1932

Abstract

Medical aid in dying (MAID) has been a productive target for social scientific inquiry at the intersections of law and medicine over the past two decades. Insofar as MAID crystallizes and reflects personal and cultural understandings of key concepts such as individualism, dependency, dignity, and care, it is a rich site for social scientific theorizing. This article reviews and assesses the contributions of social scientific perspectives to research on MAID. We propose that social scientific research on MAID offers four distinctive contributions: its descriptive (rather than normative) orientation, its focus on cultural meanings, its insights into processes of knowledge production, and its comparative lens. The article's major sections describe () attitudes toward MAID, () MAID-related social movements, () legalization approaches, and () lived experiences of MAID in permissive jurisdictions. We conclude by reflecting on how MAID scholarship can inform social inquiry into other areas in which law and medicine converge.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110722-083932
2023-10-05
2024-04-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lawsocsci/19/1/annurev-lawsocsci-110722-083932.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110722-083932&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Akabayashi A. 2002. Euthanasia, assisted suicide, and cessation of life support: Japan's policy, law, and an analysis of whistle blowing in two recent mercy killing cases. Soc. Sci. Med. 55:517–27
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allison A 2017. Greeting the dead: managing solitary existence in Japan. Soc. Text 35:117–35
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Al Rabadi L, LeBlanc M, Bucy T, Ellis LM, Hershman DL et al. 2019. Trends in medical aid in dying in Oregon and Washington. JAMA Netw. Open 2:8e198648
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Am. Assoc. Suicidol 2017.. Suicide” is not the same as “physician aid in dying.” Exec. Statement Novemb. 2 https://ohiooptions.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/AAS-PAD-Statement-Approved-10.30.17-ed-10-30-17.pdf
  5. Am. Med. Assoc 2019. Report 2 of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: physician-assisted suicide CEJA Rep. 2-A-19 Am. Med. Assoc. Chicago:
  6. Anspach R. 2010. The “hostile takeover” of bioethics by religious conservatives and the counter-offensive. Social Movements and the Transformation of American Healthcare J Banaszak-Holl, S Levitsky, M Zald 144–70. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Archibald ME, Crabtree C. 2010. Health social movements in the United States: an overview. Sociol. Compass 4:5334–43
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Austin JL. 1962. How to Do Things with Words Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. , 2nd ed..
  9. Back A. 2004. Doctor-patient communication about physician-assisted suicide. See Quill & Battin 2004 102–17
  10. Back A, Starks H, Hsu C, Gordon J. 2004. Clinician-patient interactions about requests for physician-assisted suicide: a patient and family view. Arch. Intern. Med. 162:111257–65
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Back A, Wallace J, Starks H, Pearlman R. 1996. Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in Washington state: patient requests and physician responses. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 275:12919–25
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Baeke G, Wils J-P, Broeckkaert B. 2011.. “ We are (not) the master of our body”: elderly Jewish women's attitudes towards euthanasia and assisted suicide. Ethn. Health 16:3259–78
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Balch B. 2017. Death by lethal prescription: A right for older people—or their duty?. Generations 41:142–46
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ball H. 2012. At Liberty to Die: The Battle for Death with Dignity in America New York: NYU Press
  15. Banaszak-Holl J, Levitsky S, Zald M. 2010. Social Movements and the Transformation of American Health Care Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  16. Battin MP, Pope T. 2022. Physician-assisted dying. UpToDate RM Arnold Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer https://www.uptodate.com/contents/physician-assisted-dying
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Battin MP, Rhodes R, Silvers A, eds. 1998. Physician-Assisted Suicide: Expanding the Debate New York: Routledge
  18. Battin MP, van der Heide A, Ganini L, van der Wal G, Onwuteaka-Philipsen B. 2007. Legal physician-assisted dying in Oregon and the Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in “vulnerable” groups. J. Med. Ethics 33:10591–97
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bauchner H, Fontanarosa PB. 2016. Death, dying, and end of life. JAMA 315:3270–71
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Behuniak S. 2011. Death with “dignity. .” Politics Life Sci. 30:117–32
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Birenbaum-Carmeli D, Banerjee A, Taylor S. 2006. All in the family: media presentations of family assisted suicide in Britain. Soc. Sci. Med. 63:2153–64
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Bloom A. 2022. In Love: A Memoir of Love and Loss New York: Random House
