1932

Abstract

Medication nonadherence is a serious public health concern. Although there are promising interventions that improve medication adherence, most interventions are developed and tested in tightly controlled research environments that are dissimilar from the real-world settings where the majority of patients receive health care. Implementation science methods have the potential to facilitate and accelerate the translation shift from the trial world to the real world. We demonstrate their potential by reviewing published, high-quality medication adherence studies that could potentially be translated into clinical practice yet lack essential implementation science building blocks. We further illustrate this point by describing an adherence study that demonstrates how implementation science creates a junction between research and real-world settings. This article is a call to action for researchers, clinicians, policy makers, pharmaceutical companies, and others involved in the delivery of care to adopt the implementation science paradigm in the scale-up of adherence (research) programs.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010818-021348
2019-01-06
2024-05-30
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/pharmtox/59/1/annurev-pharmtox-010818-021348.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010818-021348&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.  Liska J, Beal A 2017. One patient is not one condition: delivering patient-centered care to those with multiple chronic conditions. Ther. Innov. Regul. Sci. 51:468–70
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.  Simpson SH, Eurich DT, Majumdar SR, Padwal RS, Tsuyuki RT et al. 2006. A meta-analysis of the association between adherence to drug therapy and mortality. BMJ 333:15
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.  Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, Ashok M, Blalock SJ et al. 2012. Interventions to improve adherence to self-administered medications for chronic diseases in the United States: a systematic review. Ann. Intern. Med. 157:785–95
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.  Grogan K 2012. Poor adherence costs pharma $564 billion per year. Pharma Times Nov. 27. http://www.pharmatimes.com/news/poor_adherence_costs_pharma_$564_billion_per_year_976158
  5. 5.  Gorenoi V, Schoenermark MP, Hagen A 2007. Massnahmen zur Verbesserung der Compliance bzw. Adherence in der Arzneimitteltherapie mit Hinblick auf den Therapieerfolg [Interventions for enhancing medication compliance/adherence with benefits in treatment outcomes]. Rep. 65, Ger. Agency Health Technol Assess., Cologne, Ger
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.  Vrijens B, De Geest S, Hughes DA, Przemyslaw K, Demonceau J et al. 2012. A new taxonomy for describing and defining adherence to medications. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 73:691–705
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7.  Blaschke TF, Osterberg L, Vrijens B, Urquhart J 2012. Adherence to medications: insights arising from studies on the unreliable link between prescribed and actual drug dosing histories. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 52:275–301
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.  Aznar-Lou I, Iglesias-Gonzalez M, Gil-Girbau M, Serrano-Blanco A, Fernandez A et al. 2018. Impact of initial medication non-adherence to SSRIs on medical visits and sick leaves. J. Affect. Disord. 226:282–86
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.  Laius O, Pisarev H, Volmer D, Koks S, Martson A, Maasalu K 2017. Use of a national database as a tool to identify primary medication non-adherence: the Estonian ePrescription system. Res. Soc. Adm. Pharm. 14:776–83
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.  Fischer MA, Stedman MR, Lii J, Vogeli C, Shrank WH et al. 2010. Primary medication non-adherence: analysis of 195,930 electronic prescriptions. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 25:284–90
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.  Jackevicius CA, Li P, Tu JV 2008. Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of primary nonadherence after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 117:1028–36
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.  Yeaw J, Benner JS, Walt JG, Sian S, Smith DB 2009. Comparing adherence and persistence across 6 chronic medication classes. J. Manag. Care Pharm. 15:728–40
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.  Vrijens B, Vincze G, Kristanto P, Urquhart J, Burnier M 2008. Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive drug treatments: longitudinal study of electronically compiled dosing histories. BMJ 336:1114–17
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.  Conn VS, Hafdahl AR, Cooper PS, Ruppar TM, Mehr DR, Russell CL 2009. Interventions to improve medication adherence among older adults: meta-analysis of adherence outcomes among randomized controlled trials. Gerontologist 49:447–62
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.  Demonceau J, Ruppar T, Kristanto P, Hughes DA, Fargher E et al. 2013. Identification and assessment of adherence-enhancing interventions in studies assessing medication adherence through electronically compiled drug dosing histories: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Drugs 73:545–62
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16.  Kripalani S, Yao X, Haynes RB 2007. Interventions to enhance medication adherence in chronic medical conditions: a systematic review. Arch. Intern. Med. 167:540–50
