1932

Abstract

Hydrous transition metal oxides (TMOs) are redox-active materials that confine structural water within their bulk, organized in 1D, 2D, or 3D networks. In an electrochemical cell, hydrous TMOs can interact with electrolyte species not only via their outer surface but also via their hydrous inner surface, which can transport electrolyte species to the interior of the material. Many TMOs operating in an aqueous electrochemical environment transform to hydrous TMOs, which then serve as the electrochemically active phase. This review summarizes the physicochemical properties of hydrous TMOs and recent mechanistic insights into their behavior in electrochemical reactions of interest for energy storage, conversion, and environmental applications. Particular focus is placed on first-principles calculations and operando characterization to obtain an atomistic view of their electrochemical mechanisms. Hydrous TMOs represent an important class of energy and environmental materials in aqueous and nonaqueous environments. Further understanding of their interaction with electrolyte species is likely to yield advancements in electrochemical reactivity and kinetics for energy and environmental applications.

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2023-07-03
2024-04-12
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