1932

Abstract

During the summer of 2018, the US government detained thousands of migrant parents and their separated children pursuant to its zero-tolerance policy at the United States–Mexico border. The ensuing media storm generated unprecedented public awareness about immigration detention. The recency of this public attention belies a long-standing immigration enforcement practice that has generated a growing body of research in the past couple of decades. I take stock of this research, focusing on the causes, conditions, and consequences of immigration detention in the United States. I also discuss critical tasks for future research, including () examining the role of local governments, the private prison industry, and decision makers responsible for release decisions in maintaining the detention system; () extending the field of inquiry to less-visible detainee populations and detention facility guards and staff, for a fuller understanding of detention conditions; and () investigating not only direct but also indirect consequences of detention.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042743
2019-10-13
2024-06-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lawsocsci/15/1/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042743.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042743&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ackerman AR, Furman R. 2013. The criminalization of immigration and the privatization of the immigration detention: implications for justice. Contemp. Justice Rev. 16:251–63
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aleinikoff TA, Martin DA, Motomura H, Fullerton M, Stumpf J 2016. Removal, detention, and judicial review. Immigration and Citizenship: Process and Policy St. Paul, MN: West Acad. Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Alvarez P. 2018. Jeff Sessions is quietly transforming the nation's immigration courts. Atlantic Oct. 17. https://perma.cc/LE5N-4XEH
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Am. Civ. Lib. Union, Church World Serv., Lutheran Immigr. Refug. Serv., Natl. Counc. La Raza, San Franc. Lawyers’ Comm. Urban Aff 1990. Detention of Undocumented Aliens Washington, DC: Am. Civ. Lib. Union
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Am. Immigr. Counc 2014. Removal without recourse: the growth of summary deportations from the United States Fact Sheet, Am. Immigr. Counc Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/4SZU-BVDJ
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Am. Immigr. Lawyers Assoc 2018. Deaths at adult detention centers Doc. No. 16050900, Am. Immigr. Lawyers Assoc Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/Q2NC-WRST
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Anello F. 2013. Due process and temporal limits on mandatory immigration detention. Hastings Law J 65:363–403
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Antonio ME, Young JL. 2011. The effects of tenure on staff apathy and treatment orientation: a comparison of respondent characteristics and environmental factors. Am. J. Crim. Justice 36:1–16
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Arnold D, Dobbie W, Yang CS 2018. Racial bias in bail decisions. Q. J. Econ. 133:1885–932
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Baker B. 2017. Immigration enforcement actions: 2016 Annu. Rep., US Dep. Homel. Secur Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/LKY7-NBK3
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bosworth M. 2018. Affect and authority in immigration detention. Punishm. Soc. In press
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brabeck KM, Lykes MB, Hunter C 2014. The psychosocial impact of detention and deportation on U.S. migrant children and families. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 84:496–505
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brabeck KM, Xu Q. 2010. The impact of detention and deportation on Latino immigrant children and families: a quantitative exploration. Hisp. J. Behav. Sci. 32:341–61
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Can. Bord. Serv. Agency 2018. Annual Detention Statistics, 2012–2018 Ottawa: Can. Bord. Serv. Agency https://perma.cc/H7F8-5A97
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Capps R, Hipsman F, Meissner D 2017. Advances in U.S.-Mexico border enforcement: a review of the consequence delivery system Rep., Migr. Policy Inst Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/KD8M-K8BL
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cavanagh C, Cauffman E. 2015. Viewing law and order: mothers’ and sons’ justice system legitimacy attitudes and juvenile recidivism. Psychol. Public Policy Law 21:432–41
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chacón JM. 2014. Immigration detention: No turning back?. South Atlantic Q 113:621–28