  23. Bolt EE, Snijdewind MC, Willems D, van der Heide A, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD. 2015. Can physicians conceive of performing euthanasia in case of psychiatric disease, dementia or being tired of living?. J. Med. Ethics 41:8592–98
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Booth A, Blake D. 2022. Assisted dying in the Aotearoa New Zealand media: a critical discourse analysis. Mortality 27:1107–23
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Bravo G, Trottier L, Arcand M. 2022. Physicians’ characteristics and attitudes towards medically assisted dying for non-competent patients with dementia. Can. J. Aging 41:1135–42
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Brenan M. 2018. Americans’ strong support for euthanasia persists. Gallup May 31. https://news.gallup.com/poll/235145/americans-strong-support-euthanasia-persists.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Brooks L. 2019. Health care provider experiences of and perspectives on medical assistance in dying: a scoping review of qualitative studies. Can. J. Aging 38:3384–96
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Broom A. 2017. The right to medicalization? Invited commentary on Karsoho et al. (2016). Soc. Sci. Med. 173:104–7
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Brown P, Zavestoski S. 2004. Social movements in health: an introduction. Sociol. Health Illn. 26:6679–94
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Bryant T. 2016. Aid in dying: the availability of ideal medications for use in “right to die” jurisdictions in the United States. Quinnipiac Law Rev. 34:4705–46
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Buchbinder M. 2016. Scripting dissent: US abortion laws, medicine, and the politics of scripted speech. Am. Anthropol. 118:4772–83
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Buchbinder M. 2017. Aid-in-dying laws and the physician's duty to inform. J. Med. Ethics 43:666–69
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Buchbinder M. 2018a. Access to aid-in-dying in the United States: shifting the debate from rights to justice. Am. J. Public Health 108:6754–59
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Buchbinder M. 2018b. Choreographing death: a social phenomenology of medical aid-in-dying in the United States. Med. Anthropol. Q. 32:4481–97
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Buchbinder M. 2019. The power of suggestion: disclosure ideologies and medically assisted death. Med. Anthropol. Theory 6:15–29
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Buchbinder M. 2021. Scripting Death: Stories of Assisted Dying in America Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
  37. Buchbinder M. 2022. Dirty work in medicine: understanding U.S. physicians’ agency in contested medical practices. Med. Anthropol. Q. 36:4534–51
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Buchbinder M, Brassfield E, Mishra M. 2019. Health care providers’ experiences with implementing medical aid-in-dying in Vermont: a qualitative study. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 34:4636–41
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Buchbinder M, Timmermans S. 2013. Affective economies and the politics of saving babies’ lives. Public Cult. 26:1101–26
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Byrnes E, Ross A, Murphy M. 2022. A systematic review of barriers and facilitators to implementing assisted dying: a qualitative evidence synthesis of professionals’ perspectives. OMEGA In press
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Cain C. 2016. Implementing aid in dying in California: experiences from other states indicates the need for strong implementation guidance Policy Brief, Cent. Health Policy Res. Univ. Los Angel., CA:
  42. Cain C. 2020. Quelling moral panics? The case of physician aid in dying in California. Poetics 82:101479
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Cain CL, Koenig BA, Starks H, Thomas J, Forbes L et al. 2020a. Hospital and health system policies concerning the California End of Life Option Act. J. Palliat. Med. 23:160–66
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Cain CL, Koenig BA, Starks H, Thomas J, Forbes L et al. 2020b. Hospital responses to the End of Life Option Act: implementation of aid in dying in California. JAMA Intern. Med. 179:7985–87
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Cain CL, McCleskey S. 2019. Expanded definitions of the “good death”? Race, ethnicity and medical aid in dying. Sociol. Health Illn. 41:61175–91
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Campbell C, Black M. 2014. Dignity, death, and dilemmas: a study of Washington hospices and physician-assisted death. J. Pain Symptom Manag. 47:1137–53
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Campbell C, Cox J. 2010. Hospice and physician-assisted death: collaboration, compliance, and complicity. Hastings Center Rep. 40:526–35
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Campbell C, Cox J. 2012. Hospice-assisted death? A study of Oregon hospices on death with dignity. Am. J. Hosp. Palliat. Med. 29:3227–35
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Carter v. Canada, ( 2015. 1 SCR 331 (Can.)
