1932

Abstract

Scholarship on local transitional justice efforts has proliferated over the past two decades. This article summarizes and synthesizes this growing body of work. It begins by addressing the conceptualization of the local, which to date has been loosely and ambiguously defined. Rather than viewing the local as a spatial level or as based on tradition, the review suggests that transitional justice approaches are local to the extent that () survivors have agency and power and () their experiences and outcomes are prioritized. Taking this conceptualization seriously, the review examines how local transitional justice varies in terms of ownership and implementation, forms and mechanisms, and effects on survivors, ending with additional suggestions for future research.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113444
2017-10-13
2024-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lawsocsci/13/1/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113444.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113444&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aiken NT. 2010. Learning to live together: transitional justice and intergroup reconciliation in Northern Ireland. Int. J. Transit. Justice 4:166–88 [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen T. 2008. Ritual (ab)use? Problems with traditional justice in Northern Uganda. Courting Conflict: Justice, Peace and the ICC in Africa N Waddell, P Clark 47–54 London: R. Afr. Soc. [Google Scholar]
  3. Androff DK. 2012. Reconciliation in a community-based restorative justice intervention. J. Sociol. Soc. Welf. 39:73–96 [Google Scholar]
  4. An-Na'im AA. 2013. Editorial note: from the neocolonial “transitional” to indigenous formations of justice. Int. J. Transit. Justice 7:197–204 [Google Scholar]
  5. Annan K. 2004. The rule of law and transitional justice in conflict and post-conflict societies Rep. Secr.-Gen. S/2004/616 United Nations, New York:
  6. Anyeko K, Baines E, Komakech E, Ojok B, Ogora LO, Victor L. 2012. “The cooling of hearts”: community truth-telling in Northern Uganda. Human Rights Rev 13:107–24 [Google Scholar]
  7. Aoláin FN. 2009. Women, security, and the patriarchy of internationalized transitional justice. Hum. Rights Q. 31:1055–85 [Google Scholar]
  8. Arbour L. 2007. Economic and social justice for societies in transition. NYU J. Int. Law Polit. 40:1–27 [Google Scholar]
  9. Arriaza LJ, Roht-Arriaza N. 2010. Weaving a braid of histories: local post-armed conflict initiatives in Guatemala. See Shaw et al. 2010 205–27
  10. Arthur P. 2009. How “transitions” reshaped human rights: a conceptual history of transitional justice. Hum. Rights Q. 31:321–67 [Google Scholar]
  11. Arzt DE. 2006. Views on the ground: the local perception of international criminal tribunals in the former Yugoslavia and Sierra Leone. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 603:226–39 [Google Scholar]
  12. Baines EK. 2007. The haunting of Alice: local approaches to justice and reconciliation in Northern Uganda. Int. J. Transit. Justice 1:91–114 [Google Scholar]
  13. Baines EK. 2010. Spirits and social reconstruction after mass violence: rethinking transitional justice. Afr. Aff. 109:409–30 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bangura AK. 2008. The politics of the struggle to resolve the conflict in Uganda: Westerners pushing their legal approach versus Ugandans insisting on their mato oput. J. Pan Afr. Stud. 2:142–78 [Google Scholar]
  15. Barkan E. 2001. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
  16. Beitzel T, Castle T. 2013. Achieving justice through the International Criminal Court in northern Uganda: Is indigenous/restorative justice a better approach?. Int. Crim. Justice Rev. 23:41–55 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bell C, O'Rourke C. 2007. Does feminism need a theory of transitional justice? An introductory essay. Int. J. Transit. Justice 1:23–44 [Google Scholar]
  18. Berry M. 2018. War, Women and Power in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  19. Blattman C, Miguel E. 2010. Civil war. J. Econ. Lit. 48:3–57 [Google Scholar]