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chacón JM. 2017. Privatized immigration enforcement. Harvard Civ. Rights Civ. Lib. Law Rev. 52:1–45
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cleveland J, Kronick R, Gros H, Rousseau C 2018. Symbolic violence and disempowerment as factors in the adverse impact of immigration detention on adult asylum seekers’ mental health. Int. J. Public Health 63:1001–8
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cleveland J, Rousseau C. 2013. Psychiatric symptoms associated with brief detention of adult asylum seekers in Canada. Can. J. Psychiatry 58:409–16
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Coffey GJ, Kaplan I, Sampson RC, Tucci MM 2010. The meaning and mental health consequences of long-term immigration detention for people seeking asylum. Soc. Sci. Med. 70:2070–79
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Collingwood L, Morin JL, El-Khatib SO 2018. Expanding carceral markets: detention facilities, ICE contracts, and the financial interests of punitive immigration policy. Race Soc. Probl. 10:275–92
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Conlon D, Hiemstra N 2017. Intimate Economies of Immigration Detention New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cox A, Goodman R. 2018. Detention of migrant families as “deterrence”: ethical flaws and empirical doubts. Just Security June 22. https://perma.cc/Q5S6-WELR
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Das A. 2013. Immigration detention: information gaps and institutional barriers to reform. Univ. Chic. Law Rev. 80:137–63
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Dippel C, Poyker M. 2018. Do private prisons affect court sentencing? Work. Pap., Univ. Calif Los Angeles, CA: https://perma.cc/G64H-JVWD
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Doty RL, Wheatley ES. 2013. Private detention and the immigration industrial complex. Int. Political Sociol. 7:426–43
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Douglas KM, Sáenz R. 2013. The criminalization of immigrants & the immigration-industrial complex. Daedalus 142:199–227
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Eagly I, Shafer S, Whalley J 2018. Detaining families: a study of asylum adjudication in family detention. Calif. Law Rev. 106:785–868
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Eagly IV, Shafer S. 2015. A national study of access to counsel in immigration court. Univ. Pa. Law Rev. 164:1–92
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Enns PK. 2016. Incarceration Nation: How the United States Became the Most Punitive Democracy in the World New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Espenshade TJ. 1995. Using INS border apprehensions data to measure the flow of migrants crossing the U.S.-Mexico frontier. Int. Migr. Rev. 29:545–65
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Flynn MJ, Flynn MB 2017. Challenging Immigration Detention: Academics, Activists and Policy-Makers Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Furman R, Epps D, Lamphear G 2016. Detaining the Immigrant Other: Global and Transnational Issues New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Galinato GI, Rohla R. 2018. Do privately-owned prisons increase incarceration rates?Work. Pap. 2018-6 Sch. Econ. Sci., Wash. State Univ. https://perma.cc/XD5Z-H25A
    [Google Scholar]
  36. García Hernández CC. 2014. Immigration detention as punishment. UCLA Law Rev 61:1346–414
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Garland D. 1990. Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory Chicago: Univ. Chic. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gilman D, Romero LA. 2018. Immigration Detention, Inc. J. Migr. Hum. Secur. 6:145–60
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Gilman DL. 2016. To loose the bonds: the deceptive promise of freedom from pretrial immigration detention. Indiana Law J 92:157–225
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Gieselman J. 2018. An invisible wall: how language barriers block indigenous Latin American asylum-seekers. Transnatl. Law Contemp. Probl. 27:451–75
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Golash-Boza T, Hondagneu-Sotelo P. 2013. Latino immigrant men and the deportation crisis: a gendered racial removal program. Latino Stud 11:271–92
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Gordon C, Mailman S, Yale-Loehr S, Wada RY 2018. Detention of noncitizens. Immigration Law and ProcedureVol. 8, ed. S Yale-Loehr, RY Wada, S Mailman, chapter 108 San Francisco, CA: Matthew Bender & Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Gordon JA, Proulx B, Grant PH 2013. Trepidation among the “keepers”: gendered perceptions of fear and risk of victimization among corrections officers. Am. J. Crim. Justice 38:245–65
