1932

Abstract

This review examines the historical and contemporary factors driving immigrant worker precarity and the central role of race in achieving worker justice. We build from the framework of racial capitalism and historicize the legacies of African enslavement and Indigenous dispossession, which have cemented an exclusionary economic system in the United States and globally. We consider how racism and colonial legacies create migrant displacement and shape the experiences of immigrant workers. We also detail how racism permeates the immigration bureaucracy, driving migrant worker precarity. The traditional labor movement has played an important role in closing this gap, but increasingly so have worker centers and the immigrant rights movement as a whole. These partnerships have had to navigate coalitional tensions as they build new strategies for realizing immigrant worker rights.

Keyword(s): immigrationjusticeraceracismrightswork
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-111622-062400
2023-10-05
2024-06-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lawsocsci/19/1/annurev-lawsocsci-111622-062400.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-111622-062400&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abrego L, Coleman M, Martínez DE, Menjívar C, Slack J. 2017. Making immigrants into criminals: legal processes of criminalization in the post-IIRIRA era. J. Migr. Hum. Secur. 5:3694–715
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abrego LJ. 2017. On silences: Salvadoran refugees then and now. Latino Stud. 15:173–85
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Abrego LJ. 2019. Relational legal consciousness of U.S. citizenship: privilege, responsibility, guilt, and love in Latino mixed-status families. Law Soc. Rev. 53:3641–70
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Adler LH, Tapia M, Turner L, eds. 2014. Mobilizing against Inequality: Unions, Immigrant Workers, and the Crisis of Capitalism Frank W. Pierce Meml. Lecturesh. Conf. Ser Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Adossi N, Belay T, Lipscobe C, Ndugga-Kabuye B. 2018. Black lives at the border Resour., Black Alliance Just Immigr Brooklyn, NY: http://nyf.issuelab.org/resources/30546/30546.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  6. AFL-CIO (Am. Fed. Labor Congr. Ind. Organ) 2001. Resolution 5: a nation of immigrants Presented at the AFL-CIO 24th Biennial Convention: Conventions, Revolutions, and Executive Council Statements, Las Vegas, NV Dec 2–6, Washington, DC: https://aflcio.org/resolution/nation-immigrants
    [Google Scholar]
  7. AFL-CIO (Am. Fed. Labor Congr. Ind. Organ) 2017. The racial and economic justice report Rep., AFL-CIO Washington, DC: https://s3.amazonaws.com/dev.unionhall.files/img/RaceReport.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Albertson PC, Compa L. 2015. Labour rights and trade agreements in the Americas. Research Handbook on Transnational Labour Law A Blackett, A Trebilcock 474–94. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Andersen ML, Collins P 2004. Systems of power and inequality. Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology ML Andersen, P Collins 61–90. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadworth
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Anner M, Evans P. 2004. Building bridges across a double divide: alliances between US and Latin American labour and NGOs. Dev. Practice 14:134–47
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Aptekar S, Ticktin M. 2021. Must immigrants sacrifice themselves to COVID-19 for basic rights?. OpenDemocracy Febr. 6. https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/must-immigrants-sacrifice-themselves-covid-19-basic-rights/
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Armenta A. 2012. From sheriff's deputies to immigration officers: screening immigrant status in a Tennessee jail. Law Policy 34:2191–210
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Armenta A. 2016. Racializing crimmigration: structural racism, colorblindness, and the institutional production of immigrant criminality. Sociol. Race Ethn. 3:182–95
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Armenta A, Alvarez I. 2017. Policing immigrants or policing immigration? Understanding local law enforcement participation in immigration control. Sociol. Compass 11:2e12453
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ayala CJ, Bernabe R. 2009. Puerto Rico in the American Century: A History Since 1898 Chapel Hill: Univ. N.C. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bacon D. 2018. How unions help immigrants resist deportations. The American Prospect, Febr 13: http://prospect.org/article/how-unions-help-immigrants-resist-deportations