  50. Casson A. 2011. The right to “bricolage”: Catholic pupils’ perception of their religious identity and the implications for Catholic schools in England. J. Beliefs Values 32:2207–18
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Chapple A, Ziebland S, McPherson A, Herxheimer A. 2006. What people close to death say about euthanasia and assisted suicide: a qualitative study. J. Med. Ethics 32:12706–10
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Chiarello E. 2013. How organizational context affects bioethical decision-making: pharmacists’ management of gatekeeping processes in retail and hospital settings. Soc. Sci. Med. 98:319–29
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Danyliv A, O'Neill C 2015. Attitudes towards legalising physician provided euthanasia in Britain: the role of religion over time. Soc. Sci. Med. 128:52–56
    [Google Scholar]
  54. de Andrade Neves MF. 2020. Protecting life, facilitating death: the bureaucratic experience of organized assisted suicide. Med. Anthropol. Theory 7:1158–66
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Dekker NL. 2021. Anticipating an unwanted future: euthanasia and dementia in the Netherlands. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. 27:4815–31
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Dembo J, Schuklenk U, Reggler J. 2018.. “ For their own good”: a response to popular arguments against permitting medical assistance in dying (MAID) where mental illness is the sole underlying condition. Can. J. Psychiatry 63:7451–56
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Dobscha S, Heintz R, Press N, Ganzini L. 2004. Oregon physicians’ responses to requests for assisted suicide: a qualitative study. J. Palliat. Med. 7:3451–61
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Dransart DAC, Lapierre S, Erlangsen A, Cannetto SS, Heisel M et al. 2021. A systematic review of older adults’ request for or attitude toward euthanasia or assisted-suicide. Aging Mental Health 25:3420–30
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Duckett S. 2019. The long and winding road to assisted dying in Australia. Aust. J. Soc. Issues 54:386–400
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Duckett S. 2020. Pathos, death talk and palliative care in the assisted dying debate in Victoria, Australia. Mortality 20:5151–66
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Duranti A. 1997. Linguistic Anthropology Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  62. Emanuel E, Onwuteaka-Philipsen B, Urwin J, Cohen J. 2016. Attitudes and practices of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the United States, Canada, and Europe. JAMA 316:179–90
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Engelhart K. 2021. The Inevitable: Dispatches on the Right to Die New York: St. Martin's
  64. Fed. Public Health Food Chain Saf. Environ 2021. Federale controle en evaluatiecommissie euthanasie https://overlegorganen.gezondheid.belgie.be/nl/advies-en-overlegorgaan/commissies/federale-controle-en-evaluatiecommissie-euthanasie
  65. Foley K, Hendin H. 2002. The Case Against Assisted Suicide: For the Right to End-of-Life Care Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
  66. Fujioka JK, Mirza RM, McDonald PL, Kinger CA. 2018. Implementation of medical assistance in dying: a scoping review of health care providers’ perspectives. J. Pain Symptom Manag. 55:61564–76.e9
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Gandsman A. 2016.. “ A recipe for elder abuse”: from sin to risk in anti-euthanasia activism. Death Stud. 40:9578–88
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Gandsman A. 2018. The paradox of choice and the illusion of autonomy: the construction of ethical subjects in right to die activism. Death Stud. 42:5329–35
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Gandsman A, Herington T, Przybylak-Brouillard A. 2016. Mourir comme mode de vie: etre vers la mort et phénoménologie de l'activisme du droit de mourir. Anthropol. Soc. 40:359–84
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Ganzini L, Goy E, Dobscha S. 2007. Why Oregon patients request assisted death: family members’ views. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 23:154–57
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Ganzini L, Goy E, Dobscha S. 2009. Oregonians’ reasons for requesting physician aid in dying. Arch. Intern. Med. 169:5489–93
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Ganzini L, Nelson H, Schmidt T, Kraemer D, Delorit M, Lee M. 2000. Physicians’ experiences with the Oregon Death with Dignity Act. N. Engl. J. Med. 342:557–63
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Golden M, Zoanni T. 2010. Killing us softly: the dangers of legalizing assisted suicide. Disabil. Health J. 3:116–30
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Greenhouse C. 2006. Fieldwork on law. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 2:187–210
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Hacking I. 2006. Making up people. Lond. Rev. Books 28:16 https://www.lrb.co.uk/the-paper/v28/n16/ian-hacking/making-up-people
