1932

Abstract

Non-native invasive plants can establish in natural areas, where they can be ecologically damaging and costly to manage. Like cultivated plants, invasive plants can experience a relatively disease-free period upon introduction and accumulate pathogens over time. Diseases of invasive plant populations are infrequently studied compared to diseases of agriculture, forestry, and even native plant populations. We evaluated similarities and differences in the processes that are likely to affect pathogen accumulation and disease in invasive plants compared to cultivated plants, which are the dominant focus of the field of plant pathology. Invasive plants experience more genetic, biotic, and abiotic variation across space and over time than cultivated plants, which is expected to stabilize the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of interactions with pathogens and possibly weaken the efficacy of infectious disease in their control. Although disease is expected to be context dependent, the widespread distribution of invasive plants makes them important pathogen reservoirs. Research on invasive plant diseases can both protect crops and help manage invasive plant populations.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-phyto-010820-012757
2020-08-25
2024-05-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/phyto/58/1/annurev-phyto-010820-012757.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-phyto-010820-012757&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Alexander HM, Holt RD. 1998. The interaction between plant competition and disease. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 1:2206–20
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.
    Almeida RPP, Nunney L. 2015. How do plant diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa emerge. Plant Dis 99:1457–67
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.
    Anderson PK, Cunningham AA, Patel NG, Morales FJ, Epstein PR, Daszak P 2004. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19:535–44
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.
    Anderson RM, May RM. 1979. Population biology of infectious diseases: part I. Nature 280:361–67
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5.
    Antonovics J, Thrall PH, Jarosz AM 1997. Genetics and the spatial ecology of species interactions: the Silene-Ustilago system. Spatial Ecology: The Role of Space in Population Dynamics and Interspecific Interactions D Tilman, P Kareiva 158–80 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.
    Bakker MG, Otto-Hanson L, Lange AJ, Bradeen JM, Kinkel LL 2013. Plant monocultures produce more antagonistic soil Streptomyces communities than high-diversity plant communities. Soil Biol. Biochem. 65:304–12
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7.
    Barrett LG, Heil M. 2012. Unifying concepts and mechanisms in the specificity of plant–enemy interactions. Trends Plant Sci 17:282–92
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.
    Bassil N, Bidani A, Hummer K, Rowland LJ, Olmstead J et al. 2018. Assessing genetic diversity of wild southeastern North American Vaccinium species using microsatellite markers. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 65:939–50
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.
    Bayles RA, Flath K, Hovmøller MS, de Vallavieille-Pope C 2000. Breakdown of the Yr17 resistance to yellow rust of wheat in northern Europe. Agronomy 20:805–11
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.
    Bebber DP, Holmes T, Gurr SJ 2014. The global spread of crop pests and pathogens. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 23:1398–407
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.
    Berg M, Koskella B. 2018. Nutrient- and dose-dependent microbiome-mediated protection against a plant pathogen. Curr. Biol. 28:2487–92
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.
    Berner D, Smallwood E, Cavin C, McMahon M, Thomas K et al. 2015. Asymptomatic systemic disease of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) caused by Puccinia punctiformis and changes in shoot density following inoculation. Biol. Control 86:28–35
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.
    Biere A, Bennett AE. 2013. Three-way interactions between plants, microbes and insects. Funct. Ecol. 27:567–73
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.
    Bingham IJ, Walters DR, Foulkes MJ, Paveley ND 2009. Crop traits and the tolerance of wheat and barley to foliar disease. Ann. Appl. Biol. 154:159–73
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.
    Blumenthal D, Mitchell CE, Pysek P, Jarosik V 2009. Synergy between pathogen release and resource availability in plant invasion. PNAS 106:7899–904
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16.
    Borer ET, Seabloom EW, Mitchell CE, Cronin JP 2014. Multiple nutrients and herbivores interact to govern diversity, productivity, composition, and infection in a successional grassland. Oikos 123:214–24
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17.
