1932

Abstract

This article charts the trajectory of the judicialization of health care from the perspective of Global South countries. It shows how the emergence of health rights litigation in the 1990s and early 2000s was bolstered by the global expansion of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and by major constitutional reforms that triggered a period of rights revolutions in South Africa and several Latin American countries. This article also tracks the litigation epidemic in countries like Colombia and Brazil, where the escalation of health rights lawsuits is threatening the financial stability of health systems and the fair allocation of scarce health resources. It concludes by discussing a fundamental challenge confronting the field, namely, how to look upstream for new approaches to the right to health to reinstate litigation and adjudication as mechanisms to promote more equitable health systems.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113303
2017-10-13
2024-07-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lawsocsci/13/1/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113303.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113303&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abramovich V, Pautassi L. 2009. El rol de la justicia en la articulación de políticas y derechos sociales. La Revisión Judicial de las Políticas Sociales: Estudio de Casos Buenos Aires: Ed. Puerto [Google Scholar]
  2. Andia T. 2011. The invisible threat: the rise of non-intellectual property and non-trade pharmaceutical regulations in Colombia. Intellectual Property, Pharmaceuticals and Public Health: Access to Drugs in Developing Countries K Shadlen 77–110 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  3. Andia Rey TS. 2009. Reportes de ventas de solo 7 productos equivalen a 22% de los COL $1.115.000.000.000 recobrados al FOSYGA en 2008. Bol. Inform. Salud 19:37/2009 http://www.med-informatica.net/BIS/WebMail_07a13sep09.htm [Google Scholar]
  4. Andreassen B-A, Skalnes T, Smith AG, Stokke H. 1987. Assessing human rights performance in developing countries: the case for a minimal threshold approach. Hum. Rights Dev. Ctries. 88:333–55 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bergallo P. 2011. Argentina: courts and the right to health: achieving fairness despite “routinization”?. See Yamin & Gloppen 2011 43–75
  6. Berger J. 2008. Litigating for social justice in post-Apartheid South Africa. See Gauri & Brinks 2008 38–99
  7. Biehl J. 2007. Will to Live: AIDS Therapies and the Politics of Survival Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  8. Biehl J. 2009. Judicialisation of the right to health in Brazil. Lancet 373:2182–84 [Google Scholar]
  9. Biehl J, Amon JJ, Socal MP, Petryna A. 2012. Between the court and the clinic: lawsuits for medicines and the right to health in Brazil. Health Hum. Rights Int. J. 14:E36–52 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bignami F, Spivack C. 2014. Social and economic rights as fundamental rights. Am. J. Comp. Law 62:1561–87 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bilchitz D. 2008. Poverty and Fundamental Rights: The Justification and Enforcement of Socio-Economic Rights Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  12. Borges DDaCL. 2007. Uma análise das ações judiciais para o fornecimento de medicamentos no âmbito do SUS: o caso do Estado do Rio de Janeiro no ano de 2005 PhD Diss., Esc. Nac. Saúde Pública, Fund. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Braz. [Google Scholar]
  13. Brinks DM, Forbath W. 2013. The role of courts and constitutions in the new politics of welfare in Latin America. Law and Development of Middle-Income Countries R Peerenboom, T Ginsburg 221–45 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Brinks DM, Gauri V. 2014. The law's majestic equality? The distributive impact of judicializing social and economic rights. Perspect. Politics 12:375–93 doi:10.1017/S1537592714000887 [Google Scholar]
  15. Brinks DM, Gauri V, Shen K. 2015. Social rights constitutionalism: negotiating the tension between the universal and the particular. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 11:289–308 [Google Scholar]
  16. Brooks SM. 2009. Social Protection and the Market in Latin America: The Transformation of Social Security Institutions Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Cepeda MJ. 2004. Judicial activism in a violent context: the origin, role, and impact of the Colombian Constitutional Court. Wash. Univ. Glob. Stud. Law Rev. 3:529–700 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chapman AR, Forman L, Lamprea E. 2015. Evaluating essential health packages from a human rights perspective. J. Hum. Rights 16:142–59 [Google Scholar]
