1983. High policing and low policing: remarks about the policing of political activities. Soc. Probl. 30:5507–20
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Brown L 1977. Redefining national security Worldwatch Pap. 14 Worldwatch Inst. Washington, DC: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED147229.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Burdon P 2010. Rights of nature: reconsidered. Aust. Humanit. Rev. 49:69–89
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Burke A, Fishel S, Mitchell A, Dalby S, Levine D 2016. Planet politics: a manifesto from the end of IR. Millennium 44:3499–523
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Butts K 2014. Environmental security and climate change: a link to homeland security. Homel. Secur. Emerg. Manag. 11:2269–79
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Buzan B, Wæver O, de Wilde J 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Carson R 1962. Silent Spring Boston: Houghton Mifflin
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chakrabarty D 2009. The climate of history: four theses. Crit. Inq. 35:2197–222
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Chalecki E 2013. Environmental Security: A Guide to the Issues Westport, CT: Praeger Secur. Int.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Clarke RV 2014. Technology, criminology and crime science. Eur. J. Crim. Policy Res. 10:55–63
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Cook C, Bakker K 2012. Water security: debating an emerging paradigm. Glob. Environ. Change 22:94–102
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Corlett R 2015. The Anthropocene concept in ecology and conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30:136–41
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Corry O 2014. From defense to resilience: environmental security beyond neo-liberalism. Int. Political Sociol. 8:256–74
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Cosens B, Gunderson L, Chaffin B 2014. The adaptive water governance project: assessing law, resilience and governance in regional socio-ecological water systems facing a changing climate. Ida. Law Rev. 1:1–27
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Costanza R, d'Arge R, de Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M et al. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Ecol. Econ. 387:253–60
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Crutzen P 2002. Geology of mankind. Nature 415:68673–23
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Crutzen P, Stoermer E 2000. The “Anthropocene.”. IGBP Newsl 41:17–18
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Cudworth E, Hobden S 2011. Posthuman International Relations: Complexity, Ecologism, and Global Politics London: Zed Books
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Dalby S 2002. Environmental Security Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Dalby S 2017. Anthropocene formations: environmental security, geopolitics and disaster. Theory Cult. Soc. 34:2–3233–52
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Darwin C 1859. On the Origin of Species London: John Murray
    [Google Scholar]
  42. de Búrca G, Keohane R, Sabel C 2013. New modes of pluralist global governance. N.Y. Univ. J. Int. Law Politics 45:723–86
    [Google Scholar]
  43. de Soysa I 2013. Environmental security and the resource curse. Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues R Floyd, R Matthew 64–81 New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Diamond J 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed New York: Viking
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Dodds F, Bartram J 2016. The Water, Food, Energy and Climate Nexus: Challenges and an Agenda for Action London: Taylor & Francis
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Durkheim É 1950. The Rules of Sociological Method trans. SA Solovay, JH Mueller Glencoe, IL: Free Press
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Ehrlich P 1968. The Population Bomb New York: Ballantine Books
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Fagan M 2016. Security in the Anthropocene: environment, ecology, escape. Eur. J. Int. Relat. 23:2292–314
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Floyd R 2010. Security and the Environment: Securitisation Theory and US Environmental Security Policy Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Floyd R 2015.a Environmental security and the case against rethinking criminology as “security-ology.”. Criminol. Crim. Justice 15:3277–82
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Floyd R 2015.b Global climate security governance: a case of institutional and ideational fragmentation. Confl. Secur. Dev. 15:2119–46
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Floyd R, Matthew R 2013. Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues Abingdon, UK: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Food Agric. Organ. 1996. Rome Declaration on World Food Security Presented at the World Food Summit Nov 13–17 Rome: http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w3613e/w3613e00.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Foucault M 2008 (1980). The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the College de France 1978–1979 trans. G Burchell Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Galaz V 2014. Global Environmental Governance, Technology and Politics: The Anthropocene Gap Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Garmestani A, Allen C, Arnold C, Gunderson L 2014. Introduction. Social-Ecological Resilience and Law A Garmestani, C Allen 1–14 New York: Columbia Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Grear A 2015. Deconstructing Anthropos: a critical legal reflection on “Anthropocentric” law and Anthropocene “humanity.”. Law Critique 26:225–49