    Brasier CM. 2000. The rise of the hybrid fungi. Nature 405:134–35
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18.
    Breeÿen AD, Charudattan R. 2009. Biological control of invasive weeds in forests and natural areas by using microbial agents. Management of Invasive Weeds Inderjit, pp 189–209 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19.
    Bruckart WL, Eskandari FM, Michael JL, Smallwood EL 2017. Differential aggressiveness of Bipolaris microstegii and B. drechsleri on Japanese stiltgrass. Invasive Plant Sci. Manag. 10:44–52
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20.
    Bruns EL, Antonovics J, Hood M 2019. Is there a disease-free halo at species range limits? The codistribution of anther-smut disease and its host species. J. Ecol. 107:1–11
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21.
    Bruns HA. 2017. Southern corn leaf blight: a story worth retelling. Agron. J. 109:1218–24
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22.
    Buckley YM, Hinz H, Matthies D, Rees M 2001. Interactions between density-dependent processes, population dynamics and control of an invasive plant species, Tripleurospermum perforatum (scentless chamomile). Ecol. Lett. 4:551–58
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23.
    Burdon JJ, Chilvers GA. 1982. Host density as a factor in plant disease ecology. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 20:143–66
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24.
    Burdon JJ, Laine A-L. 2019. Evolutionary Dynamics of PlantPathogen Interactions Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25.
    Burdon JJ, Marshall DR. 1981. Biological control and the reproductive mode of weeds. J. Appl. Ecol. 18:649–58
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26.
    Burdon JJ, Thompson JN. 1995. Changed patterns of resistance in a population of Linum marginale attacked by the rust pathogen Melampsora lini. J. . Ecol 83:199–206
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27.
    Burgess TI, Wingfield MJ. 2017. Pathogens on the move: a 100-year global experiment with planted eucalypts. BioScience 67:14–25
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28.
    Busby PE, Peay KG, Newcombe G 2016. Common foliar fungi of Populus trichocarpa modify Melampsora rust disease severity. New Phytol 209:1681–92
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29.
    Campbell LG, Snow AA, Ridley CE 2006. Weed evolution after crop gene introgression: greater survival and fecundity of hybrids in a new environment. Ecol. Lett. 9:1198–209
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.
    Cantu-Iris M, Harmon P, Londoño A, Polston J 2013. A variant of blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus associated with red lesions in blueberry. Arch. Virol. 158:2197–200
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31.
    Carlsson-Granér U, Thrall PH. 2002. The spatial distribution of plant populations, disease dynamics and evolution of resistance. Oikos 97:97–110
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32.
    Ciola V, Cipollini D. 2011. Distribution and host range of a powdery mildew fungus infecting garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata, in Southwestern Ohio. Am. Midl. Nat. 166:40–52
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33.
    Clay K. 1990. Fungal endophytes of grasses. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 21:275–97
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34.
    Crous CJ, Burgess TI, Le Roux JJ, Richardson DM, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ 2017. Ecological disequilibrium drives insect pest and pathogen accumulation in non-native trees. AoB Plants 9:plw081
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35.
    DaPalma T, Doonan BP, Trager NM, Kasman LM 2010. A systematic approach to virus–virus interactions. Virus Res 149:1–9
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36.
    Delgado-Baquerizo M, Reich PB, García-Palacios P, Milla R 2016. Biogeographic bases for a shift in crop C:N:P stoichiometries during domestication. Ecol. Lett. 19:564–75
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37.
    Diez JM, Dickie I, Edwards G, Hulme PE, Sullivan JJ, Duncan RP 2010. Negative soil feedbacks accumulate over time for non-native plant species. Ecol. Lett. 13:803–9
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38.
    Donald WW, Ogg AG Jr 1991. Biology and control of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), a review. Weed Technol 5:3–17
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39.
    Dordas C. 2009. Role of nutrients in controlling plant diseases in sustainable agriculture: a review. Sustainable Agriculture E Lichtfouse, M Navarrete, P Debaeke, S Véronique, C Alberola 443–60 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40.
