1932

Abstract

Neoliberalism represents the revival of economic liberalism that has been taking place since the late 1970s. Its main premise is that the market is morally and practically superior to government and any form of political control intended to improve on market outcomes. Central and Eastern European countries (CEEs) were global leaders in the adoption of neoliberal ideas and policies during the 1990s and 2000s. Almost all CEEs adopted neoliberal ideas and policies at a dramatic rate and are now among the most open economies in Europe. This was particularly true during the early transition period, when neoliberalism emerged as a virtually unchallenged ideology strongly dominating the course of economic and political reforms in the region. CEEs largely followed the script written by the authors of the Washington consensus and implemented monetary stabilization, economic liberalization, and a grand-scale privatization of the largely state-owned economy. This article traces the role of law during the first 25 years of transition and its relationship with neoliberal policies and institutions that were put in place in CEEs. It does so chronologically, through three different periods of transition, which also represent the quite different roles that the law assumed in the process.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110615-084545
2016-10-27
2024-06-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lawsocsci/12/1/annurev-lawsocsci-110615-084545.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110615-084545&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Amsden A, Kochanowicz J, Taylor L. 1994. The Market Meets Its Match: Restructuring the Economies of Eastern Europe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  2. Applebaum A. 2016. Europe's New Right sound like the old left. Financial Times Jan 27 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ban C. 2016. Ruling Ideas: How Global Neoliberalism Goes Local. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  4. Batory A. 2012. Why do anti-corruption laws fail in Central Eastern Europe? A target compliance perspective. Regul. Gov. 6:66–79 [Google Scholar]
  5. Berend IT, Bugari č B. 2015. Unfinished Europe: transition from communism to democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. J. Contemp. Hist. 50:4768–85 [Google Scholar]
  6. Berendt J. 2016. Polish court strikes down law limiting its powers, inflaming a crisis. The New York Times March 9 [Google Scholar]
  7. Birdsall N, Fukuyama F. 2011. The post-Washington consensus. Foreign Affairs March/April, pp 45–53 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bohle D, Greskovits B. 2007. Neoliberalism, embedded neoliberalism and neocorporativism: towards transnational capitalism in Central-Eastern Europe. West Eur. Polit. 30:3443–66 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bugarič B. 2001. Courts as policy-makers: lessons from transition. Harvard Int. Law J. 42:1247–88 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bugarič B. 2006. The Europeanization of national administrations in Central and Eastern Europe: Creating formal structures without substance. Après Enlargement: Legal and Political Responses in Central and Eastern Europe W Sadurski, J Ziller, K Zurek 201–29 Florence: Eur. Univ. Inst., Robert Schuman Cent. Adv. Stud. [Google Scholar]
  11. Bugarič B. 2014. Law and development in Central and Eastern Europe: the neoliberal developmental state and its problems. Law and Development of Middle-Income Countries: Avoiding the Middle-Income Trap R Peerenboom, T Ginsburg 131–55 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  12. Dimitrova A. 2007. Institutionalization of imported rules in the European Union's new member states: bringing politics back in the research agenda. Eur. Univ. Inst. Work. Pap RSCAS 2007/37, Eur. Univ. Inst., Florence [Google Scholar]
  13. Drahokoupil J, Myant M. 2010. The political economy of welfare reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia SSRN Work. Pap. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1396736 [Google Scholar]
  14. Elster J, Offe C, Preuss UK. 1998. Institutional Design in Post-Communist Societies: Rebuilding the Ship at Sea Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  15. Eur. Comm. Democr. Through Law (Venice Comm.) 2016. Draft opinion on amendments to the Act of June 2015 on the Constitutional Tribunal of Poland Opinion No. 833/2015, CDL (2016)003, Strasbourg, Feb. 26 [Google Scholar]
  16. Evans P, Sewell WH. 2013. Neoliberalism: policy regimes, international regimes, and social effects. Social Resilience in the Neoliberal Era PA Hall, M Lamont 35–68 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Friedman M. 2002. Economic freedom behind the scenes. Economic Freedom of the World: 2002 Annual Report J Gwartney, R Lawson, C Edwards, W Park, V de Rugy, S Wagh xvii–xxi Vancouver, Can: Fraser Inst. [Google Scholar]
  18. Frydman R, Murphy K, Rapaczynski A. 1998. Capitalism with a Comrade's Face Budapest: Cent. Eur. Univ. [Google Scholar]
  19. Fukuyama F. 2012. Do institutions really matter?. Francis Fukuyama American Interest Blog Jan. 23 . http://blogs.the-american-interest.com/fukuyama [Google Scholar]
  20. Hamm P, King LP, Stuckler D. 2012. Mass privatization, state capacity, and economic growth in postcommunist countries. Am. Soc. Rev. 77:2295–324 [Google Scholar]
  21. Harvey D. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  22. Heywood A. 2003. Political Ideologies: An Introduction Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  23. Hirt S, Sellar C, Young C. 2013. Neoliberal doctrine meets the Eastern Bloc: resistance, appropriation and purification in post-Socialist spaces. Eur. Asia Stud. 65:71243–54 [Google Scholar]
  24. Holmes S. 1995. Passions & Constraint: On the Theory of Liberal Democracy Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  25. Kattel R, Reinert ES, Suurna M. 2009. Industrial restructuring and innovation policy in Central and Eastern Europe since 1990 Work. Pap. Technol. Gov. Econ. Dyn. No. 23, Tallinn Univ. Technol., Tallinn, Estonia [Google Scholar]
