1932

Abstract

The classic density-functional theory (DFT) formalism introduced by Hohenberg, Kohn, and Sham in the mid-1960s is based on the idea that the complicated -electron wave function can be replaced with the mathematically simpler 1-electron charge density in electronic structure calculations of the ground stationary state. As such, ordinary DFT cannot treat time-dependent (TD) problems nor describe excited electronic states. In 1984, Runge and Gross proved a theorem making TD-DFT formally exact. Information about electronic excited states may be obtained from this theory through the linear response (LR) theory formalism. Beginning in the mid-1990s, LR-TD-DFT became increasingly popular for calculating absorption and other spectra of medium- and large-sized molecules. Its ease of use and relatively good accuracy has now brought LR-TD-DFT to the forefront for this type of application. As the number and the diversity of applications of TD-DFT have grown, so too has our understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the approximate functionals commonly used for TD-DFT. The objective of this article is to continue where a previous review of TD-DFT in Volume 55 of the left off and highlight some of the problems and solutions from the point of view of applied physical chemistry. Because doubly-excited states have a particularly important role to play in bond dissociation and formation in both thermal and photochemistry, particular emphasis is placed on the problem of going beyond or around the TD-DFT adiabatic approximation, which limits TD-DFT calculations to nominally singly-excited states.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-physchem-032511-143803
2012-05-05
2024-06-24
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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