The physics and chemistry of mineral–water interfaces are complex, even in idealized systems. Our need to understand this complexity is driven by both pure and applied sciences, that is, by the need for basic understanding of earth systems and for the knowledge to mitigate our influences upon them. The second-order nonlinear optical techniques of second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation spectroscopy have proven adept at probing these types of interfaces. This review focuses on the contributions to geochemistry made by nonlinear optical methods. The types of questions probed have included a basic description of the structure adopted by water molecules at the mineral interface, how flow and porosity affect this structure, adsorption of trace metal and organic species, and dissolution mechanisms. We also discuss directions and challenges that lie ahead and the outlook for the continued use of nonlinear optical methods for studies of mineral–water boundaries.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Morgan JJ. 1.  1999. 1998 V. M. Goldschmidt Medal: introduction of Werner Stumm. Geochim. Cosmoschim. Acta 63:viii–x [Google Scholar]
  2. Hiemstra T, van Riemsdijk WH. 2.  2006. On the relationship between charge distribution, surface hydration, and the structure of the interface of metal hydroxides. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 301:1–18 [Google Scholar]
  3. Rahnemaie R, Hiemstra T, van Riemsdijk WH. 3.  2006. A new structural approach to ion adsorption: tracing the location of electrolyte ions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 293:312–21 [Google Scholar]
  4. Rahnemaie R, Hiemstra T, van Riemsdijk WH. 4.  2006. Inner- and outer-sphere complexation of ions at the goethite–solution interface. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 297:379–88 [Google Scholar]
  5. Wanninkhof R, Asher WE, Ho DT, Sweeney C, McGillis WR. 5.  2009. Advances in quantifying air–sea gas exchange and environmental forcing. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1:213–44 [Google Scholar]
  6. Klaas C, Archer DE. 6.  2002. Association of sinking organic matter with various types of mineral ballast in the deep sea: implications for the rain ratio. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16:1116 [Google Scholar]
  7. Shi Z, Krom MD, Jickells TD, Bonneville S, Carslaw KS. 7.  et al. 2012. Impacts on iron solubility in the mineral dust by processes in the source region and the atmosphere: a review. Aeolian Res. 5:21–42 [Google Scholar]
  8. Morel FMM, Hering JG. 8.  1993. Principles and Applications of Aquatic Chemistry New York: Wiley-Interscience [Google Scholar]
  9. Martin W, Baross J, Kelley D, Russell MJ. 9.  2008. Hydrothermal vents and the origin of life. Nature Rev. Microbiol. 6:804–14 [Google Scholar]
  10. Stumm W, Morgan JJ. 10.  1995. Aquatic Chemistry: Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters New York: Wiley Intersci, 3rd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  11. Grahame DC. 11.  1947. The electrical double layer and the theory of electrocapillarity. Chem. Rev. 41:441–501 [Google Scholar]
  12. Kahan TF, Reid JP, Donaldson DJ. 12.  2007. Spectroscopic probes of the quasi-liquid layer on ice. J. Phys. Chem. A 111:11006–12 [Google Scholar]
  13. Wren SN, Donalson D. 13.  2012. Glancing-angle Raman study of nitrate and nitric acid at the air-aqueous interface. Chem. Phys. Lett. 522:1–10 [Google Scholar]
  14. Lambert AG, Davies PB, Neivandt DJ. 14.  2005. Implementing the theory of sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy: a tutorial review. Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 40:103–45 [Google Scholar]
  15. Shen YR. 15.  1984. The Principles of Nonlinear Optics New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  16. Shen YR. 16.  1989. Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation. Nature 337:519–25 [Google Scholar]