    Ehrenfeld JG, Kourtev P, Huang WZ 2001. Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests. Ecol. Appl. 11:1287–300
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41.
    Ejeta G, Grenier C. 2005. Sorghum and its weedy hybrids. Crop Ferality and Volunteerisim123–35 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.
    Fairbrothers DE, Gray JR. 1972. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus (Gramineae) in the United States. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 99:97–100
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43.
    Fitt BDL, Huang Y-J, van den Bosch F, West JS 2006. Coexistence of related pathogen species on arable crops in space and time. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44:163–82
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44.
    Flory SL, Clay K. 2010. Non-native grass invasion suppresses forest succession. Oecologia 164:1029–38
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.
    Flory SL, Clay K. 2013. Pathogen accumulation and long-term dynamics of plant invasions. J. Ecol. 101:607–13
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46.
    Flory SL, Kleczewski N, Clay K 2011. Ecological consequences of pathogen accumulation on an invasive grass. Ecosphere 2:101–12
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47.
    Fowler D, Coyle M, Skiba U, Sutton MA, Cape JN et al. 2013. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 368:20130164
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48.
    Franco FP, Moura DS, Vivanco JM, Silva-Filho MC 2017. Plant–insect–pathogen interactions: a naturally complex ménage à trois. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 37:54–60
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.
    Frankland JC. 1998. Fungal succession: unravelling the unpredictable. Mycol. Res. 102:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50.
    Friess N, Maillet J. 1996. Influence of cucumber mosaic virus infection on the intraspecific competitive ability and fitness of purslane (Portulaca oleracea). New Phytol 132:103–11
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.
    Friess N, Maillet J. 1997. Influence of cucumber mosaic virus infection on the competitive ability and reproduction of chickweed (Stellaria media). New Phytol 135:667–74
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52.
    Fulcher MR, Winans JB, Quan M, Oladipo ED, Bergstrom GC 2019. Population genetics of Fusarium graminearum at the interface of wheat and wild grass communities in New York. Phytopathology 109:122124–31
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.
    Fuller DQ. 2007. Constrasting patterns in crop domestication and domestication rates: recent archaeobotanical insights from the Old World. Ann. Bot. 100:903–24
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54.
    Gardner JB, Drinkwater LE. 2009. The fate of nitrogen in grain cropping systems: a meta-analysis of 15-N field experiments. Ecol. Appl. 19:2167–84
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55.
    Garrett KA, Bowden RL. 2002. An Allee effect reduces the invasive potential of Tilletia indica. Phytopathology 92:1152–59
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56.
    Genton BJ, Shykoff JA, Giraud T 2005. High genetic diversity in French invasive populations of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, as a result of multiple sources of introduction. Mol. Ecol. 14:4275–85
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57.
    Getz WM, Pickering J. 1973. Epidemic models: thresholds and population regulation. Am. Nat. 121:892–98
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58.
    Gilbert GS, Parker IM. 2006. Invasions and the regulation of plant populations by pathogens. Conceptual Ecology and Invasion Biology: Reciprocal Approaches to Nature MW Cadotte, SM McMahon, T Fukami 289–305 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59.
    Gilbert GS, Webb CO. 2007. Phylogenetic signal in plant pathogen–host range. PNAS 104:4979–83
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60.
    Haas SE, Hooten MB, Rizzo DM, Meentemeyer RK 2011. Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion. Ecol. Lett. 14:1108–16
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61.
    Halliday FW, Heckman RW, Wilfahrt PA, Mitchell CE 2019. Past is prologue: host community assembly and the risk of infectious disease over time. Ecol. Lett. 22:138–48
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62.
    Halliday FW, Rohr JR. 2019. Measuring the shape of the biodiversity-disease relationship across systems reveals new findings and key gaps. Nat. Commun. 10:5032
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63.
    Harmon P, Hopkins D. 2009. First report of bacterial leaf scorch caused by Xylella fastidiosa on southern highbush blueberry in Florida. Plant Dis 93:1220
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64.