  19. Chieffi AL, Barata RB. 2009. Judicialização da política pública de assistência farmacêutica e eqüidade [“Judicialization” of public health policy for distribution of medicines]. Cad. Saúde Pública 25:1839–49 [Google Scholar]
  20. Clark MA. 2002. Health sector reform in Costa Rica: reinforcing a public system Prep. Woodrow Wilson Cent. Workshops Politics Educ Health Reforms Washington, DC: [Google Scholar]
  21. Contesse J, Parmo DL. 2008. Access to medical treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS: success without victory in Chile. Sur Rev. Int. Direitos Hum. 5:150–69 [Google Scholar]
  22. Daniels N. 2000. Is Inequality Bad for Our Health Boston: Beacon [Google Scholar]
  23. Davis DM. 2007. Socio-economic rights: the promise and limitation—the South African experience. Exploring Social Rights: Between Theory and Practice D Barak-Erez, AM Gross 193–212 Oxford, UK: Hart [Google Scholar]
  24. Dixon R. 2007. Creating dialogue about socioeconomic rights: strong-form versus weak-form judicial review revisited. Int. J. Const. Law 391:5391–418 [Google Scholar]
  25. Duran Ferreira C, Ferrao B. 2004. O judiciário e as políticas públicas de saúde no Brasil: O caso AIDS. Prêmio IPEA, 40 Anos387–431 Brazil: IPEA [Google Scholar]
  26. Enthoven AC. 1993. The history and principles of managed competition. Health Aff 12:24–48 [Google Scholar]
  27. Epp C. 1998. The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists, and Supreme Courts in Comparative Perspective Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  28. Falleti T. 2010. Infiltrating the state: the evolution of health care reforms in Brazil, 1964–1988. Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power J Mahoney, K Thelen 38–62 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  29. Farmer P. 2003. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  30. Ferraz O. 2009. The right to health in the courts of Brazil: Worsening health inequities. Health Hum. Rights 11:33–45 [Google Scholar]
  31. Ferraz O. 2011a. Harming the poor through social rights litigation: lessons from Brazil. Tex. Law Rev. 89:1643–68 [Google Scholar]
  32. Ferraz O. 2011b. Brazil: health inequalities, rights and courts. Litigating Health Rights: Can Courts Bring More Justice to Health? A Yamin, S Gloppen 76–103 Cambridge, MA: Hum. Rights Progr., Harvard Law School [Google Scholar]
  33. Flood CM, Gross A. 2014a. Litigating the right to health: What can we learn from a comparative law and health care systems approach?. Health Hum. Rights 16:62–72 [Google Scholar]
  34. Flood CM, Gross A. 2014b. The Right to Health at the Public/Private Divide: A Global Comparative Study Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  35. Flood CM, Haugan A. 2010. Is Canada odd? A comparison of European and Canadian approaches to choice and regulation of the public/private divide in health care. Health Econ. Policy Law 5:319–41 [Google Scholar]
  36. Flynn M. 2013. Origins and limitations of state-based advocacy Brazil's AIDS treatment program and global power dynamics. Politics Soc 41:3–28 [Google Scholar]
  37. Forman L. 2005. Ensuring reasonable health: health rights, the judiciary, and South African HIV/AIDS policy. J. Law Med. Ethics 33711–24 [Google Scholar]
  38. Forman L. 2008a. Justice and justiciability: advancing solidarity and justice through South Africans' right to health jurisprudence. Med. Law 27661–83 [Google Scholar]
  39. Forman L. 2008b. “Rights” and wrongs: What utility for the right to health in reforming trade rules on medicines?. Health Hum. Rights 10:37–52 [Google Scholar]
  40. Forman L, Caraoshi L, Chapman AR, Lamprea E. 2016. Conceptualising minimum core obligations under the right to health: How should we define and implement the “morality of the depths”. Int. J. Hum. Rights 20:531–48 doi:10.1080/13642987.2015.1128137 [Google Scholar]
  41. Forman L, Singh J. 2014. The role of rights and litigation in assuring more equitable access to health care in South Africa. See Flood & Gross 2014b 288–318
  42. Galanter M. 1974. Why the “haves” come out ahead: speculations on the limits of legal change. Law Soc. Rev. 9:195–160 [Google Scholar]
  43. Gargarella R. 2011. Dialogic justice in the enforcement of social rights: some initial arguments. See Yamin & Gloppen 2011 232–45