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bada X, Gleeson S, eds. 2019. Accountability Across Borders: Migrant Rights in North America Austin: Univ. Tex. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bada X, Gleeson S. 2020. Portable justice for migrant worker rights in North America. Diaspora Organizations in International Affairs D Dijkzeul, M Fauser. Glob. Inst. Ser New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Barron P, Bory A, Chauvin S, Jounin N, Tourette L. 2016. State categories and labour protest: migrant workers and the fight for legal status in France. Work Employ. Soc. 30:4631–48
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bernstein H, Gonzalez D, Karpman M, Zuckerman S. 2020. Amid confusion over the public charge rule, immigrant families continued avoiding public benefits in 2019 Brief, Urban Inst Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Black J. 2002. Critical reflections on regulation. Aust. J. Legal Philos. 27:1–35
    [Google Scholar]
  22. BLS (US Bur. Labor Stat.) 2022a. Fatal work injuries to Hispanic or Latino workers Graph. Econ. News Rel., BLS Washington, DC: https://www.bls.gov/charts/census-of-fatal-occupational-injuries/fatal-work-injuries-to-hispanic-or-latino-workers.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  23. BLS (US Bur. Labor Stat.) 2022b. Share of workplace deaths among Hispanic and Latino workers continued to rise in 2020. The Economics Daily March 3. https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2022/share-of-workplace-deaths-among-hispanic-and-latino-workers-continued-to-rise-in-2020.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  24. BLS (US Bur. Labor Stat.) 2022c. Foreign-born workers: labor force characteristics—2022 Econ. News Rel., USDL-22-0902. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/forbrn.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Boris E, Nadasen P. 2008. Domestic workers organize!. WorkingUSA 11:4413–37
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Bosniak L. 2006. The Citizen and the Alien: Dilemmas of Contemporary Membership Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Brown HE, Jones JA, Becker A. 2018. The racialization of Latino immigrants in new destinations: criminality, ascription, and countermobilization. Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 4:5118–40
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Budiman A. 2020. Key findings about U.S. immigrants. Pew Research Center Aug. 20. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/08/20/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants/
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Budiman A, Tamir C, Mora L, Noe-Bustamante L 2020. Facts on U.S. immigrants, 2018 Res. Top. Immigr. Migr., Pew Res. Cent Washington, DC: https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2020/08/20/facts-on-u-s-immigrants-current-data/
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Burgoon B, Fine J, Jacoby W, Tichenor D. 2010. Immigration and the transformation of American unionism. Int. Migr. 44:4933–73
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Butler A, Schafran A, Carpenter G. 2018. What does it mean when people call a place a shithole? Understanding a discourse of denigration in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Trans. Inst. Br. Geogr. 43:3496–510
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Calavita K. 2010. Invitation to Law and Society: An Introduction to the Study of Real Law Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Campos-Medina P. 2019. Not legal. Not illegal. Just TPS. Examining the integration experience of Central American immigrants living under a regime of long-term temporality PhD Thesis, Rutgers Univ. Newark, NJ: https://doi.org/10.7282/t3-grmk-bb70
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Campos-Medina P, Nava E, Aramendi S. 2023. Tandas and co-operativas: understanding the social economy of Indigenous Mexican immigrants settled in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, and Staten Island, New York.. Beyond Racial Capitalism: Co-Operatives in the African Diaspora C Shenaz Hossein, SD Wright Austin, K Edmonds 90–107. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Capozzola C 2020. Bound by War: How the United States and the Philippines Built America's First Pacific Century New York: Basic Books
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Capps R, Fix M, Batalova J. 2020. Anticipated “chilling effects” of the public-charge rule are real: Census data reflect steep decline in benefits use by immigrant families. Migration Policy Institute Commentaries Dec. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/news/anticipated-chilling-effects-public-charge-rule-are-real
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Carbado DW, Roithmayr D. 2014. Critical race theory meets social science. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 10:149–67
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Catanzarite L. 2000. Brown-collar jobs: occupational segregation and earnings of recent-immigrant Latinos. Sociol. Perspect. 53:145–75