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Guia MJ, Koulish R, Mitsilegas V 2016. Immigration Detention, Risk and Human Rights New York: Springer Int. Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Gulasekaram P, Ramakrishnan KS. 2015. The New Immigration Federalism New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hall A. 2012. Border Watch: Cultures of Immigration, Detention and Control London: Pluto
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Heaton P, Mayson S, Stevenson M 2017. The downstream consequences of misdemeanor pretrial detention. Stanford Law Rev 69:711–94
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hedrick K. 2017. Getting out of (self-) harm's way: a study of factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention. J. Forensic Leg. Med. 49:89–93
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Hernandez v. Sessions 872 F.3d 976 (9th Cir. 2017)
  50. Hernández D, Eason JM, Goldsmith PR, Abel RD, McNeely A 2018. With mass deportation comes mass punishment. Routledge Handbook on Immigration and Crime HV Miller, A Peguero 260–69 New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hernández DM. 2013. Pursuant to deportation: Latinos and immigrant detention. Governing Immigration through Crime: A Reader JA Dowling, JX Inda 199–232 Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Hernández KL. 2017. City of Inmates: Conquest, Rebellion, and the Rise of Human Caging in Los Angeles, 1771–1965 Chapel Hill: Univ. N.C. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Hiemstra N. 2013. You don't even know where you are”: chaotic geographies of US migrant detention and deportation. Carceral Spaces: Mobility and Agency in Imprisonment and Migrant Detention D Moran, N Gill, D Conlon 57–75 Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Hiskey J, Córdova A, Malone M, Orcés D 2018. Leaving the devil you know: crime victimization, U.S. deterrence policy, and the emigration decisions in Central America. Lat. Am. Res. Rev. 53:429–47
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Home Off 2018. How many people are detained or returned? Natl. Stat., Home Off London: https://perma.cc/5PTM-A6MS
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Homel. Secur. Advis. Counc 2016. Report of the Subcommittee on Privatized Immigration Detention Facilities Rep., Homel. Secur. Advis. Counc Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/5FR5-JJY4
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Hum. Rights Watch 2018. Code red: the fatal consequences of dangerously substandard medical care in immigration detention Rep., Hum. Rights Watch New York: https://perma.cc/MT56-L3GE
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hum. Rights Watch, CIVIC 2017. Systemic indifference: dangerous & substandard medical care in US immigration detention Rep., Hum. Rights Watch New York: https://perma.cc/KT38-V53C
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Jaeger J. 2016. Securing communities or profits? The effects of federal-local partnerships on immigration enforcement. State Politics Policy Q 16:362–86
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Jennings v. Rodriguez 138 S.Ct 830 2018.
  61. Justice B, Meares TL. 2014. How the criminal justice system educates citizens. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 651:159–77
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kalhan A. 2010. Rethinking immigration detention. Columbia Law Rev. Sidebar 110:42–58
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Keller AS, Rosenfeld B, Trinh-Shevrin C, Meserve C, Sachs E et al. 2003. Mental health of detained asylum seekers. Lancet 362:1721–23
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kirk DS, Wakefield S. 2018. Collateral consequences of punishment: a critical review and path forward. Annu. Rev. Criminol. 1:171–94
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Koulish R. 2016. Using risk to assess the legal violence of mandatory detention. Laws 5:1–20
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Kronick R, Rousseau C, Cleveland J 2018. Refugee children's sandplay narratives in immigration detention in Canada. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 27:423–37
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Lambert EG, Hogan NL, Griffin ML 2007. The impact of distributive and procedural justice on correctional staff job stress, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. J. Crim. Justice 35:644–56
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Lee E, Yung J. 2010. Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Legomsky SH. 1999. The detention of aliens: theories, rules, and discretion. Univ. Miami Inter-Am. Law Rev. 30:531–49
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Legomsky SH. 2007. The new path of immigration law: asymmetric incorporation of criminal justice norms. Washington Lee Law Rev 64:469–528
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Leng May Ma v. Barber 327 U.S. 185 1958.