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17.  McDonald HP, Garg AX, Haynes RB 2002. Interventions to enhance patient adherence to medication prescriptions: scientific review. JAMA 288:2868–79
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18.  Nieuwlaat R, Wilczynski N, Navarro T, Hobson N, Jeffery R et al. 2014. Interventions for enhancing medication adherence. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 11:CD000011
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19.  Peterson AM, Takiya L, Finley R 2003. Meta-analysis of trials of interventions to improve medication adherence. Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 60:657–65
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20.  Roter DL, Hall JA, Merisca R, Nordstrom B, Cretin D, Svarstad B 1998. Effectiveness of interventions to improve patient compliance: a meta-analysis. Med. Care 36:1138–61
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21.  Vervloet M, van Dijk L, Santen-Reestman J, van Vlijmen B, van Wingerden P et al. 2012. SMS reminders improve adherence to oral medication in type 2 diabetes patients who are real time electronically monitored. Int. J. Med. Inf. 81:594–604
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22.  Berben L, Dobbels F, Engberg S, Hill MN, De Geest S 2012. An ecological perspective on medication adherence. West. J. Nurs. Res. 34:635–53
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23.  Morrison VL, Holmes EA, Parveen S, Plumpton CO, Clyne W et al. 2015. Predictors of self-reported adherence to antihypertensive medicines: a multinational, cross-sectional survey. Value Health 18:206–16
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24.  Denhaerynck K, Berben L, Dobbels F, Russell CL, Crespo-Leiro MG et al. 2017. Multilevel factors are associated with immunosuppressant nonadherence in heart transplant recipients: the international BRIGHT study. Am. J. Transplant. 18:1447–60
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25.  Michie S, van Stralen MM, West R 2011. The behaviour change wheel: a new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implement. Sci. 6:42
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26.  Duerden M, Avery T, Payne R 2013. Polypharmacy and Medicines Optimisation: Making It Safe and Sound London: King's Fund
  27. 27.  Balas EA, Boren SA 2000. Managing clinical knowledge for health care improvement. Yearb. Med. Inf. 2000:165–70
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28.  Kellam SG, Langevin DJ 2003. A framework for understanding “evidence” in prevention research and programs. Prev. Sci. 4:137–53
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29.  Zullig LL, Gellad WF, Moaddeb J, Crowley MJ, Shrank W et al. 2015. Improving diabetes medication adherence: successful, scalable interventions. Patient Prefer. Adherence 9:139–49
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.  Brown I, Sheeran P, Reuber M 2009. Enhancing antiepileptic drug adherence: a randomized controlled trial. Epilepsy Behav 16:634–39
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31.  Choudhry NK, Avorn J, Glynn RJ, Antman EM, Schneeweiss S et al. 2011. Full coverage for preventive medications after myocardial infarction. New Engl. J. Med. 365:2088–97
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32.  Derose SF, Green K, Marrett E, Tunceli K, Cheetham TC et al. 2013. Automated outreach to increase primary adherence to cholesterol-lowering medications. JAMA Intern. Med. 173:38–43
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33.  Eussen SR, van der Elst ME, Klungel OH, Rompelberg CJ, Garssen J et al. 2010. A pharmaceutical care program to improve adherence to statin therapy: a randomized controlled trial. Ann. Pharmacother. 44:1905–13
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34.  Farooq S, Nazar Z, Irfan M, Akhter J, Gul E et al. 2011. Schizophrenia medication adherence in a resource-poor setting: randomised controlled trial of supervised treatment in out-patients for schizophrenia (STOPS). Br. J. Psychiatry 199:467–72
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35.  Fisher JD, Amico KR, Fisher WA, Cornman DH, Shuper PA et al. 2011. Computer-based intervention in HIV clinical care setting improves antiretroviral adherence: the LifeWindows Project. AIDS Behav 15:1635–46
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36.  Goswami NJ, Dekoven M, Kuznik A, Mardekian J, Krukas MR et al. 2013. Impact of an integrated intervention program on atorvastatin adherence: a randomized controlled trial. Int. J. Gen. Med. 6:647–55
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37.  Gray TA, Fenerty C, Harper R, Spencer AF, Campbell M et al. 2012. Individualised patient care as an adjunct to standard care for promoting adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy: an exploratory randomised controlled trial. Eye 26:407–17
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38.  Ho PM, Lambert-Kerzner A, Carey EP, Fahdi IE, Bryson CL et al. 2014. Multifaceted intervention to improve medication adherence and secondary prevention measures after acute coronary syndrome hospital discharge: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern. Med. 174:186–93
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39.  Janson SL, McGrath KW, Covington JK, Cheng SC, Boushey HA 2009. Individualized asthma self-management improves medication adherence and markers of asthma control. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 123:840–46