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Hamilton I, Miguel CJ, Clark D. 2020. Representations of palliative care, euthanasia and assisted dying within advocacy declarations. Mortality 25:2138–50
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Hannig A. 2019. Author(iz)ing death: medical aid-in-dying and the morality of suicide. Cult. Anthropol. 34:153–77
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Hannig A. 2022. The Day I Die: The Untold Story of Assisted Dying in America Napersville, IL: Sourcebooks
  79. Hedberg K, New C. 2017. Oregon's Death With Dignity Act: 20 years of experience to inform the debate. Ann. Intern. Med. 167:8579–83
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Heimer C. 2010. The unstable alliance of law and morality. Handbook of the Sociology of Morality S Hitlin, S Vaisey 179–202. New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Hendry M, Pasterfield D, Lewis R, Carter B, Hodgson D, Wilkinson C. 2013. Why do we want the right to die? A systematic review of the international literature on the views of patients, carers and the public on assisted dying. Palliat. Med. 27:113–26
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Hillyard D, Dombrink J. 2001. Dying Right: The Death with Dignity Movement London: Routledge
  83. Holmes S, Wiebe E, Shaw J, Nuhn A, Just A, Kelly M. 2018. Exploring the experience of supporting a loved one through medically assisted death in Canada. Can. Fam. Phys. 64:9e388–93
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Jasanoff S 2006. States of Knowledge: The Co-Production of Science and Social Order London: Routledge
  85. Jerolmack C, Khan S. 2014. Talk is cheap: ethnography and the attitudinal fallacy. Sociol. Methods Res. 43:2178–209
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Judd M, Seale C. 2011. Joining a right-to-die society: motivation, beliefs and experiences. Mortality 16:3223–41
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Kamahaki J, Cossman JS, Fox E. 2001. The right-to-die movement: extrapolating from the National Hemlock Society USA membership survey. OMEGA 43:17–23
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Karsoho H, Fishman J, Wright D, McDonald ME. 2016. Suffering and medicalization at the end of life: the case of physician-assisted dying. Soc. Sci. Med. 170:188–96
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Karsoho H, Wright DK, Macdonald ME, Fishman JR. 2017. Constructing physician-assisted dying: the politics of evidence from permissive jurisdictions in Carter v. . Canada. Mortality 22:145–59
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Kaufman S. 2010. Time, clinic technologies, and the cultural work of time left in an ageing society. Sociol. Health Illn. 32:2225–37
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Kim SY. 2021. Ways of debating assisted suicide and euthanasia: implications for psychiatry. Perspect. Biol. Med. 64:129–43
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Kingdon JW. 1984. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies Boston: Little, Brown
  93. Knight KR, Kushel M, Chang JS, Zamora K, Ceaser R et al. 2017. Opioid pharmacovigilance: a clinical-social history of the changes in opioid prescribing for patients with co-occurring chronic non-cancer pain and substance use. Soc. Sci. Med. 186:87–95
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Koksvik G, Richards N, Gerson SM, Materstvedt LJ. 2022. Medicalisation, suffering and control at the end of life: the interplay of deep continuous palliative sedation and assisted dying. Health 26:4512–31
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Kragh JV. 2019. The final step: the issue of euthanasia of people with mental disabilities in Denmark. Disabil. Soc. 34:1143–61
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Krauss A. 2018. Luisa's ghosts: haunted legality and collective expressions of pain. Med. Anthropol. 37:8688–702
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Lalancette M, Yates S, Rouillard C-A. 2020. #Participating #contesting: studying counterpublics’ discourses on Twitter about the social acceptability of medical assistance in dying legislation in Canada. Can. Rev. Sociol. 57:4604–31
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Lamers CPT, Williams RR. 2016. Older people's discourses about euthanasia and assisted suicide: a Foucauldian exploration. Gerontologist 56:61072–81
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Lauffer K, Baker S. 2020. US media coverage of Brittany Maynard's choice to die: how ideology and framing converged. Atl. J. Commun. 28:3180–93
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Lee LW. 2010. The Oregon paradox. J. Socio-Econ. 39:2204–8
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Leppert K. 2016. From Karen Ann Quinlan to Brittany Maynard: advanced health care directives and the road to aid-in-dying legislation in Iowa. Drake Law Rev. Discourse 65:1–28
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Levitsky S. 2013. Integrating law and health policy. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 9:33–50