  72. Linton JM, Griffin M, Shapiro AJ 2017. Detention of immigrant children. Pediatrics 139:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Macías-Rojas P. 2016. From Deportation to Prison: The Politics of Immigration Enforcement in Post-Civil Rights America New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Marouf FE. 2017. Alternatives to immigration detention. Cardozo Law Rev 38:101–52
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Martin L. 2017. Discretion, contracting and commodification: privatisation of US immigration detention as a technology of government. Intimate Economies of Immigration Detention: Critical Perspectives D Conlon, N Hiemstra 32–50 New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Martin LL. 2012. “Catch and remove”: detention, deterrence, and discipline in US noncitizen family detention practice. Geopolitics 17:312–34
    [Google Scholar]
  77. McGregor J. 2011. Contestations and consequences of deportability: hunger strikes and the political agency of non-citizens. Citizensh. Stud. 15:597–611
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Menjívar C. 2014. Immigration law beyond borders: externalizing and internalizing border controls in an era of securitization. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 10:353–69
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Menjívar C, Abrego LJ, Schmalzbauer LC 2016. Immigrant Families Malden, MA: Polity
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Migr. Policy Inst 2017. Top 25 Destinations of International Migrants Washington, DC: Migr. Policy Inst https://perma.cc/GUB6-8BZR
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Migr. Refug. Serv., US Conf. Cathol. Bishops, Cent. Migr. Stud 2015. Unlocking human dignity: a plan to transform the US immigrant detention system. J. Migr. Hum. Secur 3:159–204
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Minn. Lawyers Int. Hum. Rights Comm 1987. Oakdale Detention Center: The First Year of Operation Minneapolis: Minn. Lawyers Int. Hum. Rights Comm.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Moinester M. 2018. Beyond the border and into the heartland: spatial patterning of U.S. immigration detention. Demography 55:1147–93
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Moran D, Conlon D, Gill N 2013. Introduction. Carceral Spaces: Mobility and Agency in Imprisonment and Migrant Detention D Moran, D Conlon, N Gill 1–9 Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Mountz A, Coddington K, Catania RT, Lloyd JM 2012. Conceptualizing detention: mobility, containment, bordering, and exclusion. Prog. Hum. Geogr. 37:522–41
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Muller C, Schrage D. 2014. Mass imprisonment and trust in the law. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 651:139–58
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Musalo K, Lee E. 2017. Seeking a rational approach to a regional refugee crisis: lessons from the summer 2014 “surge” of Central American women and children at the US-Mexico border. J. Migr. Hum. Secur. 5:137–79
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Noferi M, Koulish R. 2014. The immigration detention risk assessment. Georgetown Immigr. Law J. 29:45–94
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Off. Immigr. Stat 2017. 2016 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur https://perma.cc/PC66-WTYW
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Off. Insp. Gen 2015. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement's Alternatives to Detention (Revised) Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Off. Insp. Gen 2017. Concerns about ICE Detainee Treatment and Care at Detention Facilities Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Off. Insp. Gen 2018a. ICE's Inspections and Monitoring of Detention Facilities Do Not Lead to Sustained Compliance or Systematic Improvements Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Off. Insp. Gen 2018b. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Did Not Follow Federal Procurement Guidelines When Contracting for Detention Services Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Penn State Law Cent. Immigr. Rights Clin 2017. Imprisoned Justice: Inside Two Georgia Immigrant Detention Centers Atlanta: Proj. South https://perma.cc/57ZK-SWEY
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Pérez-Armendáriz C, Crow D. 2010. Do migrants remit democracy? International migration, political beliefs, and behavior in Mexico. Comp. Political Stud. 43:119–48
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Phillips S, Hagan JM, Rodriguez N 2006. Brutal borders? Examining the treatment of deportees during arrest and detention. Soc. Forces 85:93–109
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Preston J. 2014. Detention center presented as deterrent to border crossings. New York Times https://perma.cc/2L42-8CF4
