1932

Abstract

The physics and chemistry of mineral–water interfaces are complex, even in idealized systems. Our need to understand this complexity is driven by both pure and applied sciences, that is, by the need for basic understanding of earth systems and for the knowledge to mitigate our influences upon them. The second-order nonlinear optical techniques of second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation spectroscopy have proven adept at probing these types of interfaces. This review focuses on the contributions to geochemistry made by nonlinear optical methods. The types of questions probed have included a basic description of the structure adopted by water molecules at the mineral interface, how flow and porosity affect this structure, adsorption of trace metal and organic species, and dissolution mechanisms. We also discuss directions and challenges that lie ahead and the outlook for the continued use of nonlinear optical methods for studies of mineral–water boundaries.

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2016-05-27
2024-06-24
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