  20. Braithwaite J. 1989. Crime, Shame and Reintegration New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  21. Bratton M. 2011. Violence, partisanship and transitional justice in Zimbabwe. J. Mod. Afr. Stud. 49:353–80 [Google Scholar]
  22. Breen Smyth M. 2007. Truth Recovery and Justice After Conflict Abingdon, UK: Routledge
  23. Brewer JD. 2010. Peace Processes: A Sociological Approach Cambridge, UK: Polity
  24. Brewer JD, Hayes BC. 2011. Victims as moral beacons: victims and perpetrators in Northern Ireland. Contemp. Soc. Sci. 6:73–88 [Google Scholar]
  25. Brounéus K. 2008. Truth-telling as talking cure? Insecurity and retraumatization in the Rwandan gacaca courts. Secur. Dialogue 39:55–76 [Google Scholar]
  26. Brounéus K. 2010. The trauma of truth telling: effects of witnessing in the Rwandan Gacaca courts on psychological health. J. Confl. Resolut. 54:408–37 [Google Scholar]
  27. Bryson A. 2016. Victims, violence & voice: transitional justice, oral history & dealing with the past. Hastings Int. Comp. Law Rev. 39:299–54 [Google Scholar]
  28. Buckley-Zistel S, Beck TK, Braun C, Mieth F. 2014. Transitional Justice Theories New York: Routledge
  29. Buckley-Zistel S, Stanley R. 2011. Gender in Transitional Justice New York: Springer
  30. Burnet JE. 2008. The injustice of local justice: truth, reconciliation, and revenge in Rwanda. Genocide Stud. Prev. 3:173–93 [Google Scholar]
  31. Caswell M. 2014. Toward a survivor-centered approach to human rights archives: lessons from community-based archives. Arch. Sci. 14:307–22 [Google Scholar]
  32. Cavallaro JL. 2008. Looking backward to address the future?: transitional justice, rising crime and nation-building. Maine Law Rev 60:462–75 [Google Scholar]
  33. Chakravarty A. 2015. Investing in Authoritarian Rule: Punishment and Patronage in Rwanda's Gacaca Courts for Genocide Crimes New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  34. Chesterman S. 2004. You, the People: The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  35. Cilliers J, Dube O, Siddiqi B. 2016. Reconciling after civil conflict increases social capital but decreases individual well-being. Science 352:787–94 [Google Scholar]
  36. Clamp K. 2016. Restorative Justice in Transitional Settings New York: Routledge
  37. Clark P. 2010. The Gacaca Courts, Post-Genocide Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda: Justice Without Lawyers Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  38. Clark P, Kaufman ZD. 2009. After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond New York: Columbia Univ. Press
  39. Cobban H. 2007. Transitional justice and conflict termination: Mozambique, Rwanda and South Africa assessed. Atrocities and International Accountability: Beyond Transitional Justice E Hughes, WA Schabas, R Thakur 42–64 Tokyo: U.N. Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  40. Cohen D. 2007. Hybrid justice in East Timor, Sierra Leone, and Cambodia: lessons learned and prospects for the future. Stanford J. Int. Law 43:1–38 [Google Scholar]
  41. Cooke B, Kothari U. 2001. Participation: The New Tyranny? New York: Zed Books
  42. Daly E. 2001. Transformative justice: charting a path to reconciliation. Int. Legal Perspect. 12:73–183 [Google Scholar]
  43. Daly E. 2002. Between punitive and reconstructive justice: the Gacaca courts in Rwanda. N.Y. Univ. J. Int. Law Polit. 34:355–96 [Google Scholar]
  44. Darfurian Voices. 2011. Documenting Darfurian Refugees' Views on Issues of Peace, Justice, and Reconciliation http://www.24hoursfordarfur.org
  45. de Greiff P, Duthie R. 2009. Transitional Justice and Development: Making the Connections New York: SSRC
  46. Donais T. 2009. Empowerment or imposition? Dilemmas of local ownership in post-conflict peacebuilding processes. Peace Change 34:3–26 [Google Scholar]
  47. Elster J. 2004. Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  48. Eriksson A. 2009. A bottom-up approach to transformative justice in Northern Ireland. Int. J. Transit. Justice 3:301–20 [Google Scholar]