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Provine DM, Varsanyi MW, Lewis PG, Decker SH 2016. Policing Immigrants: Local Law Enforcement on the Front Lines Chicago: Univ. Chic. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Rabin N. 2009. Unseen prisoners: women in immigration detention facilities in Arizona. Georgetown Immigr. Law J 23:695–763
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Ramji-Nogales J, Schoenholtz AI, Schrag PG 2009. Refugee Roulette: Disparities in Asylum Adjudication and Proposals for Reform New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Riva S. 2017. Across the border and into the cold: hieleras and the punishment of asylum-seeking Central American women in the United States. Citizensh. Stud. 21:309–26
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Robjant K, Robbins I, Senior V 2009. Psychological distress among immigration detainees: a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 48:275–86
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Rojas-Flores L, Clements ML, Koo JH 2017. Trauma and psychological distress in Latino citizen children following parental detention and deportation. Psychol. Trauma 9:352–61
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Rosenblum MR, Meissner D. 2014. The deportation dilemma: reconciling tough and humane enforcement Rep., Migr. Policy Inst Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/SRT2-57LZ
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Rugh JS, Hall M. 2016. Deporting the American dream: immigration enforcement and Latino foreclosures. Sociol. Sci. 3:1053–76
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Ryo E. 2013. Deciding to cross: norms and economics of unauthorized migration. Am. Sociol. Rev. 78:574–603
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Ryo E. 2016. Detained: a study of immigration bond hearings. Law Soc. Rev. 50:117–53
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Ryo E. 2017a. Fostering legal cynicism through immigration detention. South. Calif. Law Rev. 90:999–1053
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Ryo E. 2017b. Legal attitudes of immigrant detainees. Law Soc. Rev. 51:99–131
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Ryo E. 2018. Representing immigrants: the role of lawyers in immigration bond hearings. Law Soc. Rev. 52:503–31
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Ryo E. 2019a. Predicting danger in immigration courts. Law Soc. Inq. 44:227–56
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Ryo E. 2019b. Detention as deterrence. Stanford Law Rev. Online 71:237–50
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Ryo E, Peacock I. 2018a. A national study of immigration detention in the United States. South. Calif. Law Rev. 92:1–67
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Ryo E, Peacock I. 2018b. Jailing immigrant detainees Presented at Incarceration: A Vera Institute of Justice Research Symposium New York: Oct 25–26
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Ryo E, Peacock I. 2019. Beyond the walls: the importance of community contexts in immigration detention. Am. Behav. Sci. In press
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Schriro D. 2015. Improving conditions of confinement for immigrant detainees. The New Deportations Delirium: Interdisciplinary Responses D Kanstroom, MB Lykes 57–88 New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Sen P, Arugnanaseelan J, Connell E, Katona CK, Khan AA et al. 2018. Mental health morbidity among people subject to immigration detention in the UK: a feasibility study. Epidemiol. Psychiatr. Sci. 27:628–37
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Silove D, Steel Z, Watters C 2000. Politics of deterrence and the mental health of asylum seekers. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 284:604–11
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Silverman SJ, Massa E. 2012. Why immigration detention is unique. Popul. Space Place 18:677–86
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Sinha A. 2015. Slavery by another name: “voluntary” immigrant detainee labor and the Thirteenth Amendment. Stanford J. Civ. Rights Civ. Lib. 11:1–44
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Smith HR. 2018. Expedited removal of aliens: legal framework CRS Rep., Congr. Res. Serv Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/9EHV-884W
    [Google Scholar]
  122. South. Poverty Law Cent., Natl. Immigr. Proj. Natl. Lawyers Guild, Adelante Ala. Work. Cent 2016. Shadow prisons: immigrant detention in the South Rep., South. Poverty Law Cent., Montgomery, AL. https://perma.cc/2GMD-M9RD
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Stevens J. 2015. One dollar per day: the slaving wages of immigration jail, 1943–present. Georgetown Immigr. Law J. 29:391–500
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Stumpf J. 2006. The crimmigration crisis: immigrants, crime, and sovereign power. Am. Univ. Law Rev. 56:367–419
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Tabak S, Levitana R. 2014. LGBTI migrants in immigration detention: a global perspective. Harvard J. Law Gend. 37:1–44
