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Abstract

The EDS1 family of structurally unique lipase-like proteins EDS1, SAG101, and PAD4 evolved in seed plants, on top of existing phytohormone and nucleotide-binding–leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) networks, to regulate immunity pathways against host-adapted biotrophic pathogens. Exclusive heterodimers between EDS1 and SAG101 or PAD4 create essential surfaces for resistance signaling. Phylogenomic information, together with functional studies in and tobacco, identify a coevolved module between the EDS1–SAG101 heterodimer and coiled-coil (CC) HET-S and LOP-B (CC) domain helper NLRs that is recruited by intracellular Toll-interleukin1-receptor (TIR) domain NLR receptors to confer host cell death and pathogen immunity. EDS1–PAD4 heterodimers have a different and broader activity in basal immunity that transcriptionally reinforces local and systemic defenses triggered by various NLRs. Here, we consider EDS1 family protein functions across seed plant lineages in the context of networking with receptor and helper NLRs and downstream resistance machineries. The different modes of action and pathway connectivities of EDS1 family members go some way to explaining their central role in biotic stress resilience.

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2020-08-25
2024-04-24
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