  49. Fletcher LE, Weinstein HM. 2002. Violence and social repair: rethinking the contribution of justice to reconciliation. Hum. Rights Q. 24:573–639 [Google Scholar]
  50. Fletcher LE, Weinstein HM. 2004. A world unto itself? The application of international justice in the former Yugoslavia. My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity E Stover, HM Weinstein 29–48 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  51. Fujii LA. 2011. Killing Neighbors: Webs of Violence in Rwanda Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
  52. Glasius M. 2009. What is global justice and who decides?: Civil society and victim responses to the International Criminal Court's first investigations. Hum. Rights Q. 31:496–520 [Google Scholar]
  53. Goodale M. 2007. Locating rights, envisioning law between the global and the local. The Practice of Human Rights: Tracking Law Between the Global and the Local M Goodale, SE Merry 1–38 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  54. Govier T, Verwoerd W. 2004. How not to polarize “victims” and “perpetrators.”. Peace Rev 16:371–77 [Google Scholar]
  55. Gready P. 2005. Reconceptualising transitional justice: embedded and distanced justice. Confl. Secur. Dev. 5:3–21 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gready P, Robins S. 2014. From transitional to transformative justice: a new agenda for practice. Int. J. Transit. Justice 8:339–61 [Google Scholar]
  57. Grenfell L. 2013. Promoting the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict States Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  58. Halliday TC, Carruthers BG. 2007. The recursivity of law: global norm making and national lawmaking in the globalization of corporate insolvency regimes. Am. J. Sociol. 112:1135–202 [Google Scholar]
  59. Hamber BE. 1996. The need for a survivor-centered approach to the truth and reconciliation commission. Community Mediat. Update 9:5–13 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hayner PB. 2010. Unspeakable Truths: Transitional Justice and the Challenge of Truth Commissions London: Routledge
  61. Hazan P. 2010. Transitional justice after September 11: a new rapport with evil. See Shaw et al. 2010 49–68
  62. Herman J. 2013. Peacebuilding and transitional justice in Cambodia: attempts at DDR and the rise of victim-centered justice. Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding on the Ground: Victims and Ex-Combatants CL Sriram, J García-Godos, J Herman, O Martin-Ortega 103–20 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  63. Hickey S, Mohan G. 2004. Participation—From Tyranny to Transformation?: Exploring New Approaches to Participation in Development New York: Zed Books
  64. Higonnet ER. 2005. Restructuring hybrid courts: local empowerment and national criminal justice reform. Ariz. J. Int. Comp. Law 23:347–435 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hirblinger AT, Simons C. 2015. The good, the bad, and the powerful: representations of the local in peacebuilding. Secur. Dialogue 46:422–39 [Google Scholar]
  66. Horn R, Charters S, Vahidy S. 2009. The victim-witness experience in the special court for Sierra Leone. Int. Rev. Vict. 15:277–98 [Google Scholar]
  67. Humphreys M, Weinstein JM. 2007. Demobilization and reintegration. J. Confl. Resolut. 51:531–67 [Google Scholar]
  68. Huyse L, Salter M. 2008. Traditional Justice and Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences Stockholm: Int. Inst. Democr. Elect. Assist.
  69. Igreja V. 2012. Multiple temporalities in indigenous justice and healing practices in Mozambique. Int. J. Transit. Justice 17:1–19 [Google Scholar]
  70. Ingelaere B. 2008. The gacaca courts in Rwanda. Traditional Justice and Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences L Huyse, M Salter 25–59 Stockholm: Int. Inst. Democr. Elect. Assist. [Google Scholar]
  71. Ingelaere B, Verpoorten M. 2016. Inter-Ethnic Trust in the Aftermath of Mass Violence: Insights from Large-Life Histories Antwerpen, Belg.: Inst. Dev. Policy Manag.