  17. Butcher PN, Cotter D. 17.  1990. The Elements of Nonlinear Optics Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  18. Boyd RW. 18.  2003. Nonlinear Optics San Diego: Academic, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  19. Shen YR. 19.  1989. Optical second harmonic generation at interfaces. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 40:327–50 [Google Scholar]
  20. Shen YR. 20.  2013. Phase-sensitive sum-frequency spectroscopy. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 64:129–50 [Google Scholar]
  21. Bloembergen N, Pershan PS. 21.  1962. Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media. Phys. Rev. 128:606–22 [Google Scholar]
  22. Shen YR. 22.  1989. Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation. Nature 337:519–25 [Google Scholar]
  23. Velarde L, Wang HF. 23.  2013. Unified treatment and measurement of the spectral resolution and temporal effects in frequency-resolved sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS). Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15:19970–84 [Google Scholar]
  24. Velarde L, Zhang X, Lu Z, Joly AG, Wang Z, Wang HF. 24.  2011. Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes in high-resolution broadband sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy: resolving interfacial inhomogeneities of ``identical’’ molecular groups. J. Chem. Phys. 135:241102 [Google Scholar]
  25. Mifflin AL, Velarde L, Ho J, Psciuk BT, Negre CFA. 25.  et al. 2015. Accurate line shapes from sub-1 cm−1 resolution sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy of α-pinene at room temperature. J. Phys. Chem. A 119:1292–302 [Google Scholar]
  26. Sovago M, Vartiainen E, Bonn M. 26.  2009. Determining absolute molecular orientation at interfaces: a phase retrieval approach for sum frequency generation spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. C 113:6100–6 [Google Scholar]
  27. de Beer AGF, Samson JS, Hua W, Huang Z, Chen X. 27.  et al. 2011. Direct comparison of phase-sensitive vibrational sum frequency generation with maximum entropy method: case study of water. J. Chem. Phys. 135:224701 [Google Scholar]
  28. Sovago M, Vartiainen E, Bonn M. 28.  2009. Observation of buried water molecules in phospholipid membranes by surface sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. J. Chem. Phys. 131:161107 [Google Scholar]
  29. Chang RK, Ducuing J, Bloembergen N. 29.  1965. Relative phase measurement between fundamental and second-harmonic light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 15:6–8 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kemnitz K, Bhattacharyya K, Hicks JM, Pinto GR, Eisenthal KB. 30.  1986. The phase of second-harmonic light generated at an interface and its relation to absolute molecular orientation. Chem. Phys. Lett. 131:285–90 [Google Scholar]
  31. Stolle R, Marowsky G, Schwarzberg E, Berkovic G. 31.  1996. Phase measurement in nonlinear optics. Appl. Phys. B 63:491–98 [Google Scholar]
  32. Jeon Y, Min H, Kim D, Oh-E M. 32.  2005. Determination of the crystalline x-axis of quartz by second-harmonic phase measurement. J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 46:S159–62 [Google Scholar]
  33. Superfine R, Huang JY, Shen YR. 33.  1990. Phase measurement for surface infrared-visible sum-frequency generation. Opt. Lett. 15:1276–78 [Google Scholar]
  34. Ji N, Ostroverkhov V, Chen C, Shen YR. 34.  2007. Phase-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy and its application to studies of interfacial alkyl chains. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129:10056–57 [Google Scholar]
  35. Nihonyanagi S, Yamaguchi S, Tahara T. 35.  2009. Direct evidence for orientational flip–flop of water molecules at charged interfaces: a heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation study. J. Chem. Phys. 130:204704 [Google Scholar]
  36. Ward RN, Davies PB, Bain CD. 36.  1993. Orientation of surfactants adsorbed on a hydrophobic surface. J. Phys. Chem. 97:7141–43 [Google Scholar]