    [Google Scholar]
  39. CDM (Cent. Derechos Migr.) 2019. Statement of Centro de Los Derechos del Migrante, Inc Lett., Immigr. Citizsh. Subcomm. US House Represent. Comm Judic: April 3. https://www.congress.gov/116/meeting/house/109235/documents/HHRG-116-JU01-20190403-SD003.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Chen MH. 2020. Pursuing Citizenship in the Enforcement Era Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Chhetri N, Dash P, Pottenger K. 2018. Justice on the job for nail salon workers. New Labor Forum 27:180–84
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Collins PH. 2019. Intersectionality as Critical Social Theory Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Costa D. 2017. Modern-day Braceros: The United States has 450,000 guestworkers in low-wage jobs and doesn't need more. Economic Policy Institute March 31. https://www.epi.org/blog/modern-day-braceros-the-united-states-has-450000-guestworkers-in-low-wage-jobs/
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Covington-Ward Y. 2021. Bodily burdens: physical abuse, workplace injury, and understanding intersectionality through the experiences of African immigrant direct care health workers. Transform Anthropol. 29:115–26
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Crenshaw KW. 1991. Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Rev. 43:61241–99
    [Google Scholar]
  46. [Google Scholar]
  47. Dep. Justice Civ. Rights Div 2015. Types of discrimination https://www.justice.gov/crt/types-discrimination
    [Google Scholar]
  48. DRUM, CDP (Desis Rising Up Mov., Commun. Dev. Proj. Urban Justice Cent.) 2012. Workers’ rights are human rights: South Asian immigrant workers in New York City Rep., DRUM, CDP https://www.drumnyc.org/wp-content/themes/wpaid/images/wc-report.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Dubuisson D. 2022. Haiti: Black utopia. Fieldsights May 3. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/haiti-black-utopia
    [Google Scholar]
  50. EEOC (Equal Employ. Oppor. Comm.) 2002. EEOC Compliance Manual, Section 13: National Origin Discrimination. Washington, DC. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/guidance/eeoc-enforcement-guidance-national-origin-discrimination
  51. Espiritu YL. 2014. Body Counts: The Vietnam War and Militarized Refugees Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Espiritu YL, Duong L 2022. Departures: An Introduction to Critical Refugee Studies Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Fernandez B. 2013. Traffickers, brokers, employment agents, and social networks: the regulation of intermediaries in the migration of Ethiopian domestic workers to the Middle East. Int. Migr. Rev. 47:4814–43
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Fine JR, Burnham L, Griffith K, Ji M, Narro V, Pitts SC, eds. 2018. No One Size Fits All: Worker Organization, Policy, and Movement in a New Economic Age Labor Employ. Relat. Assoc. Ser Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  55. FitzGerald DS. 2019. Refuge beyond Reach: How Rich Democracies Repel Asylum Seekers Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Fraser N. 2003. From discipline to flexibilization? Rereading Foucault in the shadow of globalization. Constellations 10:2160–71
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Garcia RJ. 2012. Marginal Workers: How Legal Fault Lines Divide Workers and Leave Them Without Protection New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gates HL Jr., Steele C, Bobo LD, Dawson M, Jaynes G et al. 2012. The Oxford Handbook of African American Citizenship, 1865–Present Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gates L, Griffith KL, Kim J, Mokhiber Z, Bazler JC, Case A. 2018. Sizing up worker center income (2008–2014): a study of revenue size, stability, and streams. See Fine et al. 2018 39–65
  60. Gleeson S. 2014. Means to an end: an assessment of the status-blind approach to protecting undocumented worker rights. Sociol. Perspect. 57:3301–20
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Gleeson S. 2016. Precarious Claims: The Promise and Failure of Workplace Protections in the United States Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Gleeson S, Griffith KL. 2020. Employers as subjects of the immigration state: how the state foments employment insecurity for temporary immigrant workers. Law Soc. Inq. 46:192–115
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Glenn EN. 1992. From servitude to service work: historical continuities in the racial division of paid reproductive labor. Signs 18:11–43
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Glenn EN. 2009. Unequal Freedom: How Race and Gender Shaped American Citizenship and Labor Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Golash-Boza T, Duenas MD, Xiong C. 2019. White supremacy, patriarchy, and global capitalism in migration studies. Am. Behav. Sci. 63:131741–59