  72. Ivković SK, Hagan J. 2006. The politics of punishment and the siege of Sarajevo: toward a conflict theory of perceived international (in)justice. Law Soc. Rev. 40:369–410 [Google Scholar]
  73. Joseph EP. 2007. Ownership is over-rated. SAIS Rev. Int. Aff. 27:109–23 [Google Scholar]
  74. Kaminer D, Stein DJ, Mbanga I, Zungu-Dirwayi N. 2001. The truth and reconciliation commission in South Africa: relation to psychiatric status and forgiveness among survivors of human rights abuses. Br. J. Psychiatry 178:373–77 [Google Scholar]
  75. Kaplan O, Nussio E. 2017. Explaining recidivism of ex-combatants in Colombia. J. Confl. Resol. In press
  76. Karstedt S. 2010. From absence to presence, from silence to voice: victims in international and transitional justice since the Nuremberg Trials. Int. Rev. Vict. 17:9–30 [Google Scholar]
  77. Karstedt S. 2016. The emotion dynamics of transitional justice: an emotion sharing perspective. Emotion Rev. 8:50–55 [Google Scholar]
  78. Kelsall T. 2005. Truth, lies, ritual: preliminary reflections on the truth and reconciliation commission in Sierra Leone. Hum. Rights Q. 27:361–91 [Google Scholar]
  79. Kiss E. 2000. Moral ambition within and beyond political constraints: reflections on restorative justice. Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions RI Rotberg, D Thompson 68–98 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  80. Klep K. 2012. Tracing collective memory: Chilean truth commissions and memorial sites. Mem. Stud. 5:259–69 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kritz N. 2002. Where we are and how we got here: an overview of developments in the search or justice and reconciliation. The Legacy of Abuse: Confronting the Past, Facing the Future AH Henkin 21–46 Washington, DC: Aspen Inst. [Google Scholar]
  82. Kritz NJ. 1995. Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes Washington, DC: US Inst. Peace Press
  83. La Mattina G. 2017. Civil conflict, domestic violence, and intra-household bargaining in post-genocide Rwanda. J. Dev. Econ. 124:168–98 [Google Scholar]
  84. Lambourne W. 2009. Transitional justice and peacebuilding after mass violence. Int. J. Transit. Justice 3:28–48 [Google Scholar]
  85. Lambourne W. 2014. Transformative justice, reconciliation and peacebuilding. Transitional Justice Theories S Buckley-Zistel, TK Beck, C Braun C, F Mieth 19–39 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  86. Laplante LJ, Theidon KS. 2007. Truth with consequences: justice and reparations in post-truth commission Peru. Hum. Rights Q. 29:228–50 [Google Scholar]
  87. Leebaw BA. 2008. The irreconcilable goals of transitional justice. Hum. Rights Q. 30:95–118 [Google Scholar]
  88. Lundy P. 2009. Exploring home-grown transitional justice and its dilemmas: a case study of the historical enquiries team, Northern Ireland. Int. J. Transit. Justice 3:321–40 [Google Scholar]
  89. Lundy P, McGovern M. 2008. Whose justice? Rethinking transitional justice from the bottom up. J. Law Soc. 35:265–92 [Google Scholar]
  90. Mac Ginty R. 2008. Indigenous peace-making versus the liberal peace. Coop. Confl. 43:139–63 [Google Scholar]
  91. Madlingozi T. 2010. On transitional justice entrepreneurs and the production of victims. J. Hum. Rights Pract. 2:208–28 [Google Scholar]
  92. Mani R. 2002. Beyond Retribution: Seeking Justice in the Shadows of War Malden, MA: Polity
  93. Massey D. 1994. A Global Sense of Place http://www.aughty.org/pdf/global_sense_place.pdf
  94. McEvoy K. 2001. Paramilitary Imprisonment in Northern Ireland: Resistance, Management, and Release Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  95. McEvoy K. 2007. Beyond legalism: towards a thicker understanding of transitional justice. J. Law Soc. 34:411–40 [Google Scholar]
  96. McEvoy K, McConnachie K. 2012. Victimology in transitional justice: victimhood, innocence and hierarchy. Eur. J. Criminol. 9:527–38 [Google Scholar]
  97. McEvoy K, McGregor L. 2008. Transitional Justice from Below: Grassroots Activism and the Struggle for Change London: Bloomsbury
  98. McGregor L. 2008. International law as a “tiered process”: transitional justice at the local, national and international level. Transitional Justice from Below: Grassroots Activism and the Struggle for Change K McEvoy, L McGregor 47–74 Portland, OR: Hart [Google Scholar]