    Hawkes CV. 2007. Are invaders moving targets? The generality and persistence of advantages in size, reproduction, and enemy release in invasive plant species with time since introduction. Am. Nat. 170:832–43
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65.
    Heckman RW, Wright JP, Mitchell CE 2016. Joint effects of nutrient addition and enemy exclusion on exotic plant success. Ecology 97:3337–45
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66.
    Hejda M, Pyšek P, Jarošík V 2009. Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities. J. Ecol. 97:393–403
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.
    Hiatt D, Flory SL. 2020. Populations of a widespread invader and co-occurring native species vary in phenotypic plasticity. New Phytol 225:584–94
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68.
    Hiatt D, Serbesoff-King K, Lieurance D, Gordon DR, Flory SL 2019. Allocation of invasive plant management expenditures for conservation: lessons from Florida, USA. Conserv. Sci. Pract. 1:e51
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69.
    Holt RD, Bonsall MB. 2017. Apparent competition. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 48:447–71
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70.
    Hulme PE, Bacher S, Kenis M, Klotz S, Kühn I et al. 2008. Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: a framework for integrating pathways into policy. J. Appl. Ecol. 45:403–14
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71.
    Inglese SJ, Paul ND. 2006. Tolerance of Senecio vulgaris to infection and disease caused by native and alien rust fungi. Phytopathology 96:718–26
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72.
    Jeger MJ, Spence NJ. 2001. Biotic Interactions in Plant-Pathogen Associations Wallingford, UK: CABI
  73. 73.
    Keesing F, Holt RD, Ostfeld RS 2006. Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Ecol. Lett. 9:485–98
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74.
    Kermack WO, McKendrick AG. 1927. A contribution to the mathematical theory of epidemics. Proc. R. Soc. A 115:700–21
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75.
    Kinkel LL, Schlatter DC, Bakker MG, Arenz BE 2012. Streptomyces competition and co-evolution in relation to plant disease suppression. Res. Microbiol. 163:490–99
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76.
    Laine A-L. 2004. Resistance variation within and among host populations in a plant pathogen metapopulation: implications for regional pathogen dynamics. J. Ecol. 92:990–1000
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77.
    Lamichhane JR, Venturi V. 2015. Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend. Front. Plant Sci. 6:385
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78.
    Lau JA, Suwa T. 2016. The changing nature of plant–microbe interactions during a biological invasion. Biol. Invasions 18:3527–34
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79.
    Lavergne S, Molofsky J. 2007. Increased genetic variation and evolutionary potential drive the success of an invasive grass. PNAS 104:3883–88
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80.
    Lee M, Flory SL, Phillips R 2012. Positive feedbacks to growth of an invasive grass through alteration of nitrogen cycling. Oecologia 170:457–65
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81.
    Lehan NE, Murphy JR, Thorburn LP, Bradley BA 2013. Accidental introductions are an important source of invasive plants in the continental United States. Am. J. Bot. 100:1287–93
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82.
    Lichtfouse E, Navarrete M, Debaeke P, Souchere V, Alberola C 2009. Sustainable Agriculture Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
  83. 83.
    Linde CC, Smith LM, Peakall R 2016. Weeds, as ancillary hosts, pose disproportionate risk for virulent pathogen transfer to crops. BMC Evol. Biol. 16:101
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84.
    Lively CM, Johnson SG, Delph LF, Clay K 1995. Thinning reduces the effect of rust infection on jewelweed (Impatiens capensis). Ecology 76:1859–62
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85.
    Lyrene P. 2002. Development of highbush blueberry cultivars adapted to Florida. J. Am. Pomol. Soc. 56:79–85
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86.
    MacDonald GK, Bennett EM, Potter PA, Ramankutty N 2011. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world's croplands. PNAS 108:3086–91
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87.
    McDonald BA, Linde C. 2002. Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 40:349–79
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88.