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40.  Lai PS, Chua SS, Chew YY, Chan SP 2011. Effects of pharmaceutical care on adherence and persistence to bisphosphonates in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 36:557–67
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41.  Lester RT, Mills EJ, Kariri A, Ritvo P, Chung M et al. 2009. The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized controlled trial protocol. Trials 10:87
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.  Lester RT, Ritvo P, Mills EJ, Kariri A, Karanja S et al. 2010. Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): a randomised trial. Lancet 376:1838–45
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43.  Marquez Contreras E, Casado Martinez JJ, Motero Carrasco J, Martin de Pablos JL, Chaves Gonzalez R et al. 2007. El cumplimiento terapéutico en las dislipemias medido mediante monitores electrónicos. ¿Es eficaz un calendario recordatorio para evitar los olvidos? [Therapy compliance in cases of hyperlipaemia, as measured through electronic monitors. Is a reminder calendar to avoid forgetfulness effective?]. Aten. Primaria 39:661–68
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44.  Mehuys E, Van Bortel L, De Bolle L, Van Tongelen I, Annemans L et al. 2011. Effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention in diabetes care: a randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 36:602–13
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.  Mullan RJ, Montori VM, Shah ND, Christianson TJ, Bryant SC et al. 2009. The diabetes mellitus medication choice decision aid: a randomized trial. Arch. Intern. Med. 169:1560–68
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46.  Murray MD, Young J, Hoke S, Tu W, Weiner M et al. 2007. Pharmacist intervention to improve medication adherence in heart failure: a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 146:714–25
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47.  Ogedegbe G, Schoenthaler A, Richardson T, Lewis L, Belue R et al. 2007. An RCT of the effect of motivational interviewing on medication adherence in hypertensive African Americans: rationale and design. Contemp. Clin. Trials 28:169–81
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48.  Ogedegbe GO, Boutin-Foster C, Wells MT, Allegrante JP, Isen AM et al. 2012. A randomized controlled trial of positive-affect intervention and medication adherence in hypertensive African Americans. Arch. Intern. Med. 172:322–26
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.  Solomon DH, Gleeson T, Iversen M, Avorn J, Brookhart MA et al. 2010. A blinded randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing to improve adherence with osteoporosis medications: design of the OPTIMA trial. Osteoporos. Int. 21:137–44
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50.  Solomon DH, Iversen MD, Avorn J, Gleeson T, Brookhart MA et al. 2012. Osteoporosis telephonic intervention to improve medication regimen adherence: a large, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial. Arch. Intern. Med. 172:477–83
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.  Staring AB, Van der Gaag M, Koopmans GT, Selten JP, Van Beveren JM et al. 2010. Treatment adherence therapy in people with psychotic disorders: randomised controlled trial. Br. J. Psychiatry 197:448–55
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52.  Taiwo BO, Idoko JA, Welty LJ, Otoh I, Job G et al. 2010. Assessing the viorologic and adherence benefits of patient-selected HIV treatment partners in a resource-limited setting. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 54:85–92
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.  Deleted in proof
  54. 54.  Adler AJ, Martin N, Mariani J, Tajer CD, Owolabi OO et al. 2017. Mobile phone text messaging to improve medication adherence in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 4:CD011851
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55.  Al-Aqeel S, Gershuni O, Al-Sabhan J, Hiligsmann M 2017. Strategies for improving adherence to antiepileptic drug treatment in people with epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2:CD008312
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56.  Fryer CE, Luker JA, McDonnell MN, Hillier SL 2016. Self management programmes for quality of life in people with stroke. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 8:CD010442
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57.  Kauppi K, Valimaki M, Hatonen HM, Kuosmanen LM, Warwick-Smith K, Adams CE 2014. Information and communication technology based prompting for treatment compliance for people with serious mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 6:CD009960
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58.  Kew KM, Malik P, Aniruddhan K, Normansell R 2017. Shared decision-making for people with asthma. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 10:CD012330
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59.  Normansell R, Kew KM, Stovold E 2017. Interventions to improve adherence to inhaled steroids for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 4:CD012226
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60.  van Driel ML, Morledge MD, Ulep R, Shaffer JP, Davies P, Deichmann R 2016. Interventions to improve adherence to lipid-lowering medication. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 12:CD004371
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61.  Higgins JPT, Green S 2005. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011] The Cochrane Collaboration http://handbook-5-1.cochrane.org/