  44. Gauri V, Brinks DM. 2008. Courting Social Justice: Judicial Enforcement of Social and Economic Rights in the Developing World Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  45. Ginsburg T. 2013. The politics of law and development in middle-income countries. Law and Development of Middle-Income Countries R Peerenboom, T Ginsburg 221–45 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  46. Gloppen S. 2008. Litigation as a strategy to hold governments accountable for implementing the right to health. Health Hum. Rights 10:21–36 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gloppen S. 2011. Litigating health rights: framing the analysis. See Yamin & Gloppen 2011 17–42
  48. Gloppen S, Roseman M. 2011. Litigating the right to health: Are transnational actors backseat driving?. See Yamin & Gloppen 2011 246–72
  49. Groote T, Unger J-P. 2005. Colombia: in vivo test of health sector privatization in the developing world. Int. J. Health Serv. 35:125–41 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gross A, Barak-Erez D. 2007. Introduction: Do we need social rights?. Exploring Social Rights: Between Theory and Practice Oxford, UK: Hart [Google Scholar]
  51. Hirschl R. 2009. Towards Juristocracy: The Origins and Consequences of the New Constitutionalism Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  52. Hirschl R. 2011. The judicialization of politics. The Oxford Handbook of Political Science R Goodin 253–375 Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  53. Hoffman AK. 2014. A vision of an emerging right to health care in the US: expanding health care equity through legislative reform. The Right to Health at the Public/Private Divide: A Global Comparative Study CM Flood, A Gross 345–70 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  54. Hoffman FF, Bentes FR. 2008. Accountability for social and economic rights in Brazil. See Gauri & Brinks 2008 100–45
  55. Homedes N, Ugalde A. 2005. Why neoliberal health reforms have failed in Latin America. Health Policy 71:83–96 [Google Scholar]
  56. Horgerzeil H, Samson M, Vidal J, Rahmani-Ocora L. 2006. Is access to essential medicines as part of the fulfillment of the right to health enforceable through the courts. Lancet 368:305–11 [Google Scholar]
  57. Joint UN Progr. HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 2015. How AIDS Changed Everything. Geneva: UNAIDS [Google Scholar]
  58. Jung C, Rosevear E. 2011. Economic and social rights in developing country constitutions: preliminary report on the TIESR dataset Draft Comment, Univ Tor., Tor., Can.: [Google Scholar]
  59. Keck ME, Sikkink K. 1999. Transnational advocacy networks in international and regional politics. Int. Soc. Sci. J. 51:89–101 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kurtz MJ, Brooks SM. 2008. Embedding neoliberal reform in Latin America. World Politics 60:231–80 [Google Scholar]
  61. Lamprea E. 2014. Colombia's right-to-health litigation in a context of health care reform. The Right to Health at the Public/Private Divide: A Global Comparative Study C Flood, A Gross 131–59 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  62. Lamprea E. 2015. Derechos en la Práctica Bogotá: Los Andes Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  63. Lamprea E. 2016. Structural reform litigation, regulation and the right to health in Colombia. Comparative Law and Regulation: Understanding the Global Regulatory Process F Bignami, D Zaring 335–52 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  64. Lamprea E, García J. 2016. Closing the gap between formal and material health care coverage in Colombia. Health Hum. Rights 18:49–65 [Google Scholar]
  65. Landau D. 2005. The two discourses in Colombian constitutional jurisprudence: a new approach to modeling judicial behavior in Latin America. George Wash. Int. Law Rev. 37:687 [Google Scholar]
  66. Langford M. 2008. Social Rights Jurisprudence: Emerging Trends in International and Comparative Law Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  67. Lind A-S. 2014. The right to health in Sweden. See Flood & Gross 2014b 51–78
  68. Lobato L, Burlandy L. 2000. The context and process of health care reform in Brazil. Reshaping Health Care in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis of Health Care Reform in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico S Fleury, E Baris, S Belmartino 79–100 Ottawa: Int. Dev. Res. Cent. [Google Scholar]