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gunningham N 2013. Managing the energy trilemma: the case of Indonesia. Energy Policy 54:184–93
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gunningham N, Holley C 2016. Next-generation environmental regulation. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 12:273–93
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Haines F, Parker C 2018. Moving towards ecological regulation: the role of criminalisation. See Holley & Shearing 2018a 81–108
  61. Hall M, Farrall S 2013. The criminogenic consequence of climate change: blurring the boundaries between offenders and victims. Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology N South, A Brisman 120–33 Abingdon, UK: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hamilton C 2015. The theodicy of the “Good Anthropocene.”. Environ. Humanit. 7:233–38
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Hamilton C, Bonneuil C, Gemmene F 2015. Thinking the Anthropocene. The Anthropocene and the Global Environmental Crisis: Rethinking Modernity in a New Epoch C Hamilton, C Bonneuil, F Gemmene 1–13 London/New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Hamilton S 2017. Securing ourselves from ourselves? The paradox of “entanglement” in the Anthropocene. Crime Law Soc. Change 68:5579–95
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Harari Y 2014. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind London: Harville Secker
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Harrington C 2015. Toward a critical water security: hydrosolidarity and emancipation. Can. Foreign Policy J. 21:228–44
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Harrington C 2016. The ends of the world: international relations and the Anthropocene. Millennium 44:3478–98
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Harrington C 2017. Posthuman security and care in the Anthropocene. Reflections on the Posthuman in International Relations: The Anthropocene, Security and Ecology C Eroukhmanoff, M Harker 73–86 Bristol, UK: E-Int. Relat.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Harrington C, Shearing C 2017. Security in the Anthropocene: Reflections on Safety and Care London/Bielefeld, Ger.: Transcript
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Hartmann T 2013. The Last Hours of Humanity: Warming the World to Extinction Oxford, UK: Waterfront Digit.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Heubaum H, Biermann F 2015. Integrating global energy and climate governance: the changing role of the International Energy Agency. Energy Policy 87:229–39
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Holley C 2017. Environmental regulation and governance. Regulatory Theory: Foundations and Applications P Drahos 741–58 Canberra: ANU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Holley C, Gunningham N, Shearing C 2012. The New Environmental Governance Abingdon, UK: Earthscan
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Holley C, Lecavalier E 2017. Energy governance, energy security and environmental sustainability: a case study from Hong Kong. Energy Policy 108:379–89
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Holley C, Shearing C 2018.a Criminology and the Anthropocene Abingdon, UK: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Holley C, Shearing C 2018.b Thriving on a pale blue dot: criminology and the Anthropocene. See Holley & Shearing 2018a 1–24
  77. Holley C, Sinclair D 2018. Reforming Water Law and Governance: From Stagnation to Innovation in Australia Singapore: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Holley C, Sofronova E 2017. New environmental governance: adaptation, resilience and law. Risk, Resilience, Inequality and Environmental Law B Hutter 129–46 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Homer-Dixon T 1994. Environmental scarcities and violent conflict. Int. Secur. 19:15–40
    [Google Scholar]
  80. [Google Scholar]
  81. Hospes O, Brons A 2016. Food system governance: a systematic literature review. Food Systems Governance: Challenges for Justice, Equality and Human Rights A Kennedy, J Liljeblad 13–42 London: Earthscan
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Hulme K 2009. Environmental security: implications for international law. Yearb. Int. Environ. Law 19:13–26
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Hussey K, Pittock J 2012. The energy water nexus: managing the links between energy and water for a sustainable future. Ecol. Soc. 17:131
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Int. Energy Agency. 2014. Energy Supply Security: The Emergency Response of IEA Countries Paris: Int. Energy Agency
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Johnston L, Shearing C 2003. Governing Security: Explorations of Policing and Justice London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Kelemen R, Vogel D 2010. Trading places: the role of the United States and the European Union in international environmental politics. Comp. Political Stud. 43:4427–56
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Kim R, Bosselmann K 2013. International environmental law in the Anthropocene: towards a purposive system of multilateral environmental agreements. Transnatl. Environ. Law 2:285–309
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Klein N 2014. This Changes Everything: Capitalism Versus the Climate New York: Simon & Schuster
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Kline K, Msangi S, Dale V, Woods J, Souza M et al. 2017. Reconciling food security and bioenergy: priorities for action. GCB Bioenergy 9:557–76