    Meyer RS, DuVal AE, Jensen HR 2012. Patterns and processes in crop domestication: an historical review and quantitative analysis of 203 global food crops. New Phytol 196:29–48
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89.
    Meyer SE, Beckstead J, Pearce J 2015. Community ecology of fungal pathogens on Bromus tectorum. Exotic Brome-Grasses in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems of the Western US: Causes, Consequences, and Management Implications MJ Germino, JC Chambers, CS Brown 193–223 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90.
    Meyer SE, Nelson DL, Clement S, Ramakrishnan A 2010. Ecological genetics of the Bromus tectorum (Poaceae)–Ustilago bullata (Ustilaginaceae) pathosystem: a role for frequency‐dependent selection. Am. J. Bot. 97:1304–12
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91.
    Mikaberidze A, McDonald BA, Bonhoeffer S 2015. Developing smarter host mixtures to control plant disease. Plant Pathol 64:996–1004
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92.
    Milla R, Osborne CP, Turcotte MM, Violle C 2015. Plant domestication through an ecological lens. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30:463–69
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93.
    Miller AJ, Gross BL. 2011. From forest to field: perennial fruit crop domestication. Am. J. Bot. 98:1389–414
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94.
    Mitchell CE, Power AG. 2003. Release of invasive plants from fungal and viral pathogens. Nature 421:625–27
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95.
    Mitchell CE, Reich PB, Tilman D, Groth JV 2003. Effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease. Glob. Change Biol. 9:438–51
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96.
    Mitchell CE, Tilman D, Groth JV 2002. Effects of grassland plant species diversity, abundance, and composition on foliar fungal disease. Ecology 83:1713–26
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97.
    Morrell P, Williams‐Coplin T, Lattu A, Bowers J, Chandler J, Paterson A 2005. Crop‐to‐weed introgression has impacted allelic composition of johnsongrass populations with and without recent exposure to cultivated sorghum. Mol. Ecol. 14:2143–54
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98.
    Morris CE, Moury B. 2019. Revisiting the concept of host range of plant pathogens. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 57:63–90
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99.
    Norman DJ, Bocsanczy AM, Harmon P, Harmon CL, Khan A 2018. First report of bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) in Florida. Plant Dis 102:438
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100.
    Nunney L, Schuenzel EL, Scally M, Bromley RE, Stouthamer R 2014. Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80:3025–33
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101.
    Oliver J, Cobine P, De La Fuente L 2015. Xylella fastidiosa isolates from both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa cause disease on southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) under greenhouse conditions. Phytopathology 105:855–62
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102.
    Onofre RB, Mertely JC, Aguiar FM, Timilsina S, Harmon P et al. 2016. First report of target spot caused by Corynespora cassiicola on blueberry in North America. Plant Dis 100:528
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103.
    Ordonez A. 2014. Functional and phylogenetic similarity of alien plants to co-occurring natives. Ecology 95:1191–202
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104.
    Padayachee AL, Irlich UM, Faulkner KT, Gaertner M, Proches S, Wilson JRU 2017. How do invasive species travel to and through urban environments. Biol. Invasions 19:3557–70
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105.
    Parker IM, Saunders M, Bontrager M, Weitz AP, Hendricks R et al. 2015. Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities. Nature 520:542–44
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106.
    Pike VL, Lythgoe KA, King KC 2019. On the diverse and opposing effects of nutrition on pathogen virulence. Proc. R. Soc. B 286:20191220
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107.
    Pimentel D, Zuniga R, Morrison D 2005. Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecol. Econ. 52:273–88
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108.
    Przewieslik-Allen AM, Burridge AJ, Wilkinson PA, Winfield MO, Shaw DS et al. 2019. Developing a high-throughput SNP-based marker system to facilitate the introgression of traits from Aegilops species into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Front. Plant Sci. 9:1993
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109.
    Purdy LH, Schmidt RA. 1996. Status of cacao witches' broom: biology, epidemiology, and management. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 34:573–94
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110.
    Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Hulme PE, Pergl J, Hejda M et al. 2012. A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species’ traits and environment. Glob. Change Biol. 18:1725–37
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111.
    Reichard SH, White P. 2001. Horticulture as a pathway of invasive plant introductions in the United States. BioScience 51:103–13
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112.
    Richardson DM, Rejmánek M. 2011. Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species: a global review. Divers. Distrib. 17:788–809
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113.
    Roossinck MJ. 2013. Plant virus ecology. PLOS Pathog 9:e1003304
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 114.
    Rosenow DT, Frederiksen RA. 1982. Breeding for disease resistance in sorghum. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sorghum LR House, LK Mughogho, and JM Peacock 447–55 Patancheru, India: ICRISAT http://oar.icrisat.org/774/1/RA_00045.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115.
    Rout ME, Chrzanowski TH, Smith WK, Gough L 2013. Ecological impacts of the invasive grass Sorghum halepense on native tallgrass prairie. Biol. Invasions 15:327–39
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 116.
    Rouxel T, Penaud A, Pinochet X, Brun H, Gout L et al. 2003. A 10-year survey of populations of Leptosphaeria maculans in France indicates a rapid adaptation towards the Rlm1 resistance gene of oilseed rape. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 109:871–81
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 117.
    Sakai AK, Allendorf FW, Holt JS, Lodge DM, Molofsky J 2001. The population biology of invasive species. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 32:305–32
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 118.
    Salgado JD, Lindsey LE, Paul PA 2017. Effects of row spacing and nitrogen rate on wheat grain yield and profitability as influenced by diseases. Plant Dis 101:1998–2011
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 119.
    Saul WC, Jeschke JM. 2015. Eco‐evolutionary experience in novel species interactions. Ecol. Lett. 18:236–45
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 120.
    Schafer JF. 1971. Tolerance to plant disease. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 9:235–52
    [Google Scholar]
  121. 121.
    Schneider A, Molnár I, Molnár-Láng M 2008. Utilisation of Aegilops (goatgrass) species to widen the genetic diversity of cultivated wheat. Euphytica 163:1–19
    [Google Scholar]
  122. 122.
    Seabloom EW, Borer ET, Buckley YM, Cleland EE, Davies KF et al. 2015. Plant species origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands. Nat. Commun. 6:7710
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 123.
    Seabloom EW, Borer ET, Lacroix C, Mitchell CE, Power AG 2013. Richness and composition of niche-assembled viral pathogen communities. PLOS ONE 8:e55675
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 124.
    Siegfried BD, Hellmich RL. 2012. Understanding successful resistance management. GM Crops Food 3:184–93
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 125.
    Smith DL, Ericson L, Burdon JJ 2011. Co-evolutionary hot and cold spots of selective pressure move in space and time. J. Ecol. 99:634–41
    [Google Scholar]
  126. 126.
    Smith V. 2007. Host resource supplies influence the dynamics and outcome of infectious disease. Integr. Comp. Biol. 47:310–16
    [Google Scholar]
  127. 127.
    Soubeyrand S, Laine A-L, Hanski I, Penttinen A 2009. Spatiotemporal structure of host-pathogen interactions in a metapopulation. Am. Nat. 174:308–20
    [Google Scholar]
  128. 128.
    Spear ER, Mordecai EA. 2018. Foliar pathogens are unlikely to stabilize coexistence of competing species in a California grassland. Ecology 99:2250–59
    [Google Scholar]
  129. 129.
    Stewart L, Teplier R, Todd J, Jones M, Cassone B et al. 2014. Viruses in maize and johnsongrass in southern Ohio. Phytopathology 104:1360–69
    [Google Scholar]
  130. 130.
    Strauss SY, Webb CO, Salamin N 2006. Exotic taxa less related to native species are more invasive. PNAS 103:5841–45
    [Google Scholar]
  131. 131.
    Stricker KB, Harmon PF, Goss EM, Clay K, Flory SL 2016. Emergence and accumulation of novel pathogens suppress an invasive species. Ecol. Lett. 19:469–77
    [Google Scholar]
  132. 132.