  69. Méndez J, Zapata J, Castañeda C, Fonseca S. 2012. La Sostenibilidad Financiera del Sistema de Salud Colombiano–Dinámica del gasto y Principales Retos de Cara al Futuro Bogotá: Fedesarrollo [Google Scholar]
  70. Messeder AM, Osorio-de-Castro CGS, Luiza VL. 2005. Mandados judiciais como ferramenta para garantia do acesso a medicamentos no setor público: a experiência do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Cad. Saúde Pública 21:525–34 [Google Scholar]
  71. Michelman FI. 1979. Welfare rights in a constitutional democracy. Wash. Univ. Law Q. 1979:659–93 [Google Scholar]
  72. Michelman FI. 2008. Socioeconomic rights in constitutional law: explaining America away. Int. J. Const. Law 6:3-4663–86 [Google Scholar]
  73. Moestad O, Ferraz O, Rakner L. 2011. Assessing the impact of health rights litigation: a comparative analysis of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, India and South Africa. See Yamin & Gloppen 2011 273–304
  74. Montenegro Torres F. 2013. Costa Rica case study: primary health care achievements and challenges within the framework of the social health insurance Work. Pap., World Bank Washington, DC: [Google Scholar]
  75. Mota Prado M. 2013. The debatable role of courts in Brazil's health care system: Does litigation harm or help. J. Law. Med. Ethics 41124–37 [Google Scholar]
  76. Mota Prado M. 2014. Provision of health care services and the right to health in Brazil: the long, winding and uncertain road to equality. See Flood & Gross 2014b 319–44
  77. Nedwick C. 2014. Promoting access and equity in health: assessing the National Health Service in England. See Flood & Gross 2014b 107–30
  78. Norheim OF, Wilson B. 2014. Health rights litigation and access to medicines: priority classification of successful cases from Costa Rica's constitutional chamber of the supreme court. Health Hum. Rights 16:E47–61 [Google Scholar]
  79. Nunn A. 2009. The Politics and History of AIDS Treatment in Brazil New York: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  80. Örücü E. 1986. The core of rights and freedoms: the limits of limits. Human Rights: From Rhetoric to Reality T Campbell, D Goldberg, S McLean, T Mullen New York: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  81. Paim J, Travassos C, Almeida C, Bahia L, Macinko J. 2011. The Brazilian health system: history, advances, and challenges. Lancet 9799:1778–97 [Google Scholar]
  82. Paris V, Devaux M, Wei L. 2010. Health systems institutional characteristics: a survey of 29 OECD countries Work. Pap., Org. Econ. Co-op. Dev Paris: [Google Scholar]
  83. Parmar S, Wahi N. 2011. India: citizens, courts and the right to health: between promise and progress?. See Yamin & Gloppen 2011 155–89
  84. Peerenboom R. 2013. Law and development in middle-income countries. Law and Development of Middle-Income Countries R Peerenboom, T Ginsburg 221–45 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  85. Petryna A. 2002. Life Exposed: Biological Citizens after Chernobyl Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  86. Petryna A. 2009. When Experiments Travel: Clinical Trials and the Global Search for Human Subjects Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  87. Petryna A, Kleinman A. 2006. The pharmaceutical nexus. Global Pharmaceuticals: Ethics, Markets, Practices A Lakoff, A Petryna, A Kleinman 1–32 Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  88. Pieterse M. 2004a. Coming to terms with judicial enforcement of socio-economic rights. Afr. J. Hum. Rights 20:383 [Google Scholar]
  89. Pieterse M. 2004b. Possibilities and pitfalls in the domestic enforcement of social rights: contemplating the South African experience. Hum. Rights Q. 26:882–905 [Google Scholar]
  90. Rodriguez-Garavito C. 2011. Beyond the courtroom: the impact of judicial activism on socioeconomic rights in Latin America. Tex. Rev. 89:1669–98 [Google Scholar]
  91. Rodríguez-Garavito C. 2013. The judicialization of health care. Law and Development of Middle-Income Countries R Peerenboom, T Ginsburg 221–45 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  92. Rosenberg MB. 1981. Social reform in Costa Rica: social security and the presidency of Rafael Angel Calderon. Hisp. Am. Hist. Rev. 61:278–96 [Google Scholar]
  93. Sabel CF, Simon WH. 2004. Destabilization rights: how public law litigation succeeds. Harvard Law Rev 117:1015–101 [Google Scholar]
  94. Scheffer M. 2005. O Remédio Via Justiça: Um estudo sobre o acesso a novos medicamentos e exames em HIV/Aids no Brasil por meio de ações judiciais Bras., DF: Minist. Saúde [Google Scholar]