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Koff H 2016. Reconciling competing globalizations through regionalisms? Environmental security in the framework of expanding security norms and narrowing security policies. Globalizations 13:6664–82
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Koff H, Maganda C 2016. Environmental security in transnational contexts: What relevance for regional human security regimes. Globalizations 13:6653–63
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Kotzé L 2014. Rethinking global environmental law and governance in the Anthropocene. J. Energy Nat. Resourc. Law 32:2121–56
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Kotzé L 2016. Global Environmental Constitutionalism in the Anthropocene London: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Krampe F 2017. Toward sustainable peace: a new research agenda for post-conflict natural resource management. Global Environ. Politics 17:41–8
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Lang T, Barling D 2012. Food security and food sustainability: reformulating the debate. Geogr. J. 178:4313–26
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Latour B 2014. Agency at the time of the Anthropocene. New Lit. Hist. 45:11–18
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Leopold A 1949. A Sand County Almanac Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Levy M 1995. Is the environment a national security issue. Int. Secur. 20:35–62
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Lidskog R, Waterton C 2016. Anthropocene—a cautious welcome from environmental sociology. Environ. Sociol. 2:4395–406
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Lövbrand E, Beck S, Chilvers J, Forsyth T, Hedrén J et al. 2015. Who speaks for the future of earth? How critical social science can extend the conversation on the Anthropocene. Global Environ. Change 32:211–18
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Lovelock J 2006. The Revenge of Gaia: Earth's Climate in Crisis and the Fate of Humanity New York: Basic Books
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Lynch M, Long M, Barrett K, Stretesky K 2013. Is it a crime to produce ecological disorganization. Br. J. Criminol. 53:997–1016
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Lynch M, Stretesky P 2014. Exploring Green Criminology: Toward a Green Criminological Revolution Farnham, UK: Ashgate
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Marks M, Matsha R, Caruso A 2018. Cities, walls and the anthropocene: when consciousness and purpose fail to coincide. See Holley & Shearing 2018a 133–52
  105. Marks R 2006. Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-First Century Lanham, MD: Littlefield. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  106. McCollum D, Krey V, Riahi K, Kolp P, Grubler A et al. 2013. Climate policies can help resolve energy security and air pollution challenges. Clim. Change 119:479–94
    [Google Scholar]
  107. McDonald M 2012. Security, the Environment and Emancipation: Contestation over Environmental Change London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  108. McDonald M 2013. Discourses of climate security. Political Geogr 33:42–51
    [Google Scholar]
  109. McDonald M 2017. Ecological security. Reflections on the Posthuman in International Relations: The Anthropocene, Security, and Ecology C Eroukhmanoff, M Harker 62–73 Bristol, UK: E-Int. Relat.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Merton RK 1936. The unintended consequences of purposeful social action. Am. Sociol. Rev. 1:6894–904
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Mitchell A 2014. Only human? A worldly approach to security. Secur. Dialogue 45:15–21
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Mohtar R 2016. The water-energy-food nexus: Who owns it? Policy Brief 16/03, OCP Policy Center, Rabat, Moroc. http://www.ocppc.ma/sites/default/files/OCPPC-PB-1603.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Neocleous M 2008. Critique of Security Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh Univ. Press/McGill-Queens Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Ngoc Cao A, Wyatt T 2016. The conceptual compatibility between green criminology and human security: a proposed interdisciplinary framework for examinations into green victimisation. Crit. Criminol. 24:413–30
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Nicolson S, Jinnah S 2016. New Earth Politics: Essays from the Anthropocene Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  116. O'Brien K, Barnett J 2013. Global environmental change and human security. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 38:373–91
    [Google Scholar]
  117. O'Malley P 2018. Bentham in the Anthropocene: imagining a sustainable criminal justice. See Holley & Shearing 2018a 109–32
  118. Parker R, Stewart J 2014. Energy and food security: Is Australia fragile or resilient. Secur. Chall. 10:151–64
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Rasul G 2016. Managing the food, water, and energy nexus for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in South Asia. Environ. Dev. 18:14–25
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Robinson N 2014. Fundamental principles of law for the Anthropocene. Environ. Policy Law 44:13–27
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Rockström J, Falkenmark M, Allan T, Folke C, Gordon L et al. 2014. The unfolding water drama in the Anthropocene: towards a resilience-based perspective on water for global sustainability. Ecohydrology 7:51249–61
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Rockström J, Steffen W, Noone K, Persson A, Chapin F et al. 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461:472–75