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Taylor MH. 1995. Detained aliens challenging conditions of confinement and the porous border of the plenary power doctrine. Hastings Const. Law Q. 22:1087–158
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Teicher MH. 2018. Childhood trauma and the enduring consequences of forcibly separating children from parents at the United States border. BMC Med 16:146–48
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Terrio SJ. 2015. Whose Child Am I? Unaccompanied, Undocumented Children in U.S. Immigration Custody Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Torrey PL. 2015. Rethinking immigration's mandatory detention regime: politics, profit, and the meaning of “custody. Univ. Mich. J. Law Reform 48:879–913
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Travis J, Western B, Redburn S 2014. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  131. UNHCR 2012. Detention Guidelines: Guidelines on the Applicable Criteria and Standards relating to the Detention of Asylum-Seekers and Alternatives to Detention Geneva: UNHCR https://perma.cc/8PXV-997Q
    [Google Scholar]
  132. UNHCR, OHCHR 2011. Global roundtable on alternatives to detention of asylum-seekers, refugees, migrants and stateless persons Summ., UNHCR, Geneva. https://perma.cc/VE5U-5SB2
    [Google Scholar]
  133. US Cust. Bord. Patrol 2017. CBP Border Security Report: Fiscal Year 2017 Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur https://perma.cc/9FX2-6AW5
    [Google Scholar]
  134. US Dep. Homel. Secur 2018. Frequently Asked Questions: Immigration Enforcement Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur https://perma.cc/UR43-PDBT
    [Google Scholar]
  135. US Gov. Account. Off 2014. Alternatives to detention: improved data collection and analyses needed to better assess program effectiveness Rep. Congr. Comm., US Gov. Account. Off Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/EK87-YWLA
    [Google Scholar]
  136. US Immigr. Cust. Enforc 2011. ERO Facts and Statistics Washington, DC: US Dep. Homel. Secur https://perma.cc/S9V9-2EWE
    [Google Scholar]
  137. US Immigr. Cust. Enforc 2017a. Fiscal year 2017 ICE enforcement and removal operations report Rep., US Immigr. Cust. Enforc Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/W4JW-EJJD
    [Google Scholar]
  138. US Immigr. Cust. Enforc 2017b. List of Deaths in ICE Custody—Data from 10/01/2003 to 6/05/2017 Washington, DC: US Immigr. Cust. Enforc https://perma.cc/BK4P-SYEL
    [Google Scholar]
  139. US Immigr. Cust. Enforc 2018. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement budget overview: fiscal year 2019 Congr. Justif., US Dep. Homel. Secur Washington, DC: https://perma.cc/Z5JW-NN5B
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Valdez CR, Padilla B, Valentine JL 2013. Consequences of Arizona's immigration policy on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigration status. Hisp. J. Behav. Sci. 35:303–22
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Venters HD, Foote M, Keller AS 2011. Medical advocacy on behalf of detained immigrants. J. Immigr. Minor. Health 13:625–28
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Viljoen JL, Cochrane DM, Jonnson MR 2018. Do risk assessment tools help manage and reduce risk of violence and reoffending? A systematic review. Law Hum. Behav. 42:181–214
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Vuolo M, Kruttschnitt C. 2008. Prisoners’ adjustment, correctional officers, and context: the foreground and background of punishment in late modernity. Law Soc. Rev. 42:307–36
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Wallace M, Hernández CI. 2017. Language access for asylum seekers in borderland detention centers in Texas. J. Lang. Law 68:143–56
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Weaver VM, Lerman AE. 2010. Political consequences of the carceral state. Am. Political Sci. Rev. 104:817–33
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Welch M. 2002. Detained: Immigration Laws and the Expanding INS Jail Complex Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Wildeman C, Fitzpatrick MD, Goldman AW 2018. Conditions of confinement in American prisons and jails. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 14:29–47
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Wilsher D. 2012. Immigration Detention: Law, History, Politics New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Wong TK. 2018. Do family separation and detention deter immigration. Center for American Progress July 24. https://perma.cc/EXR5-7VGL
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Zayas LH, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Yoon H, Natera Rey G 2015. The distress of citizen-children with detained and deported parents. J. Child Fam. Stud. 24:3213–23
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042743
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042743
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error