  37. Covert PA, Hore DK. 37.  2015. Assessing the gold standard: the complex vibrational nonlinear susceptibility of metals. J. Phys. Chem. C 119:271–76 [Google Scholar]
  38. Du Q, Freysz E, Shen YR. 38.  1994. Vibrational spectra of water molecules at quartz/water interfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 72:238–41 [Google Scholar]
  39. Du Q, Freysz E, Shen YR. 39.  1994. Surface vibrational spectroscopic studies of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity. Science 264:826–28 [Google Scholar]
  40. Campen RK, Pymer AK, Nihonyanagi S, Borguet E. 40.  2010. Linking surface potential and deprotonation in nanoporous silica: second harmonic generation and acid/base titration. J. Phys. Chem. C 114:18465–73Assesses the validity of surface complexation models when applied to porous surfaces. [Google Scholar]
  41. Zhang L, Singh S, Tian C, Shen YR, Wu Y. 41.  et al. 2009. Nanoporous silica-water interfaces studied by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. J. Chem. Phys. 130:154702 [Google Scholar]
  42. Fitts JP, Shang X, Flynn GW, Heinz TF, Eisenthal KB. 42.  2005. Electrostatic surface charge at aqueous/α-Al2O3 single-crystal interfaces as probed by optical second-harmonic generation. J. Phys. Chem. B 1097981–86 [Google Scholar]
  43. Fitts JP, Machesky ML, Wesolowski DJ, Shang X, Kubicki JD. 43.  et al. 2005. Second-harmonic generation and theoretical studies of protonation at the water/α-TiO2 (110) interface. Chem. Phys. Lett. 411:399–403 [Google Scholar]
  44. Becraft KA, Richmond GL. 44.  2001. In situ vibrational spectroscopic studies of the CaF2/H2O interface. Langmuir 17:7721–24 [Google Scholar]
  45. Jena KC, Covert PA, Hore DK. 45.  2011. The effect of salt on the water structure at a charged solid surface: differentiating second- and third-order nonlinear contributions. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2:1056–61Separates the effects of surface charge and surface structure on SFG spectra of the mineral–water interface. [Google Scholar]
  46. Covert PA, Jena KC, Hore DK. 46.  2014. Throwing salt into the mix: altering interfacial water structure by electrolyte addition. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5:143–48 [Google Scholar]
  47. Yang Z, Li Q, Chou KC. 47.  2009. Structures of water molecules at the interfaces of aqueous salt solutions and silica: cation effects. J. Phys. Chem. C 113:8201–5 [Google Scholar]
  48. Azam MS, Weeraman CN, Gibbs-Davis JM. 48.  2013. Halide-induced cooperative acid-base behavior at a negatively charged interface. J. Phys. Chem. C 117:8840–50 [Google Scholar]
  49. Azam MS, Weeraman CN, Gibbs-Davis JM. 49.  2012. Specific cation effects on the bimodal acid–base behavior of the silica/water interface. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3:1269–74 [Google Scholar]
  50. Azam MS, Darlington A, Gibbs-Davis JM. 50.  2014. The influence of concentration on specific ion effects at the silica/water interface. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 26:244107 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hopkins AJ, Schrödle S, Richmond GL. 51.  2010. Specific ion effects of salt solutions at the CaF2/water interface. Langmuir 26:10784–90 [Google Scholar]
  52. Gomez SAS, Geiger FM. 52.  2014. Precipitates of Al(III), Sc(III), and La(III) at the muscovite–water interface. J. Phys. Chem. A 118:10974–81 [Google Scholar]
  53. Gomez SAS, Jordan DS, Troiano JM, Geiger FM. 53.  2012. Uranyl adsorption at the muscovite (mica)/water interface studied by second harmonic generation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46:11154–61 [Google Scholar]
  54. Holland JG, Geiger FM. 54.  2013. Y(III) interactions with guanine oligonucleotides covalently attached to aqueous/solid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem. B 117:825–32 [Google Scholar]