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Rose N 1996. The death of the social? Re-figuring the territory of government. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 24:3327–56
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Rothschild E 1995. What is security. Daedalus 124:353–98
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Ruddiman W, Crucifix M, Oldfield F 2011. Introduction to the early-Anthropocene special issue. Holocene 21:5713
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Ruggiero V, South N 2013. Green criminology and crimes of the economy: theory, research and praxis. Crit. Criminol. 21:3359–73
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sage C 2013. The interconnected challenges for food security from a food regimes perspective: energy, climate and malconsumption. J. Rural Stud. 29:71–80
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Schilling J, Nash S, Ide T, Scheffran J, Froese R et al. 2017. Resilience and environmental security: towards joint application in peacebuilding. Glob. Change Peace Secur. 29:2107–27
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Schnurr M, Swatuk L 2012. Towards critical environmental security. Natural Resources and Social Conflict: Towards Critical Environmental Security M Schnurr, A Swatuk 1–14 New York: Palgrave
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Scott K 2013. International law in the Anthropocene: responding to the geoengineering challenge. Mich. J. Int. Law 34:309–58
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Shearing C 2015. Criminology and the Anthropocene. Criminol. Crim. Justice 15:3255–69
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Simpson A 2013. Challenging inequality and injustice: a critical approach to energy security. Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues R Floyd, R Matthew 248–63 New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Singer P 1975. Animal Liberation New York: Avon Books
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Songstad D, Hatfield J, Tomes D 2014. Convergence of Food Security, Energy Security and Sustainable Agriculture New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  135. South N 2014. Green criminology: reflections, connections, horizons. Int. J. Crime Justice Soc. Democr. 3:25–20
    [Google Scholar]
  136. South N 2015. Anticipating the Anthropocene and greening criminology. Criminol. Crim. Justice 15:3270–76
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Sovacool B, Dworkin M 2015. Energy justice: conceptual insights and practical applications. Appl. Energy 142:435–44
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Spapens T, White R, Huisman W 2016. Environmental Crime in Transnational Context: Global Issues in Green Enforcement and Criminology London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Steffen W, Persson Å, Deutsch L, Zalasiewicz J, Williams M et al. 2011. The Anthropocene: from global change to planetary stewardship. Ambio 40:7739–61
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Steffen W, Richardson K, Rockström J, Cornell S, Fetzer I et al. 2015. Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 347:62231259855
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Ullman R 1983. Redefining security. Int. Secur. 8:1129–53
    [Google Scholar]
  142. UN Environ. Progr. 2012. Global Environmental Outlook 5 Nairobi: UN Environ. Progr.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. United Nations. 2012. The Millennium Development Goals New York: United Nations http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
    [Google Scholar]
  144. United Nations. 2015. The Sustainable Development Goals New York: United Nations http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/summit/
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Valverde M 2017. From persons and their acts to webs of relationships: some theoretical resources for environmental justice. Crime Law Soc. Change 68:5547–62
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Vidas D, Fauchald O, Jensen O, Tvedt M 2015. International law for the Anthropocene? Shifting perspectives in regulation of the oceans, environment and genetic resources. Anthropocene 9:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Viñuales J 2016. Law and the Anthropocene Work. Pap. 2016-4 Cambridge Cent. Environ. Energy Nat. Resour. Gov. Cambridge, UK: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2842546
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Watts M 2013. A political ecology of environmental security. Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues R Floyd, R Matthew 82–101 New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  149. White D, Rudy A, Gareau B 2016. Environments, Natures and Social Theory: Towards a Critical Hybridity London: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  150. White R 2014. Environmental insecurity and fortress mentality. Int. Aff. 90:835–51
    [Google Scholar]
  151. White R, Kramer R 2015. Critical criminology and the struggle against climate change ecocide. Crit. Criminol. 23:383–99
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Williams C 2013. Wild law in Australia: practice and possibilities. Environ. Plan. Law J. 30:259–84
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Winzer C 2012. Conceptualizing energy security. Energy Policy 46:36–48
    [Google Scholar]
  154. World Comm. Environ. Dev. 1987. Our Common Future Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  155. World Econ. Forum. 2011. Water Security: The Water–Food–Energy–Climate Nexus Washington, DC: World Econ. Forum
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Zedner L 2009. Security New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101317-030945
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error