1932

Abstract

Addiction is a disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and consumption observed in 20–30% of users. An addicted individual will favor drug reward over natural rewards, despite major negative consequences. Mechanistic research on rodents modeling core components of the disease has identified altered synaptic transmission as the functional substrate of pathological behavior. While the initial version of a circuit model for addiction focused on early drug adaptive behaviors observed in all individuals, it fell short of accounting for the stochastic nature of the transition to compulsion. The model builds on the initial pharmacological effect common to all addictive drugs—an increase in dopamine levels in the mesolimbic system. Here, we consolidate this early model by integrating circuits underlying compulsion and negative reinforcement. We discuss the genetic and epigenetic correlates of individual vulnerability. Many recent data converge on a gain-of-function explanation for circuit remodeling, revealing blueprints for novel addiction therapies.

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2021-07-08
2024-06-15
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