1932

Abstract

Dietary guidelines are formulated to meet minimum nutrient requirements, which prevent deficiencies and maintain health, growth, development, and function. These guidelines can be inadequate and contribute to disrupted homeostasis, lean body mass loss, and deteriorated performance in individuals who are working long, arduous hours with limited access to food in environmentally challenging locations. Environmental extremes can elicit physiological adjustments that alone alter nutrition requirements by upregulating energy expenditure, altering substrate metabolism, and accelerating body water and muscle protein loss. The mechanisms by which the environment, including high-altitude, heat, and cold exposure, alters nutrition requirements have been studied extensively. This contemporary review discusses physiological adjustments to environmental extremes, particularly when those adjustments alter dietary requirements.

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2020-08-21
2024-06-19
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