1932

Abstract

Over the last several decades, law and social science scholars have documented persistent racial inequality in the United States. This review focuses on mechanisms to explain this persistent pattern. We begin with policy making, a mechanism fundamental to all the others. We then examine one particularly important policy, the carceral state, which can be described as the most important policy response to the civil rights era. A significant body of scholarship on employment discrimination presents a site for explaining the transformation of law on the books into the law in action. Finally, we review scholarship on the persistence of segregation and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage and their attendant impact on racial inequality. We conclude with two themes that deserve special emphasis: the need for theory drawing these fields together and our need, above all at this moment in our history, for public scholarship changing the discourse, politics, and law perpetuating racial inequality.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113452
2017-10-13
2024-04-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lawsocsci/13/1/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113452.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113452&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Alexander M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness New York: New Press
  2. Anderson E. 1999. Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City New York: W.W. Norton
  3. Barker V. 2009. The Politics of Imprisonment: How the Democratic Process Shapes the Way America Punishes Offenders New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  4. Beckett K, Herbert S. 2009. Banished: The New Social Control of Urban America New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  5. Bell J. 2013. Hate Thy Neighbor: Move-In Violence and the Persistence of Racial Segregation in American Housing New York: NYU Press
  6. Berrey E. 2015. The Enigma of Diversity: The Language of Race and the Limits of Racial Justice Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  7. Best RK, Edelman LB, Krieger LH, Eliason SR. 2011. Multiple disadvantages: an empirical test of intersectionality theory in EEO litigation. Law Soc. Rev. 45:4991–1025 [Google Scholar]
  8. Binnall JM. 2009. Sixteen million angry men: reviving a dead doctrine to challenge the constitutionality of excluding felons from jury service. Va. J. Soc. Policy Law 17:21–42 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bird M, Grattet R. 2016. Realignment and recidivism. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 664:176–96 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bobo LD, Charles CZ. 2009. Race in the American mind: from the Moynihan report to the Obama candidacy. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 621:243–59 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bond C, Williams R. 2007. Residential segregation and the transformation of home mortgage lending. Soc. Forces 86:2671–98 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brennan Cent. Justice. 2016. Voting Restrictions in Place for the 2016 Presidential Election New York: Brennan Cent. Justice https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/Restrictive_Appendix_Post-2010.pdf
  13. Briggs XS, Popkin SJ, Goering J. 2010. Moving to Opportunity: The Story of an American Experiment to Fight Ghetto Poverty New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  14. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 347 U.S. 48 1954.
  15. Brown v. Plata 563 U.S. 493 2011.
  16. Byars-Winston A, Fouad N, Wen Y. 2015. Race/ethnicity and sex in U.S. occupations, 1970–2010: implications for research, practice, and policy. J. Vocat. Behav. 87:54–70 [Google Scholar]
  17. Campbell MC, Schoenfeld H. 2013. The transformation of America's penal order: a historicized political sociology of punishment. Am. J. Sociol. 118:51375–423 [Google Scholar]
  18. Casciano R, Massey DS. 2012. Neighborhood disorder and individual economic self-sufficiency: new evidence from a quasi-experimental study. Health Place 18:2180–90 [Google Scholar]
  19. Clampet-Lundquist S, Massey DS. 2008. Neighborhood effects on economic self-sufficiency: a reconsideration of the moving to opportunity experiment. Am. J. Sociol. 114:1107–43 [Google Scholar]
  20. Clear TR, Frost NA. 2014. The Punishment Imperative: The Rise of Mass Incarceration in America New York: NYU Press
  21. Clotfelter CT. 2004. After Brown: The Rise and Retreat of School Desegregation Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  22. Comfort M. 2008. Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  23. Desmond M. 2012. Eviction and the reproduction of urban poverty. Am. J. Sociol. 118:11–13 [Google Scholar]
  24. Desmond M. 2016. Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City New York: Crown
  25. Dobbin F. 2009. Inventing Equal Opportunity Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  26. Edelman LB. 1992. Legal ambiguity and symbolic structures: organizational mediation of civil rights law. Am. J. Sociol. 97:61531–76 [Google Scholar]
  27. Edelman LB. 2016. Working Law: Courts, Corporations, and Symbolic Civil Rights Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  28. Epp C. 2009. Making Rights Real: Activists, Bureaucrats, and the Creation of the Legislative State Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  29. Epp C. 2016. Commentary on Carroll Seron's presidential address: taking policy seriously. Law Soc. Rev. 5:140–50 [Google Scholar]
  30. Farhang S. 2009. The political development of job discrimination litigation, 1963–1976. Stud. Am. Polit. Dev. 23:123–60 [Google Scholar]