  99. Mendeloff D. 2004. Truth-seeking, truth-telling, and post-conflict peacebuilding: Curb the enthusiasm?. Int. Stud. Rev. 6:355–80 [Google Scholar]
  100. Mendeloff D. 2009. Trauma and vengeance: assessing the psychological and emotional effects of post-conflict justice. Hum. Rights Q. 31:592–623 [Google Scholar]
  101. Menkel-Meadow C. 2007. Restorative justice: What is it and does it work. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 3:161–87 [Google Scholar]
  102. Merry SE. 2006. Transnational human rights and local activism: mapping the middle. Am. Anthropol. 108:38–51 [Google Scholar]
  103. Minow M. 1998. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence Boston: Beacon
  104. Mohan G, Stokke K. 2000. Participatory development and empowerment: the dangers of localism. Third World Q 21:247–68 [Google Scholar]
  105. Muggah R. 2005. No magic bullet: a critical perspective on disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and weapons reduction in post-conflict contexts. Round Table 94:239–52 [Google Scholar]
  106. Nabukeera-Musoke H. 2009. Transitional justice and gender in Uganda: making peace, failing women during the peace negotiation process. Afr. J. Confl. Resolut. 9:121–29 [Google Scholar]
  107. Nagy R. 2008. Transitional justice as global project: critical reflections. Third World Q 29:275–89 [Google Scholar]
  108. Nyseth Brehm H, Uggen C, Gasanabo JD. 2014. Genocide, justice, and Rwanda's gacaca courts. J. Contemp. Crim. Justice 30:333–52 [Google Scholar]
  109. Nyseth Brehm H, Uggen C, Gasanabo JD. 2016. “We are judges now”: the elected lay jurists of Rwanda's gacaca courts Presented at Annu. Meet. Law Soc. Assoc. New Orleans, LA:
  110. Orentlicher DF. 2007. “Settling accounts” revisited: reconciling global norms with local agency. Int. J. Transit. Justice 1:10–22 [Google Scholar]
  111. Özerdem A. 2012. A re-conceptualization of ex-combatant reintegration: “social reintegration” approach. Confl. Secur. Dev. 12:51–73 [Google Scholar]
  112. Palmer N. 2015. Courts in Conflict: Interpreting the Layers of Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  113. Park AS. 2010. Community-based restorative transitional justice in Sierra Leone. Contemp. Justice Rev. 13:95–119 [Google Scholar]
  114. Pugh MC. 2000. Introduction: the ownership of regeneration and peacebuilding. Regeneration of War-Torn Societies MC Pugh 1–12 London: Palgrave Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  115. Richmond OP. 2009. A post-liberal peace: Eirenism and the everyday. Rev. Int. Stud. 35:557–80 [Google Scholar]
  116. Rimé B, Kanyangara P, Yzerbyt V, Paez D. 2011. The impact of Gacaca tribunals in Rwanda: psychosocial effects of participation in a truth and reconciliation process after a genocide. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 41:695–706 [Google Scholar]
  117. Roach SC. 2013. Multilayered justice in Northern Uganda: ICC intervention and local procedures of accountability. Int. Crim. Law Rev. 13:249–68 [Google Scholar]
  118. Robins S. 2011. Towards victim-centered transitional justice: understanding the needs of families of the disappeared in postconflict Nepal. Int. J. Transit. Justice 5:75–98 [Google Scholar]
  119. Robins S. 2012. Challenging the therapeutic ethic: a victim-centered evaluation of transitional justice process in Timor-Leste. Int. J. Transit. Justice 6:83–105 [Google Scholar]
  120. Roht-Arriaza N. 2005. The Pinochet Effect: Transnational Justice in the Age of Human Rights Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press
  121. Roht-Arriaza N, Mariezcurrena J. 2006. Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  122. Ross FC. 2003. On having voice and being heard some after-effects of testifying before the South African truth and reconciliation commission. Anthropol. Theory 3:325–41 [Google Scholar]
  123. Rutayisire T, Richters A. 2014. Everyday suffering outside prison walls: a legacy of community justice in post-genocide Rwanda. Soc. Sci. Med. 120:413–20 [Google Scholar]
  124. Sassen S. 2001. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  125. Schabas WA. 2005. Genocide trials and gacaca courts. J. Int. Crim. Justice 3:879–95 [Google Scholar]