  55. Jordan DS, Geiger FM. 55.  2014. Interaction of aluminum ions with fused silica/water interfaces in the presence of oxalic acid tracked by second harmonic generation. J. Phys. Chem. C 118:28970–77 [Google Scholar]
  56. Jordan DS, Saslow SA, Geiger FM. 56.  2011. Exponential sensitivity and speciation of Al(III), Sc(III), Y(III), La(III), and Gd(III) at fused silica/water interfaces. J. Phys. Chem. A 115:14438–45 [Google Scholar]
  57. Jordan DS, Malin JN, Geiger FM. 57.  2010. Interactions of Al(III), La(III), Gd(III), and Lu(III) with the fused silica/water interface studied by second harmonic generation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44:5862–67 [Google Scholar]
  58. Malin JN, Holland JG, Saslow SA, Geiger FM. 58.  2011. U(VI) adsorption and speciation at the acidic silica/water interface studied by resonant and nonresonant second harmonic generation. J. Phys. Chem. C 115:13353–60 [Google Scholar]
  59. Malin JN, Holland JG, Geiger FM. 59.  2009. Free energy relationships in the electric double layer and alkali earth speciation at the fused silica/water interface. J. Phys. Chem. C 113:17795–802 [Google Scholar]
  60. Malin JN, Geiger FM. 60.  2010. Uranyl adsorption and speciation at the fused silica/water interface studied by resonantly enhanced second harmonic generation and the χ(3) method. J. Phys. Chem. A 114:1797–805 [Google Scholar]
  61. Malin JN, Hayes PL, Geiger FM. 61.  2009. Interactions of Ca, Zn, and Cd ions at buried solid/water interfaces studied by second harmonic generation. J. Phys. Chem. C 113:2041–52 [Google Scholar]
  62. Mifflin A, Musorrafiti M, Konek C, Geiger F. 62.  2005. Second harmonic generation phase measurements of Cr(VI) at a buried interface. J. Phys. Chem. B 109:24386–90 [Google Scholar]
  63. Troiano JM, Jordan DS, Hull CJ, Geiger FM. 63.  2013. Interaction of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with hematite studied by second harmonic generation. J. Phys. Chem. C 117:5164–71 [Google Scholar]
  64. Ong S, Zhao X, Eisenthal KB. 64.  1992. Polarization of water molecules at a charged interface: second harmonic studies of the silica/water interface. Chem. Phys. Lett. 191:327–35Demonstrates the effects of surface charge on the SHG response. [Google Scholar]
  65. Zhao X, Ong S, Wang H, Eisenthal KB. 65.  1993. New method for determination of surface pKa using second harmonic generation. Chem. Phys. Lett. 214:203–7 [Google Scholar]
  66. Zhang L, Tian C, Waychunas G, Shen YR. 66.  2008. Structures and charging of α-alumina (0001)/water interfaces studied by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130:7686–94 [Google Scholar]
  67. Sung J, Zhang L, Tian C, Shen YR, Waychunas GA. 67.  2011. Effect of pH on the water/α-Al2O3 () interface structure studies by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. C 115:13887–93 [Google Scholar]
  68. Sung J, Shen YR, Waychunas GA. 68.  2012. The interfacial structure of water/protonated α-Al2O3 () as a function of pH. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24:124101 [Google Scholar]
  69. Jordan DS, Hull CJ, Troiano JM, Riha SC, Martinson ABF. 69.  et al. 2013. Second harmonic generation studies of Fe(II) interactions with hematite (α-Fe2O3). J. Phys. Chem. C 117:4040–47 [Google Scholar]
  70. Lis D, Backus EHG, Hunger J, Parekj SH, Bonn M. 70.  2014. Liquid flow along a solid surface reversibly alters interfacial chemistry. Science 344:1138–42Provides the first direct demonstration of flow-induced changes in surface charge and interfacial water structure. [Google Scholar]
  71. Garand A, Mucci A. 71.  2004. The solubility of fluorite as a function of ionic strength and solution composition at 25°C and 1 atm total pressure. Mar. Chem. 91:27–35 [Google Scholar]
  72. Sposito G. 72.  2004. The Surface Chemistry of Natural Particles New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  73. Darlington AM, Gibbs-Davis JM. 73.  2015. Bimodal or trimodal? The influence of starting pH on site identity and distribution at the low salt aqueous/silica interface. J. Phys. Chem. C 119:16560–67 [Google Scholar]
