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Abstract

In this overview of steel-based composites, consideration is given to conventional metal-matrix composites, in which steel is combined with another metal, ceramic, or polymer. In addition, we define fully steel composites, in which both components of the structure are developed within the steel. These approaches are integrated by discussing a series of macroscopic, mesoscopic, and microscopic examples. This review provides an integrated view of steel composites and allows modeling of the mechanical response to be considered both at the continuum level and in terms of dislocation mechanisms depending on the length scale and the degree of mechanical contrast between the constituent phases. In the context of fully steel composites, consideration is given to static systems in which the volume fraction of the strengthening phase is constant and the length scale is varied by heat treatment or imposed plastic strain. Moreover, we discuss dynamic systems in which a phase transition occurs concomitantly with plastic strain, resulting in an increase in the density of planar barriers that control the plasticity. A discussion of classical works that describe materials such as Damascus steels is used as a template to consider a variety of ways of producing ultrahigh-strength steel composites. Examples of applications are cited and linked to the important issue of developing appropriate fabrication methods for the production of current and future steel composites.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-matsci-070909-104438
2010-08-04
2024-06-16
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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