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Golash-Boza T, Hondagneu-Sotelo P. 2013. Latino immigrant men and the deportation crisis: a gendered racial removal program. Lat. Stud. 11:3271–92
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Gomberg-Muñoz R. 2010. Willing to work: agency and vulnerability in an undocumented immigrant network. Am. Anthropol. 112:2295–307
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Gomberg-Muñoz R. 2012. Inequality in a “postracial” era: race, immigration, and criminalization of low-wage labor. Du Bois Rev. 9:2339–53
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Gordon MM. 1964. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Griffith KL. 2011. Discovering “immployment” law: the constitutionality of subfederal immigration regulation at work. Yale Law Policy Rev. 29:389–451
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Griffith KL, Gleeson S. 2019. Immigration enforcement and the employment sphere: unpacking Trump-era ‘immployment’ law. Southwest. Law Rev. 48:3475–501
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Hahamovitch C 2002. Standing idly by: “organized” farmworkers in South Florida during the Depression and World War II. The Human Cost of Food: Farmworkers’ Lives, Labor, and Advocacy CD Thompson, MF Wiggins 89–111. Austin: Univ. Tex. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Hallett MC. 2014. Temporary protection, enduring contradiction: the contested and contradictory meanings of temporary immigration status. Law Soc. Inq. 39:3621–42
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Hamlin R. 2008. Immigrants at work: labor unions and non-citizen members. Civic Hopes and Political Realities: Immigrants, Community Organizations, and Political Engagement SK Ramakrishnan, I Bloemraad 300–22. New York: Russell Sage Found. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Hamlin R. 2021. Crossing: How We Label and React to People on the Move Redwood City, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  76. HBA (Haitian Bridge Alliance) 2022. About: The Bridge https://haitianbridgealliance.org/about/
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Heeren G. 2015. The status of nonstatus. Am. Univ. Law Rev. 64:1115–81
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Hirsch BT, Macpherson DA, Even W. 2022. Union membership and coverage database https://www.unionstats.com/
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Hoffman Plastic Compounds, Inc., v. NLRB, 535 US 137 2002.)
  80. Huezo SM. 2020. A new era of solidarity. NACLA Rep. Am. 52:4373–78
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Hyman PE 2000. Beyond place and ethnicity: the uses of the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. Remembering the Lower East Side: American Jewish Reflections H Diner, J Shandler, BS Wenger 70–85. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Iskander N. 2021. Does Skill Make Us Human? Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Jenkins D, Leroy J, eds. 2021. Histories of Racial Capitalism New York: Columbia Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Jones R. 2021. White Borders and the History of Race and Immigration in the United States from Chinese Exclusion to the Border Wall Boston: Beacon
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Keating A, Anzaldúa G. 2009. The Gloria Anzaldúa Reader Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Keck ME, Sikkink K. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Kretsedemas P. 2022. Black Interdictions: Haitian Refugees and Antiblack Racism on the High Seas Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Lahav G. 1998. Immigration and the state: the devolution and privatisation of immigration control in the EU. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 24:4674–94
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Lam E, Shih E, Chin K, Zen K. 2021. The double-edged sword of health and safety: COVID-19 and the policing and exclusion of migrant Asian massage workers in North America. Soc. Sci. 10:5157
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Lee JJ. 2017. U.S. workers need not apply: challenging low-wage guest worker programs. Stanford Law Policy Rev. 28:11–60
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Lee TL, Tapia M. 2021. Confronting race and other social identity erasures: the case for critical industrial relations theory. ILR Rev. 74:3637–62
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Lempert R, Sanders J. 1986. An Invitation to Law and Social Science Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Leong N. 2013. Racial capitalism. Harvard Law Rev. 126:82151–2226