  26. Kennedy D. 2013. Law and development economics: toward a new alliance. Law and Economics with Chinese Characteristics: Institutions for Promoting Development in the Twenty-First Century D Kennedy, JE Stiglitz 19–70 Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  27. King LP, Sznajder A. 2006. The state-led transition to liberal capitalism: neoliberal, organizational, world-systems, and social structural explanations of Poland's economic success. Am. J. Sociol. 112:3751–801 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kołodko GW. 2009. A two-thirds rate of success: Polish transformation and economic development, 1989–2008. Res. Pap. 2009/14, UNU/WIDER, Helsinki [Google Scholar]
  29. Krygier M. 2016. Transformations of the rule of law: legal, liberal, neo. The Politics of Legality in a Neoliberal Age B Golder, D McLoughlin New York: Routledge. In press [Google Scholar]
  30. Meyer-Sahling JH. 2004. Civil service reform in post-Communist Europe: the bumpy road to depoliticisation. West Eur. Pol. 27:171–103 [Google Scholar]
  31. Moyn S. 2014. A powerless companion: human rights in the age of neoliberalism. Law Contemp. Probl. 77:4147–69 [Google Scholar]
  32. Mudge SL. 2008. What is neo-liberalism?. Socio. Econ. Rev. 6:703–31 [Google Scholar]
  33. Müller JW. 2014. Eastern Europe goes south: disappearing democracy in the EU's newest member states. Foreign Affairs March/April 14–19 [Google Scholar]
  34. Nölke A, Vliegenhart A. 2009. Enlarging the varieties of capitalism: the emergence of dependent market economies in East-Central Europe. World Polit. 61:4670–702 [Google Scholar]
  35. Nugent N. 2010. The Government and Politics of the European Union Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 7th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  36. O'Dwyer C. 2002. Civilizing the state bureaucracy: the unfulfilled promise of public administration reform in Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic (1990–2000). Pap. 2002/01, Inst. Slavic, East Eur., Eurasian Stud., Berkeley Progr. Sov. Post-Sov. Stud., Univ. Calif., Berkeley [Google Scholar]
  37. Orenstein M. 2013a. Reassessing the neo-liberal development model in Central and Eastern Europe. Resilient Liberalism in Europe's Political Economy V Schmidt, M Thatcher 374–402 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  38. Orenstein M. 2013b. Recovering from transition in Eastern Europe: neoliberal reforms in retrospect. Developments in Central & East European Politics 5 S White, PG Lewis, J Batt 228–40 Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  39. Rae G. 2013. Avoiding the economic crisis: pragmatic liberalism and divisions over economic policy in Poland. Eur. Asia Stud. 65:3411–25 [Google Scholar]
  40. Rupnik J, Zielonka J. 2013. Introduction: the state of democracy 20 years on: domestic and external factors. East Eur. Polit. Soc. 27:13–25 [Google Scholar]
  41. Scheppele KL. 2003. Constitutional negotiations: political contexts of judicial activism in post-Soviet Europe. Int. Sociol. 8:1219–38 [Google Scholar]
  42. Scheppele KL. 2004. A realpolitik defense of social rights. Univ. Texas Law Rev. 82:71921–61 [Google Scholar]
  43. Schmidt V, Thatcher M. 2013. Resilient Liberalism in Europe's Political Economy Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  44. Schwartz H. 2000. The Struggle for Constitutional Justice in Post-Communist Europe. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  45. Sherman FC. 2009. Law and development today: the new developmentalism. Ger. Law J. 10:91257–73 [Google Scholar]
  46. Shleifer A, Vishny RW. 1998. The Grabbing Hand: Government Pathologies and Their Cures Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  47. Skąpska G. 2009. The rule of law, economic transformation and corruption after the fall of the Berlin Wall.. Hague J. Rule Law 1:2284–306 [Google Scholar]
  48. Standing G. 1996. Social protection in Central and Eastern Europe: a tale of slipping anchors and torn safety nets. Welfare States in Transition: National Adaptations in Global Economies G Esping-Andersen 225–55 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  49. Stiglitz JE. 2004. Globalization and Its Discontent New York: W.W. Norton [Google Scholar]
  50. Suleiman E. 2003. Dismantling Democratic States Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  51. Szelenyi I. 2014. Pathways from and crisis after communism: the case of Central Eastern Europe. Belvedere Merid. 26:47–23 [Google Scholar]
  52. Szelenyi I. 2015. Capitalisms after communism. New Left Rev. 96:Nov./Dec.39–51 [Google Scholar]
  53. Torok A. 2007. Industrial policy in the new member countries of the European Union: a survey of patterns and initiatives since 1990. J. Ind. Compet. Trade 7:3255–71 [Google Scholar]
  54. Trubek DM. 2006. The “rule of law” in development assistance: past, present, and future. The New Law and Development: A Critical Appraisal DM Trubek, A Santos 74–94 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  55. Trubek DM. 2009. The political economy of the rule of law: the challenge of the new developmental state. Hague J. Rule Law 1:128–32 [Google Scholar]
  56. Turner RS. 2008. Neo-liberal constitutionalism: ideology, government and the rule of law. J. Polit. Law 1:247–55 [Google Scholar]
  57. Unger RM. 1996. What Should Legal Analysis Become? London: Verso [Google Scholar]
  58. Verheijen AJG. 2003. Public administration in post-communist states. Handbook of Public Administration BG Peters, J Pierre 489–99 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  59. Williamson J. 1989. What Washington means by policy reform. Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? J Williamson Washington, DC: Peterson Inst. Int. Econ. [Google Scholar]
  60. World Bank 2006. EU-8 administrative capacity in the new member states: the limits of innovation? Rep. No. 36930-GLB, Study Poverty Reduct. Econ. Manag. Unit Eur. Central Asia [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110615-084545
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error