  95. Scheingold S. 2004. The Politics of Rights: Lawyers, Public Policy, and Political Change Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  96. Scheingold SA, Sarat A. 2004. Something to BelieveIn. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  97. Schor M. 2009. An essay on the emergence of constitutional courts: the cases of Mexico and Colombia. Indiana J. Glob. Legal Stud. 16:173–94 [Google Scholar]
  98. Shue H. 1980. Basic rights: Subsistence, Affluence, and U.S. Foreign Policy Princeton NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  99. Sunstein CR. 1999. Social and economic rights? Lessons from South Africa. Const. Forum 11:123–32 [Google Scholar]
  100. Syrett K. 2007. Law, Legitimacy, and the Rationing of Healthcare: A Contextual and Comparative Perspective Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  101. Tate C, Vallinder T. 1995. The Global Expansion of Judicial Power New York: NYU Press [Google Scholar]
  102. Teixeira PR, Vitória MA, Barcarolo J. 2003. The Brazilian experience in providing universal access to antiretroviral therapy. Economics of AIDS and Access to HIV/AIDS Care in Developing Countries: Issues and Challenges Agence Natl. Rech. Sida 69–88 Geneva: Int. AIDS Econ. Netw. [Google Scholar]
  103. Tushnet M. 2009. Weak Courts, Strong Rights: Judicial Review and Social Welfare Rights in Comparative Constitutional Law Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  104. Uprimny R. 2006. Should courts enforce social rights? The experience of the Colombian Constitutional Court. Justiciability of Economic and Social Rights: Experiences from Domestic Systems F Coomans 355–88 Antwerp, Belg: Intersentia [Google Scholar]
  105. Vallinder T. 1994. The judicialization of politics. A worldwide phenomenon: introduction. Int. Political Sci. Rev. 15:291–99 [Google Scholar]
  106. Vieira F. 2009. Gasto do Ministério da Saúde com Medicamentos: tendência dos programas de 2002 a 2007. Rev. Saúde Pública 43:1674–81 [Google Scholar]
  107. Vieira FS, Zucchi P. 2007. Distorções causadas pelas ações judiciais à política de medicamentos no Brasil. Rev. Saúde Pública 41:214–22 [Google Scholar]
  108. Waldron J. 2006. The core of the case against judicial review. Yale Law J 115:61346–406 [Google Scholar]
  109. Wang DW. 2013. Courts and health care rationing: the case of the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court. Health Econ. Policy Law 8:75–93 [Google Scholar]
  110. Weyland K. 1995. Social movements and the state: the politics of health reform in Brazil. World Dev 23:1699–712 [Google Scholar]
  111. Wilson B. 2009. Institutional reform and rights revolutions in Latin America: the cases of Cost Rica and Colombia. J. Politics Lat. Am. 1:259–85 [Google Scholar]
  112. Wilson B. 2011. Costa Rica, health rights litigation: causes and consequences. See Yamin & Gloppen 2011 132–54
  113. World Health Organ. 2014. NHA indicators Glob. Health Expend. Database, Geneva, accessed Nov. 3, 2017. http://apps.who.int/nha/database/ViewData/Indicators/en [Google Scholar]
  114. Yamin A. 2011. Power, suffering, and courts: reflections on promoting health rights through judicialization. See Yamin & Gloppen 2011 333–72
  115. Yamin A. 2014. Promoting equity in health: What role for courts. Health Hum. Rights 16:1–9 [Google Scholar]
  116. Yamin A, Gloppen S. 2011. Litigating Health Rights: Can Courts Bring More Justice to Health? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  117. Yamin A, Parra-Vera O. 2010. Judicial protection of the right to health in Colombia: from social demands to individual claims to public debates. Hastings Int. Comp. Rev. 33:431–59 [Google Scholar]
  118. Yamin A, Parra-Vera O, Gianella C. 2011. Colombia: judicial protection of the right to health. See Yamin & Gloppen 2011 103–31
  119. Young K. 2008. The minimum core of economic and social rights: a concept in search of content. Yale J. Int. Law 33:113–75 [Google Scholar]
  120. Young K, Lemaitre J. 2013. The comparative fortunes of the right to health: two tales of justiciability in Colombia and South Africa. Harvard Hum. Rights J. 26:179–216 [Google Scholar]
  121. Zamora S, Cossio J-R. 2005. Mexican Law Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  122. Zaring D. 2004. National rulemaking through trial courts: the big case and institutional reform. UCLA Law Rev 51:1015–78 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113303
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error