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Lipsky M. 1980. Street Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Lucas SR. 2008. Theorizing Discrimination in an Era of Contested Prejudice: Discrimination in the United States Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Maich K. 2014. Marginalized struggles for legal reform: cross-country consequences of domestic worker organizing. Soc. Dev. Issues 36:373–91
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Martin PL. 2017. Merchants of Labor. Recruiters and International Labor Migration Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press. , 1st ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Massey DS, Pren KA. 2012. Unintended consequences of US immigration policy: explaining the post-1965 surge from Latin America. Popul. Dev. Rev. 38:11–29
    [Google Scholar]
  99. McCarthy J 2022. U.S. approval of labor unions at highest point since 1965. Gallup Aug. 30. https://news.gallup.com/poll/398303/approval-labor-unions-highest-point-1965.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  100. McIntosh J, Mendoza-Denton N. 2020. Language in the Trump Era: Scandals and Emergencies Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Menjívar C, Simmons WP, Alvord D, Valdez ES. 2018. Immigration enforcement, the racialization of legal status, and perceptions of the police: Latinos in Chicago, Los Angeles, Houston, and Phoenix in comparative perspective. Du Bois Rev. 15:1107–28
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Milkman R 2006. L.A. Story: Immigrant Workers and the Future of the U.S. Labor Movement New York: Russell Sage Found. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Milkman R, Ott E. 2014. New Labor in New York: Precarious Workers and the Future of the Labor Movement Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Minow M. 1990. Making All the Difference: Inclusion, Exclusion, and American Law Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Mitra D 2005. Driving taxis in New York City: Who wants to do it?. The New Urban Immigrant Workforce: Innovative Models for Labor Organizing S Jayaraman, I Ness 33–56. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Ngai MM. 2003. The strange career of the illegal alien: immigration restriction and deportation policy in the United States, 1921–1965. Law Hist. Rev. 21:169–107
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Ngai MM. 2004. Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Passel JS, Cohn D. 2016. 2. Occupations of unauthorized immigrant workers. Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project Novemb. 3. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2016/11/03/occupations-of-unauthorized-immigrant-workers/
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Patel F. 2021a. Ending the ‘national security’ excuse for racial and religious profiling. Brennan Center for Justice July 22. https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/ending-national-security-excuse-racial-and-religious-profiling
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Patel I. 2021b. We're Here Because You Were There: Immigration and the End of Empire New York: Verso Books
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Perlmann J. 2005. Italians Then, Mexicans Now: Immigrant Origins and Second-Generation Progress, 1890 to 2000 New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Pitts SC. 2018. The National Black Worker Center Project: grappling with the power-building imperative. See Fine et al. 2018 115–37
  113. Portes A. 2007. Migration, development, and segmented assimilation: a conceptual review of the evidence. Ann. Am. Acad. Pol. Soc. Sci. 610:173–97
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Ramírez CS. 2020. Assimilation: An Alternative History Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Ribas V. 2015. On the Line: Slaughterhouse Lives and the Making of the New South Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Riley AR, Chen Y-H, Matthay EC, Maria Glymour M, Torres JM et al. 2021. Excess mortality among Latino People in California during the COVID-19 pandemic. SSM Popul. Health 15:100860
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Robinson CJ. 2020. Black Marxism, Revised and Updated Third Edition: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition Chapel Hill: Univ. N.C. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Robinson W, Santos X. 2014. Global capitalism, immigrant labor, and the struggle for justice. Class Race Corp. Power 2:31
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Rodriguez RM. 2008. Dis)unity and diversity in post-9/11 America. Sociol. Forum 23:2379–89
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Rodriguez RM, Saucedo L, eds. 2022. Race, Gender and Contemporary International Labor Migration Regimes: 21st-Century Coolies? Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Rodriguez Del Orbe D. 2022. Black immigrants in the United States face racism and criminalization. Teen Vogue April 5. https://www.teenvogue.com/story/black-immigrants-tps-ukraine