  74. Laplaud-Pfeiffer M, Costa D, Tielens F, Gaigeot M-P, Sulpizi M. 74.  2015. Bimodal acidity at the amorphous silica/water interface. J. Phys. Chem. C 119:27354–62 [Google Scholar]
  75. Baumann H, Wallace RB, Tagliaferri T, Gobler CJ. 75.  2015. Large natural pH, CO2 and O2 fluctuations in a temperate tidal salt marsh on diel, seasonal, and interannual time scales. Estuaries Coasts 38:220–31 [Google Scholar]
  76. Feely RA, Alin SR, Newton J, Sabine CL, Warner M. 76.  et al. 2010. The combined effects of ocean acidification, mixing, and respiration on pH and carbonate saturation in an urbanized estuary. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 88:442–49 [Google Scholar]
  77. Moore-Maley B, Allen SE, Ianson D. 77.  2016. Locally-driven interannual variability of near-surface pH and ΩA in the Strait of Georgia. J. Geophys. Res. In press. doi: 10.1002/2015JC011118 [Google Scholar]
  78. Ostroverkhov V, Waychunas GA, Shen YR. 78.  2005. New information on water interfacial structure revealed by phase-sensitive surface spectroscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94:046102 [Google Scholar]
  79. Ostroverkhov V, Waychunas GA, Shen YR. 79.  2004. Vibrational spectra of water at water/alpha-quartz (0001) interface. Chem. Phys. Lett. 386:144–48 [Google Scholar]
  80. Sung J, Zhang L, Tian C, Waychunas GA, Shen YR. 80.  2011. Surface structure of protonated R-sapphire studied by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133:3846–53 [Google Scholar]
  81. Libes SM. 81.  1992. An Introduction to Marine Biogeochemistry New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  82. Small LF, Prahl FG. 82.  2004. A particle conveyor belt process in the Columbia River estuary: evidence from chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon. Estuaries 27:999–1013 [Google Scholar]
  83. Jubb AM, Allen HC. 83.  2012. Sulfate adsorption at the buried fluorite–solution interface revealed by vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. C 116:9085–91 [Google Scholar]
  84. Karp-Boss L, Boss E, Jumars PA. 84.  1996. Nutrient fluxes to planktonic osmotrophs in the presence of fluid motion. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 34:71–107 [Google Scholar]
  85. Kundu PK, Cohen IM. 85.  2002. Fluid Mechanics San Diego: Academic, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  86. Sholkovitz E. 86.  1976. Flocculation of dissolved organic and inorganic matter during the mixing of river water and seawater. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40:831–45 [Google Scholar]
  87. Liang L, Morgan JJ. 87.  1990. Chemical aspects of iron oxide coagulation in water: laboratory studies and implications for natural systems. Aquatic Sci. 52:32–55 [Google Scholar]
  88. Tipping E. 88.  1981. The adsorption of aquatic humic substances by iron oxides. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45:191–99 [Google Scholar]
  89. Eglinton TI, Repeta DJ. 89.  2014. Organic matter in the contemporary ocean. Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 8 KK Turekian, HD Holland 151–89 Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  90. Keil RG, Mayer LM. 90.  2014. Mineral matrices and organic matter. Treatise on Geochemistry 8 KK Turekian, HD Holland 337–59 Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  91. Hunter KA, Liss PS. 91.  1979. The surface charge of suspended particles in estuarine and coastal waters. Nature 282:823–25 [Google Scholar]
  92. Tipping E, Cooke D. 92.  1982. The effects of adsorbed humic substances on the surface charge of goethite (α-FeOOH) in freshwaters. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46:75–80 [Google Scholar]
  93. Davis JA. 93.  1982. Adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter at the oxide/water interface. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46:2381–93 [Google Scholar]