  126. Sharp DN. 2013. Interrogating the peripheries: the preoccupations of fourth generation transitional justice. Harvard Hum. Rights J. 26:149–78 [Google Scholar]
  127. Sharp DN. 2014. Addressing dilemmas of the global and the local in transitional justice. Emory Int. Law Rev. 29:71–117 [Google Scholar]
  128. Shaw R. 2005. Rethinking truth and reconciliation commissions: lessons from Sierra Leone Spec. Rep., US Inst. Peace Washington, DC:
  129. Shaw R. 2007. Memory frictions: localizing the truth and reconciliation commission in Sierra Leone. Int. J. Transit. Justice 1:183–207 [Google Scholar]
  130. Shaw R, Waldorf L, Hazan P. 2010. Localizing Transitional Justice: Interventions and Priorities After Mass Violence Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  131. Shirlow P, McEvoy K. 2008. Beyond the Wire: Former Prisoners and Conflict Transformation in Northern Ireland London: Pluto
  132. Sikkink K. 2011. The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics New York: W.W. Norton
  133. Sikkink K, Kim HJ. 2013. The justice cascade: the origins and effectiveness of prosecutions of human rights violations. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 9:269–85 [Google Scholar]
  134. Stanley E. 2009. Torture, Truth and Justice: The Case of Timor-Leste New York: Routledge
  135. Stepakoff S, Reynolds GS, Charters S, Henry N. 2015. The experience of testifying in a war-crimes tribunal in Sierra Leone. Peace Confl 21:445–64 [Google Scholar]
  136. Stover E, Weinstein HM. 2004. My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  137. Talentino AK. 2007. Perceptions of peacebuilding: the dynamic of imposer and imposed upon. Int. Stud. Perspect. 8:152–71 [Google Scholar]
  138. Teitel RG. 2002. Transitional Justice Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  139. Teitel RG. 2003. Transitional justice genealogy. Harvard Hum. Rights J. 16:69–94 [Google Scholar]
  140. Theidon K. 2009. Reconstructing masculinities: the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants in Colombia. Hum. Rights Q. 31:1–34 [Google Scholar]
  141. Theidon K. 2010. Histories of innocence: postwar stories in Peru. See Shaw et al. 2010 92–110
  142. Thomas ON, Ron J, Paris R. 2008. The effects of transitional justice mechanisms Work. Pap., Cent. Int. Policy Stud. Bronx, NY:
  143. Thomson A, Jazdowska A. 2012. Bringing in the grassroots: transitional justice in Zimbabwe. Confl. Secur. Dev. 12:75–102 [Google Scholar]
  144. Thomson S. 2011. The darker side of transitional justice: the power dynamics behind Rwanda's gacaca courts. Africa 81:373–90 [Google Scholar]
  145. Van Zyl P. 2005. Promoting transitional justice in post-conflict societies. Security and Governance in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding A Bryden, H Hanggi 209–32 Munster, Ger.: Lit Verlag Munster [Google Scholar]
  146. Vinck P, Pham PN, Stover E, Weinstein HM. 2007. Exposure to war crimes and implications for peace building in northern Uganda. JAMA 298:543–54 [Google Scholar]
  147. Vinjamuri L, Snyder J. 2004. Advocacy and scholarship in the study of international war crime tribunals and transitional justice. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 7:345–62 [Google Scholar]
  148. Waldorf L. 2006. Mass justice for mass atrocity: rethinking local justice as transitional justice. Temple Law Rev 79:1–88 [Google Scholar]
  149. Wasonga J. 2009. Rediscovering mato oput: the Acholi justice system and the conflict in northern Uganda. Afr. Peace Confl. J. 2:27–38 [Google Scholar]
  150. Weinstein HM, Fletcher LE, Vinck P, Pham P. 2010. Stay the hand of justice: Whose priorities take priority?. See Shaw et al. 2010 27–48
  151. Wilson RA. 2001. Justice and legitimacy in the South African transition. The Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies A Barahona De Brito, C Gonzalez Enriquez, P Aguilar 190–217 Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  152. Zehr H. 2002. Little Book of Restorative Justice Intercourse, PA: Good Books
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113444
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error