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Livne R. 2014. Economies of dying: the moralization of economic scarcity in U.S. hospice care. Am. Sociol. Rev. 79:5888–911
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Mather L. 1998. Theorizing about trial courts: lawyers, policymaking, and tobacco litigation. Law Soc. Inq. 23:4897–940
    [Google Scholar]
  105. McInerney F. 2000.. “ Requested death”: a new social movement. Soc. Sci. Med. 50:1137–54
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Merry S. 2003. Rights talk and the experience of law: implementing women's human rights to protection from violence. Hum. Rights Q. 25:2343–81
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Mishtal J. 2009. Matters of “conscience”: the politics of reproductive healthcare in Poland. Med. Anthropol. Q. 23:2161–83
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Morgan L, Roberts EFS. 2012. Reproductive governance in Latin America. Med. Anthropol. 19:2241–54
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Mosher C, Akins S. 2019. In the Weeds: Demonization, Legalization, and the Evolution of U.S. Marijuana Policy. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
  110. Mwaria C. 1996. Physician-assisted suicide: an anthropological perspective. Fordham Urban Law J. 24:4859–68
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Neumann C. 2006. The Good Death: An Exploration of Dying in America Boston: Beacon
  112. Nissim R, Gagliese L, Rodin G. 2009. The desire for hastened death in individuals with advanced cancer: a longitudinal qualitative study. Soc. Sci. Med. 69:165–71
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Norwood F. 2009. The Maintenance of Life: Preventing Social Death through Euthanasia Talk and End-of-Life CareLessons from the Netherlands. Durham, NC: Carolina Acad.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Pellegrino E. 2005. Some things ought never be done: moral absolutes in clinical ethics. Theor. Med. Bioethics 26:6469–86
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Periyakoil VS, Kraemer H, Neri E. 2016. Multi-ethnic attitudes toward physician-assisted death in California and Hawaii. J. Palliat. Med. 19:101060–65
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Petrillo L, Dzeng E, Harrison K, Forbes L, Scribner B, Koenig B. 2017. How California prepared for implementation of physician-assisted death: a primer. Am. J. Public Health 107:6883–88
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Pool R. 1995. Negotiating a Good Death: Euthanasia in the Netherlands London: Routledge
  118. Potter J. 1996. Representing Reality: Discourse, Rhetoric, and Social Construction Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
  119. Pronk R, Willems DL, van de Vathorst S. 2021. Do doctors differentiate between suicide and physician-assisted death? A qualitative study into the views of psychiatrists and general practitioners. Cult. Med. Psychiatry 45:268–81
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Public Health Div. Cent. Stat 2021. Oregon Death with Dignity Act: 2021 data summary Rep. Or. Health Auth. https://www.oregon.gov/oha/ph/providerpartnerresources/evaluationresearch/deathwithdignityact/documents/year24.pdf
  121. Quill T, Back A, Block S. 2016. Responding to patients requesting physician-assisted death: physician involvement at the very end of life. JAMA 315:3245–46
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Quill TE, Battin MP, eds. 2004. Physician-Assisted Dying: The Case for Palliative Care and Patient Choice Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
  123. Rambotti S. 2017. Narratives of a dying woman: contentious meaning at the end of life. Socius 3: https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023117748111
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Richards N 2015. Dying to go to court: demanding a legal remedy to end-of-life uncertainty. The Clinic and the Court: Law, Medicine, and Anthropology I Harper, T Kelly, A Khanna 214–38. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Richards N. 2016. Assisted suicide as a remedy for suffering? The end-of-life preferences of British “suicide tourists. .” Med. Anthropol. 36:4348–62
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Richards N, Krawczyk M. 2021. What is the cultural value of dying in an era of assisted dying?. Med. Humanit. 47:161–67
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sadruddin AFA. 2022. Death in an ordinary time: reflections from Rwanda. Med. Anthropol. Q. 36:2198–216
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Seale C. 2010. How the mass media report social statistics: a case study concerning research on end-of-life decisions. Soc. Sci. Med. 71:5861–68
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Seale C, Addington-Hall J. 1995. Euthanasia: the role of good care. Soc. Sci. Med. 40:5581–87
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Sellars M, White BP, Yates P, Willmott L. 2022. Medical practitioners’ views and experiences of being involved in assisted dying in Victoria, Australia: a qualitative interview study among participating doctors. Soc. Sci. Med. 292:114568