  31. Feeley M. 1979. The Process Is the Punishment: Handling Cases in Lower Criminal Court New York: Russell Sage Found.
  32. Foster H, Hagan J. 2007. Incarceration and intergenerational social exclusion. Soc. Probl. 54:4399–433 [Google Scholar]
  33. Frymer P. 2003. Acting when elected officials won't: federal courts and civil rights enforcement in US labor unions, 1935–81. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 97:3483–99 [Google Scholar]
  34. Frymer P. 2008. Black and Blue: African Americans, the Labor Movement, and the Decline of the Democratic Party Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  35. Garland D. 2001. The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  36. Gilens M. 2000. Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press
  37. Goffman A. 2014. On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  38. Gottschalk M. 2006. The Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  39. Gottschalk M. 2015. Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  40. Greenhouse CJ. 2008. Life stories, law's stories: subjectivity and responsibility in the politicization of the discourse of ‘identity.’. Polit. Leg. Anthropol. Rev. 31:179–85 [Google Scholar]
  41. Griggs v. Duke Power Company 401 U.S. 424 1971.
  42. Hacker JS, Pierson P. 2010. Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer—and Turned its Back on the Middle Class New York: Simon & Schuster
  43. Hacker JS, Pierson P. 2014. Master theory: Downs, Schattschneider, and the rebirth of policy-focused analysis. Perspect. Polit. 12:3648–62 [Google Scholar]
  44. Han SY. 2015. Letters of the Law: Race and the Fantasy of Colorblindness in American Law Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  45. Heinz JP, Southworth A, Paik A. 2003. Lawyers for conservative causes: clients, ideology, and social distance. Law Soc. Rev. 37:15–50 [Google Scholar]
  46. Hills v. Gautreaux 425 U.S. 284 1976.
  47. HoSang D. 2008. The triumph of racial liberalism, the demise of racial justice. Race and American Political Development J Lowndes, J Novkov, D Warren 288–311 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  48. Jacobs D, Dirlam JC. 2016. Politics and economic stratification: power resources and income inequality in the United States. Am. J. Sociol. 122:2469–500 [Google Scholar]
  49. Jacobs D, Jackson AL. 2010. On the politics of imprisonments: a review of systematic findings. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 6:129–49 [Google Scholar]
  50. Jencks C, Mayer S. 1990. The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. Inner-City Poverty in the United States LE Lynn, GH McGeary 111–86 Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  51. Kalev A, Dobbin F. 2006. Enforcement of civil rights law in private workplaces: the effects of compliance reviews and lawsuits over time. Law Soc. Inq. 31:4855–903 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kalev A, Dobbin F, Kelly E. 2006. Best practices or best guesses? Assessing the efficacy of corporate affirmative action and diversity policies. Am. Sociol. Rev. 71:4589–617 [Google Scholar]
  53. Kasinitz P, Rosenberg J. 1996. Missing the connection: social isolation and employment on the Brooklyn waterfront. Soc. Probl. 43:2180–96 [Google Scholar]
  54. Katznelson I. 2005. When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America New York: W.W. Norton
  55. Katznelson I. 2013. Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time New York: W.W. Norton
  56. Kelly E, Dobbin F. 1998. How affirmative action became diversity management: employer response to antidiscrimination law, 1961 to 1996. Am. Behav. Sci. 41:7960–84 [Google Scholar]
  57. Kim C. 1999. The racial triangulation of Asian Americans. Polit. Soc. 27:105–38 [Google Scholar]
  58. Kinder DR, Kam CD. 2011. Us against them: ethnocentric foundations of American opinion. Polit. Psychol. 32:5921–23 [Google Scholar]
  59. King DS, Smith RM. 2005. Racial orders in American political development. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 99:175–92 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kochhar R, Fry R, Rohal M. 2015. The American middle class is losing ground: no longer the majority and falling behind financially Rep., Pew Res. CentDec. 9
  61. Kousser M. 2015. Do the facts of voting rights support Chief Justice Robert's opinion in Shelby County. Transatlantica 1:1–37 [Google Scholar]
  62. Krieger LH, Best RK, Edelman LB. 2015. When “best practices” win, employees lose: symbolic compliance and judicial inference in federal equal employment opportunity cases. Law Soc. Inq. 40:41–37 [Google Scholar]
  63. Kubrin C, Seron C. 2016. The great experiment: realigning criminal justice in California and beyond. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 664Spec. Issue Philadelphia: Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. [Google Scholar]
  64. Landivar LC. 2013. Disparities in STEM employment by sex, race, and Hispanic origin Am. Community Surv. Rep. No. ACS-24, US Census Bur Washington, DC:
  65. Lane K, Kang J, Banaji M. 2007. Implicit social cognition and law. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 3:427–51 [Google Scholar]
  66. Lowndes J. 2008. From the New Deal to the New Right: The Southern Origins of Modern Conservatism New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  67. Ludwig J. 2012. Guest editor's introduction: symposium on moving to opportunity. Cityscape 14:21–10 [Google Scholar]
  68. Lynch M. 2010. Sunbelt Justice: Arizona and the Transformation of American Punishment Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  69. Mandel H, Semyonov M. 2016. Going back in time? Gender differences in trends and sources of the racial pay gap, 1970 to 2010. Am. Sociol. Rev. 81:51039–69 [Google Scholar]
  70. Manza J, Uggen C. 2006. Locked Out: Felon Disenfranchisement and American Democracy Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  71. Massey DS. 2007. Categorically Unequal: The American Stratification System New York: Russell Sage Found.