  62. 62.  Peters DH, Adam T, Alonge O, Agyepong IA, Tran N 2013. Implementation research: what it is and how to do it. BMJ 347:f6753
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63.  Leeman J, Birken SA, Powell BJ, Rohweder C, Shea CM 2017. Beyond “implementation strategies”: classifying the full range of strategies used in implementation science and practice. Implement. Sci. 12:125
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64.  Powell BJ, Proctor EK, Glass JE 2014. A systematic review of strategies for implementing empirically supported mental health interventions. Res. Soc. Work Pract. 24:192–212
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65.  Proctor E, Silmere H, Raghavan R, Hovmand P, Aarons G et al. 2011. Outcomes for implementation research: conceptual distinctions, measurement challenges, and research agenda. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 38:65–76
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66.  Curran GM, Bauer M, Mittman B, Pyne JM, Stetler C 2012. Effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs: combining elements of clinical effectiveness and implementation research to enhance public health impact. Med. Care 50:217–26
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.  Damschroder LJ, Aron DC, Keith RE, Kirsh SR, Alexander JA, Lowery JC 2009. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science. Implement. Sci. 4:50
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68.  Mycek C 2015. The new 5 Ps of healthcare marketing. Cadient http://getresultsinaction.com/the-new-5-ps-of-healthcare-marketing
  69. 69.  Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Macfarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O 2004. Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Q 82:581–629
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70.  Rogers EM 2010. Diffusion of Innovations New York: Simon & Schuster. , 4th ed..
  71. 71.  Fixsen DL, Naoom SF, Blase KA, Friedman RM 2005. Implementation research: a synthesis of the literature Rep. 231, Louis de la Parte Florida Ment. Health Inst., Univ South Florida Tampa:
  72. 72.  Carroll C, Patterson M, Wood S, Booth A, Rick J, Balain S 2007. A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity. Implement. Sci. 2:40
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73.  Mendel P, Meredith LS, Schoenbaum M, Sherbourne CD, Wells KB 2008. Interventions in organizational and community context: a framework for building evidence on dissemination and implementation in health services research. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 35:21–37
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74.  Perrin KM, Burke SG, O'Connor D, Walby G, Shippey C et al. 2006. Factors contributing to intervention fidelity in a multi-site chronic disease self-management program. Implement. Sci. 1:26
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75.  King H, Bosworth HB 2015. Treatment fidelity in health services research. Treatment Integrity: Conceptual, Methodological, and Applied Considerations for Practitioners L Sanetti 15–34 Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76.  Ogilvie D, Mitchell R, Mutrie N, Petticrew M, Platt S 2006. Evaluating health effects of transport interventions methodologic case study. Am. J. Prev. Med. 31:118–26
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77.  Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Michie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M 2008. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ 337a1655
  78. 78.  Oakley A, Strange V, Bonell C, Allen E, Stephenson J 2006. Process evaluation in randomised controlled trials of complex interventions. BMJ 332:413–16
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79.  Abraham C, Michie S 2008. A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychol 27:379–87
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80.  Bosworth HB, Dubard CA, Ruppenkamp J, Trygstad T, Hewson DL, Jackson GL 2011. Evaluation of a self-management implementation intervention to improve hypertension control among patients in Medicaid. Transl. Behav. Med. 1:191–99
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81.  Bosworth HB, Olsen MK, Goldstein MK, Orr M, Dudley T et al. 2005. The veterans' study to improve the control of hypertension (V-STITCH): design and methodology. Contemp. Clin. Trials 26:155–68
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82.  Powell BJ, Waltz TJ, Chinman MJ, Damschroder LJ, Smith JL et al. 2015. A refined compilation of implementation strategies: results from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project. Implement. Sci. 10:21
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83.  Choudhry NK, Brennan T, Toscano M, Spettell C, Glynn RJ et al. 2008. Rationale and design of the post-MI FREEE trial: a randomized evaluation of first-dollar drug coverage for post-myocardial infarction secondary preventive therapies. Am. Heart J. 156:31–36
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84.  Simoni JM, Huh D, Frick PA, Pearson CR, Andrasik MP et al. 2009. Peer support and pager messaging to promote antiretroviral modifying therapy in Seattle: a randomized controlled trial. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 52:4465–73
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010818-021348
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010818-021348
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error