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Selznick P. 1968. Law: the sociology of law. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 9 DL Sills New York: Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Sharma A. 2013. State transparency after the neoliberal turn: the politics, limits, and paradoxes of India's Right to Information Law. Political Legal Anthropol. Rev. 36:2308–25
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Sharp S. 2017. Traditional God images and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia. Rev. Relig. Res. 59:529–45
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Sharp S. 2019. Witnessing and experiencing miraculous healings and attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide. Rev. Relig. Res. 61:157–67
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Shavelson L, Pope TM, Battin MP, Ouellette A, Kluger B. 2022. Neurologic diseases and medical aid in dying: Aid-in-dying laws create an underclass of patients based on disability. Am. J. Bioethics. In press
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Shim J. 2010. Cultural health capital: a theoretical approach to understanding health care interactions and the dynamics of unequal treatment. J. Health Soc. Behav. 51:11–15
    [Google Scholar]
  137. shuster sm 2021. Trans Medicine: The Emergence and Practice of Treating Gender New York: NYU Press
  138. Silvius JL, Memon A, Arain M. 2019. Medical assistance in dying: Alberta approach and policy analysis. Can. J. Aging 38:3397–406
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Singer E. 2022. Lawful Sins: Abortion Rights and Reproductive Governance in Mexico Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  140. Snyder L, Sulmasy D. 2001. Physician-assisted suicide. Ann. Intern. Med. 135:3209–16
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Starks H, Back A, Pearlman R, Koenig B, Hsu C et al. 2007. Family member involvement in hastened death. Death Stud 31:2105–30
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Starks H, Pearlman R, Hsu C, Back A, Gordon J, Bharucha A. 2005. Why now? Timing and circumstances of hastening deaths. J. Pain Symptom Manag. 30:3215–26
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Stat. Res. Dep 2021. Number of deaths in Belgium from 2008 to 2021 accessed Oct. 19, 2022. https://www.statista.com/statistics/516846/number-of-deaths-in-belgium/
  144. Stavrianakis A. 2020. Leaving: A Narrative of Assisted Suicide Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
  145. Sulmasy LS, Mueller PS. 2017. Ethics and the legalization of physician-assisted suicide: an American College of Physicians position paper. Ann. Intern. Med. 167:8576–78
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Timmermans S. 2005. Death brokering: constructing culturally appropriate deaths. Sociol. Health Illn. 27:7993–1013
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Timmermans S. 2006. Postmortem: How Medical Examiners Explain Suspicious Deaths. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  148. van Eijk M. 2017. Insuring care: paperwork, insurance rules, and clinical labor at a U.S. transgender clinic. Cult. Med. Psychiatry 41:590–608
    [Google Scholar]
  149. van Wijngaarden E, Leget C, Goossensen A. 2015. Ready to give up on life: the lived experience of elderly people who feel life is completed and no longer worth living. Soc. Sci. Med. 138:257–64
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Weitzer R. 2009. Sociology of sex work. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 35:213–34
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Weyers H. 2006. Explaining the emergence of euthanasia law in the Netherlands: how the sociology of law can help the sociology of bioethics. Sociol. Health Illn. 28:6802–16
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Wilmott L, White B, Ko D, Downar J, Deliens L. 2020. Restricting conversations about voluntary assisted dying: implications for clinical practice. BMJ Support. Pallat. Care 10:1105–10
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Winters JP, Pickering N, Jaye C 2022. Winging it: a qualitative study of knowledge-acquisition experiences for early adopting providers of medical assistance in dying. Palliat. Care Soc. Pract. 16: https://doi.org/10.1177/26323524221103889
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Wright K, Chan LS, Fishman JR, Macdonald ME. 2021.. “ Reflection and soul searching”: negotiating nursing identity at the fault lines of palliative care and medical assistance in dying. Soc. Sci. Med. 289:114386
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Wright MS. 2017. End of life and autonomy: the case for relational nudges in end-of-life decision-making law and policy. Md. Law Rev. 77:1062–141
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Young JE, Jaye C, Egan R, Winters J, Egan T. 2021. The discursive context of medical aid in dying: A paradox of control?. Soc. Sci. Med. 291:114501
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110722-083932
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110722-083932
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error