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Abstract

Oral vaccination enables pain-free and self-administrable vaccine delivery for rapid mass vaccination during pandemic outbreaks. Furthermore, it elicits systemic and mucosal immune responses. This protects against infection at mucosal surfaces, which may further enhance protection and minimize the spread of disease. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract presents a number of prospective mucosal inductive sites for vaccine targeting, including the oral cavity, stomach, and small intestine. However, currently available oral vaccines are effectively limited to live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines against enteric diseases. The GI tract poses a number of challenges,including degradative processes that digest biologics and mucosal barriers that limit their absorption. This review summarizes the approaches currently under development and future opportunities for oral vaccine delivery to established (intestinal) and relatively new (oral cavity, stomach) mucosal targets. Special consideration is given to recent advances in oral biologic delivery that offer promise as future platforms for the administration of oral vaccines.

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2021-01-06
2024-06-18
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