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Rodriguez-Diaz CE, Guilamo-Ramos V, Mena L, Hall E, Honermann B et al. 2020. Risk for COVID-19 infection and death among Latinos in the United States: examining heterogeneity in transmission dynamics. Ann. Epidemiol. 52:46–53.e2
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Romero M. 2008. Crossing the immigration and race border: a critical race theory approach to immigration studies. Contemp. Justice Rev. 11:123–37
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Rosales R. 2014. Stagnant immigrant social networks and cycles of exploitation. Ethn. Racial Stud. 37:142564–79
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Rosenfeld J. 2014. What Unions No Longer Do Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Sampaio A. 2015. Terrorizing Latina/o Immigrants Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sanya BN. 2021. Blackness, biopolitics, borders: African immigration, racialization, and the limits of American exceptionalism. Ethn. Racial Stud. 44:91527–48
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Serna de la Garza JM. 2019. Global governance and the protection of migrant workers’ rights in North America: in search of a theoretical framework. See Bada & Gleeson 2019a 55–82
  129. Solorzano DG, Yosso TJ. 2001. Critical race and LatCrit theory and method: counter-storytelling. Int. J. Qual. Stud. Educ. 14:4471–95
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Stuesse A. 2016. Scratching Out a Living: Latinos, Race, and Work in the Deep South Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Stumpf JP. 2006. The crimmigration crisis: immigrants, crime, and sovereign power. Am. Univ. Law Rev. 56:2367–419
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Svajlenka NP. 2020.. Protecting undocumented workers on the pandemic's front lines Rep., Dec. 2, Cent. Am. Prog. Washington, DC: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/reports/2020/12/02/493307/protecting-undocumented-workers-pandemics-front-lines/
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Tapia M, Alberti G. 2019. Social movement unionism: a toolkit of tactics or a strategic orientation? A critical assessment in the field of migrant workers campaigns. Social Movements and Organized Labour J Grote, C Wagemann, chapter 6 Abingdon, UK: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Telles EE, Ortiz V. 2008. Generations of Exclusion: Mexican Americans, Assimilation, and Race New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  135. TRAC (Trans. Rec. Access Clgh.) 2020. Asylum denial rates continue to climb Rep., TRAC Immigration, Syracuse Univ. Syracuse, NY: https://trac.syr.edu/immigration/reports/630/
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Treitler VB. 2013. The Ethnic Project: Transforming Racial Fiction into Ethnic Factions Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Trouillot M-R. 1995. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History Boston: Beacon
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Turner L, Cornfield DB. 2007. Labor in the New Urban Battlegrounds: Local Solidarity in a Global Economy Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  139. [Google Scholar]
  140. UFCW (Unit. Food Commer. Work.) 2022. The status of migrant agricultural workers in Canada, 2022. Rep., UFCW. http://ufcw.ca/templates/ufcwcanada/images/Agriculture_Workers/2022/Migrant-Workers-Report-2022-V6-EN.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Van Dyke N, McCammon HJ. 2010. Strategic Alliances: Coalition Building and Social Movements Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Vang M. 2020. History on the Run: Secrecy, Fugitivity, and Hmong Refugee Epistemologies Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Volpp L. 2015. The indigenous as alien. Immigr. Nat. Law Rev. 36:773–812
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Vosko LF. 2016. Blacklisting as a modality of deportability: Mexico's response to circular migrant agricultural workers’ pursuit of collective bargaining rights in British Columbia, Canada. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 42:81371–87
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Wadhia SS. 2019. Banned: Immigration Enforcement in the Time of Trump New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Waldinger RD, Lichter MI. 2003. How the Other Half Works: Immigration and the Social Organization of Labor Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Wane A, Coletu E. 2019. Lives on the line. Biography 42:3524–35
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Weil D. 2014. The Fissured Workplace: Why Work Became So Bad for So Many and What Can Be Done to Improve It Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-111622-062400
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error