    Stukenbrock EH, McDonald BA. 2008. The origins of plant pathogens in agro-ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 46:75–100
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 133.
    Sugawara K, Shiraishi T, Yoshida T, Fujita N, Netsu O et al. 2013. A replicase of potato virus X acts as the resistance-breaking determinant for JAX1-mediated resistance. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 26:1106–12
    [Google Scholar]
  134. 134.
    Tamburini G, van Gils S, Kos M, van der Putten W, Marini L 2018. Drought and soil fertility modify fertilization effects on aphid performance in wheat. Basic Appl. Ecol. 30:23–31
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 135.
    Thompson S, Tan Y, Shivas R, Neate S, Morin L et al. 2015. Green and brown bridges between weeds and crops reveal novel Diaporthe species in Australia. Persoonia 35:39–49
    [Google Scholar]
  136. 136.
    Thrall PH, Burdon JJ. 2003. Evolution of virulence in a plant host-pathogen metapopulation. Science 299:1735–37
    [Google Scholar]
  137. 137.
    Timilsina S, Pereira-Martin JA, Minsavage G, Iruegas Bocardo F, Abrahamian P et al. 2019. Multiple recombination events drive the current genetic structure of Xanthomonas perforans in Florida. Front. Microbiol. 10:448
    [Google Scholar]
  138. 138.
    Tollenaere C, Susi H, Laine A-L 2016. Evolutionary and epidemiological implications of multiple infection in plants. Trends Plant Sci 21:80–90
    [Google Scholar]
  139. 139.
    US Dep. Agric. Natl. Agric. Stat. Serv 2019. 2017 Census of agriculture. State and county data: Florida Doc. AC-17-A-9 Vol. 1, Part 9, USDA Washington, DC: https://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/AgCensus/2017/Full_Report/Census_by_State/Florida/index.php
    [Google Scholar]
  140. 140.
    Vacher C, Daudin J-J, Piou D, Desprez-Loustau M-L 2010. Ecological integration of alien species into a tree-parasitic fungus network. Biol. Invasions 12:3249–59
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 141.
    van Bruggen AH, Gamliel A, Finckh MR 2016. Plant disease management in organic farming systems. Pest Manag. Sci. 72:30–44
    [Google Scholar]
  142. 142.
    Van De Wouw M, Kik C, Van Hintum T, Van Treuren R, Visser B 2009. Genetic erosion in crops: concept, research results and challenges. Plant Genet. Resour. 8:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
  143. 143.
    Vigueira CC, Olsen KM, Caicedo AL 2013. The red queen in the corn: agricultural weeds as models of rapid adaptive evolution. Heredity 110:303–11
    [Google Scholar]
  144. 144.
    Vilà M, Espinar JL, Hejda M, Hulme PE, Jarošík V et al. 2011. Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecol. Lett. 14:702–8
    [Google Scholar]
  145. 145.
    Walters D, Heil M. 2007. Trade-offs associated with induced resistance. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 71:3–17
    [Google Scholar]
  146. 146.
    Whitaker BK, Rúa MA, Mitchell CE 2015. Viral pathogen production in a wild grass host driven by host growth and soil nitrogen. New Phytol 207:760–68
    [Google Scholar]
  147. 147.
    Wisler GC, Norris RF. 2005. Interactions between weeds and cultivated plants as related to management of plant pathogens. Weed Sci 53:914–17
    [Google Scholar]
  148. 148.
    Young HS, Parker IM, Gilbert GS, Sofia Guerra A, Nunn CL 2017. Introduced species, disease ecology, and biodiversity–disease relationships. Trends Ecol. Evol. 32:41–54
    [Google Scholar]
  149. 149.
    Zhu Y, Chen H, Fan J, Wang Y, Li Y et al. 2000. Genetic diversity and disease control in rice. Nature 406:718–22
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-phyto-010820-012757
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-phyto-010820-012757
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error