  94. Davis JA. 94.  1984. Complexation of trace metals by adsorbed natural organic matter. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48:679–91 [Google Scholar]
  95. Lion LW, Altmann RS, Leckle JO. 95.  1982. Trace-metal adsorption characteristics of estuarine particulate matter: evaluation of contributions of Fe/Mn oxide and organic surface coatings. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16:660–66 [Google Scholar]
  96. Armanious A, Aeppli M, Sander M. 96.  2014. Dissolved organic matter adsorption to model surfaces: adlayer formation, properties, and dynamics at the nanoscale. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:9420–29 [Google Scholar]
  97. Becraft KA, Moore FG, Richmond GL. 97.  2003. Charge reversal behavior at the CaF2/H2O/SDS interface as studied by vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. B 107:3675–78 [Google Scholar]
  98. Becraft KA, Moore FG, Richmond GL. 98.  2004. In-situ spectroscopic investigations of surfactant adsorption and water structure at the CaF2/aqueous solution interface. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6:1880–89 [Google Scholar]
  99. Schrödle S, Moore FG, Richmond GL. 99.  2007. In situ investigation of carboxylate adsorption at the fluorite/water interface by sum frequency spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. C 111:8050–59 [Google Scholar]
  100. Schrödle S, Richmond GL. 100.  2008. In-situ non-linear spectroscopic approaches to understanding adsorption at mineral–water interfaces. J. Phys. D 41:033001 [Google Scholar]
  101. Dewan S, Yeganeh MS, Borguet E. 101.  2013. Experimental correlation between interfacial water structure and mineral reactivity. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4:1977–82Provides a link between interfacial water structure and mineral dissolution. [Google Scholar]
  102. Dove PM, Han N, Wallace AF, De Yoreo JJ. 102.  2008. Kinetics of amorphous silica dissolution and the paradox of the silica polymorphs. PNAS 105:9903–8 [Google Scholar]
  103. Dove PM, Nix CJ. 103.  1997. The influence of the alkaline earth cations, magnesium, calcium, and barium on the dissolution kinetics of quartz. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61:3329–40 [Google Scholar]
  104. Dove PM, Han N, Wallace AF, De Yoreo JJ. 104.  1994. The dissolution kinetics of quartz in sodium chloride solutions at 25° to 300°C. Am. J. Sci. 294:665–712 [Google Scholar]
  105. Fenn EE, Wong DB, Fayer MD. 105.  2009. Water dynamics at neutral and ionic interfaces. PNAS 106:15243–48 [Google Scholar]
  106. Cimatu K, Baldelli S. 106.  2009. Chemical microscopy of surfaces by sum frequency generation imaging. J. Phys. Chem. C 113:16575–88 [Google Scholar]
  107. Hall SA, Jena KC, Covert PA, Roy S, Trudeau TG, Hore DK. 107.  2014. Molecular-level surface structure from nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy combined with simulations. J. Phys. Chem. B 118:5617–36 [Google Scholar]
  108. Frysinger GS, Asher WE, Korenowski GM, Barger WR, Klusty MA. 108.  et al. 1992. Study of ocean slicks by nonliner laser process 1. second-harmonic generation. J. Geophys. Res. 97:5253–69 [Google Scholar]
  109. Asher W, Willard-Schmoe E. 109.  2013. Vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy for trace chemical detection on surfaces at stand-off distances. Appl. Spectrosc. 67:253–60Develops remote-sensing SFG methods. [Google Scholar]
  110. Dadap J, Shan J, Eisenthal K, Heinz T. 110.  1999. Second-harmonic Rayleigh scattering from a sphere of centrosymmetric material. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83:4045–48 [Google Scholar]
  111. Roke S, Gonella G. 111.  2012. Nonlinear light scattering and spectroscopy of particles and droplets in liquids. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63:353–78 [Google Scholar]
  112. Gonella G, Dai HL. 112.  2014. Second harmonic light scattering from the surface of colloidal objects: theory and applications. Langmuir 30:2588–99 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error