  72. Massey DS. 2009. Globalization and inequality: explaining American exceptionalism. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 25:19–28 [Google Scholar]
  73. Massey DS. 2013. Inheritance of poverty or inheritance of place? The emerging consensus on neighborhoods and place. Contemp. Sociol. 42:5690–95 [Google Scholar]
  74. Massey DS, Denton N. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  75. Massey DS, Sampson RJ. 2009. Introduction: Moynihan redux: legacies and lessons. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 621:6–27 [Google Scholar]
  76. Massoglia M. 2008. Incarceration, health, and racial disparities in health. Law Soc. Rev. 42:2275–306 [Google Scholar]
  77. Mettler S. 2011. The Submerged State: How Invisible Government Policies Undermine American Democracy Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  78. Miller LL. 2008. The Perils of Federalism: Race, Poverty and the Politics of Crime Control New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  79. Morenoff JD, Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW. 2001. Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy and the spatial dynamics of homicide. Criminology 39:3517–60 [Google Scholar]
  80. Newman KS. 1999. No Shame in My Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City New York: Russell Sage Found.
  81. Novkov J. 2008. Rethinking race in American politics. Polit. Res. Q. 61:4649–59 [Google Scholar]
  82. Obasogie O. 2013. Blinded by Sight: Seeing Race Through the Eyes of the Blind Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  83. Omi M, Winant H. 1994. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s New York: Routledge
  84. Pager D. 2008. Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  85. Pager D, Western B, Sugie N. 2009. Sequencing disadvantage: barriers to employment facing young black and white men with criminal records. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 623:195–213 [Google Scholar]
  86. Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District #1 555 U.S. 701, 747–8 2007.
  87. Payne-Pikus MR, Hagan J, Nelson R. 2010. Experiencing discrimination: race and retention in America's largest law firms. Law Soc. Rev. 44:3–4553–84 [Google Scholar]
  88. Pedriana N, Stryker R. 2004. The strength of a weak agency: enforcement of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the expansion of state capacity, 1965–1971. Am. J. Sociol. 100:3709–60 [Google Scholar]
  89. Pedriana N, Stryker R. 2014. “Effects-based” civil rights law: comparing U.S. voting rights, equal employment opportunity and fair housing legislation. Presented at New Legal Realism 10th Anniv. Conf. Future Dir. Legal Empir Irvine: Univ. Calif. Sch. Law
  90. Petersilia J. 2014. California prison downsizing and its impact on local criminal justice systems. Harvard Law Policy Rev 8:327–59 [Google Scholar]
  91. Pettit B, Sykes BL. 2015. Civil rights legislation and legalized exclusion: mass incarceration and the masking of inequality. Sociol. Forum 30:S1589–611 [Google Scholar]
  92. Phelps MS. 2011. Rehabilitation in the punitive era: the gap between rhetoric and reality in US prison programs. Law Soc. Rev. 45:133–68 [Google Scholar]
  93. Piketty T. 2014. Capital in the Twenty-First Century Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  94. Prewitt K. 2013. What Is Your Race? The Census and Our Flawed Efforts to Classify Americans Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  95. Provine DM. 2011. Race and inequality in the war on drugs. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 7:41–80 [Google Scholar]
  96. Richardson M, Pittinsky T. 2005. The mistaken assumption of intentionality in equal protection law: psychological science and the interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment Work. Pap. No. RWP05–011 Kennedy School Gov Cambridge, MA:
  97. Richmond v. Croson 488 U.S. 469, 493–4 1989.
  98. Rios VM. 2011. Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys. New York: NYU Press
  99. Rubinowitz LS, Rosenbaum JE. 2000. Crossing the Class and Color Lines: From Public Housing to White Suburbia Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press
  100. Rugh JS, Massey DS. 2010. Racial segregation and the American mortgage foreclosure crisis. Am. Sociol. Rev. 75:629–51 [Google Scholar]
  101. Sampson RJ. 2008. Moving to inequality: neighborhood effects and experiments meet social structure. Am. J. Sociol. 114:189–231 [Google Scholar]
  102. Sampson RJ. 2012. Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  103. Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW. 2004. Seeing disorder: neighborhood stigma and the social construction of broken windows. Soc. Psychol. Q. 67:319–42 [Google Scholar]
  104. Schlanger M. 2003. Inmate litigation. Harvard Law Rev 116:1555–706 [Google Scholar]
  105. Schlanger M. 2016. The just barely sustainable California prisoners' rights ecosystem. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 664:62–84 [Google Scholar]
  106. Schuman H, Steeh C, Bobo LD, Krysan M. 1998. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Rev. ed.
  107. Schwemm RB, Taren JL. 2010. Discretionary pricing, mortgage discrimination, and the Fair Housing Act. Harvard Civ. Rights Civ. Lib. Law Rev. 45:2375–433 [Google Scholar]
  108. Sears DO, Henry PJ. 2005. Over thirty years later: a contemporary look at symbolic racism. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 37:98–150 [Google Scholar]
  109. Sharkey P. 2013. Stuck in Place: Urban Neighborhoods and the End of Progress toward Racial Equality Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  110. Shelby v. Holder 570 U.S. 2 2013.
  111. Siegel RB. 2004. Equality talk: antisubordination and anticlassification values in constitutional struggles over Brown. Harvard Law Rev. 117:51470–547 [Google Scholar]
  112. Simon J. 2007. Governing Through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  113. Skrentny JD. 1996. The Ironies of Affirmative Action: Politics, Culture, and Justice in America Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  114. Skrentny JD. 2014. After Civil Rights: Racial Realism in the New American Workplace Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  115. Southworth A. 2008. Lawyers for the Right: Professionalizing the Conservative Coalition Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  116. Stainback K, Tomaskovic-Devey D. 2012. Documenting Desegregation: Racial and Gender Segregation in Private Sector-Employment since the Civil Rights Act New York: Russell Sage Found.
  117. Sykes BL, Pettit B. 2015. Severe deprivation and system inclusion among children of incarcerated parents in the United States after the Great Recession. Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 1:2108–32 [Google Scholar]
  118. Telles SM. 2010. The Rise of the Conservative Legal Movement: The Battle for Control of the Law Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  119. Tesler M. 2016. Post-Racial or Most-Racial? Race and Politics in the Obama Era Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  120. Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. The Inclusive Communities Project, Inc. 576 U.S. 2015.
  121. Turner MA, Ross SL, Galster GC, Yinger Y. 2002. Discrimination in metropolitan housing markets: national results from phase I HDS 2000 Final Rep., Urban Inst Washington, DC:
  122. Useem B, Piehl AM. 2008. Prison State: The Challenge of Mass Incarceration New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  123. Valelly R. 2004. The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  124. Van Cleve NG. 2016. Crook County: Racism and Injustice in America's Largest Criminal Court Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  125. Verma A. 2015. The law-before: legacies and gaps in penal reform. Law Soc. Rev. 49:4847–82 [Google Scholar]
  126. Wakefield S, Uggen C. 2010. Incarceration and stratification. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 36:387–406 [Google Scholar]
  127. Wakefield S, Wildeman C. 2014. Children of the Prison Boom: Mass Incarceration and the Future of American Inequality New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  128. Washington v. Davis 426 U.S. 229 1976.
  129. Weaver VM. 2007. Frontlash: race and the development of punitive crime policy. Stud. Am. Polit. Dev. 21:230–65 [Google Scholar]
  130. Western B, Pettit B. 2010. Incarceration and social inequality. Daedalus 139:38–19 [Google Scholar]
  131. Wilson G, Sakura-Lemessy I. 2000. Earnings over the early work career among males in the middle class: Has race declined in its significance?. Soc. Perspect. 43:1159–71 [Google Scholar]
  132. Wilson WJ. 1978. The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  133. Wilson WJ. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass and Public Policy Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  134. Woldoff R. 2011. White Flight/Black Flight: The Dynamics of Racial Change in an American Neighborhood New York: Cornell Univ. Press
  135. Yu H. 2001. Thinking Orientals: Migration, Contact and Exoticism in Modern America New York: Oxford Univ. Press
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110316-113452
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error