1932

Abstract

Plant pathology must contribute to improving food security in a safe operating space, which is shrinking as a result of declining natural resources, climate change, and the growing world population. This review analyzes the position of plant pathology in a nexus of relationships, which is mapped and where the coupled dynamics of crop growth, disease, and yield losses are modeled. We derive a hierarchy of pathogens, whereby pathogens reducing radiation interception (RI), radiation use efficiency (RUE), and harvest index increasingly impact crop yields in the approximate proportions: 1:4.5:4,700. Since the dawn of agriculture, plant breeding has targeted the harvest index as a main objective for domesticated plants. Surprisingly, the literature suggests that pathogens that reduce yields by directly damaging harvestable plant tissues have received much less attention than those that reduce RI or RUE. Ecological disease management needs to target diverse production situations and therefore must consider variation in attainable yields; this can be achieved through the reengineering of agrosystems to incorporate built-in dynamic diversity of genes, plants, and crop stands.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-phyto-010820-012856
2020-08-25
2024-06-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/phyto/58/1/annurev-phyto-010820-012856.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-phyto-010820-012856&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Avelino J, Allinne C, Cerda R, Willocquet L, Savary S 2018. Multiple-disease system in coffee: from crop loss assessment to sustainable management. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 56:611–35
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.
    Avelino J, Zelaya H, Merlo A, Pineda A, Ordoñez M, Savary S 2006. The intensity of a coffee rust epidemic is dependent on production situations. Ecol. Model. 197:431–47
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.
    Ayres PG. 1981. Effects of disease on plant water relations. Effects of Disease on the Physiology of the Growing Plant PG Ayres 131–48 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.
    Bangemann LW, Sieling K, Kage H 2014. The effect of nitrogen and late blight on crop growth, solar radiation interception and yield of two potato cultivars. Field Crops Res 155:56–66
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5.
    Barnwal MK, Kotasthane A, Magculia N, Mukherjee PK, Savary S et al. 2013. A review on crop losses, epidemiology and disease management of rice brown spot to identify research priorities and knowledge gaps. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 136:443–57
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.
    Bassanezi RB, Amorim L, Bergamin Filho A, Hau B, Berger RD 2001. Accounting for photosynthetic efficiency of bean leaves with rust, angular leaf spot and anthracnose to assess crop damage. Plant Pathol 50:443–52
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7.
    Bebber DP, Holmes T, Gurr SJ 2014. The global spread of crop pests and pathogens. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 23:1398–407
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.
    Bebber DP, Ramotowski MAT, Gurr SJ 2013. Crop pests and pathogens move polewards in a warming world. Nat. Clim. Change 3:203–22
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.
    Bergamin Filho A, Carneiro SMTPG, Godoy CV, Amorim L, Berger RD, Hau B 1997. Angular leaf spot of Phaseolus beans: relationships between disease, healthy leaf area, and yield. Phytopathology 87:506–15
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.
    Bergamin Filho A, Inoue-Nagata AK, Bassanezi RB, Belasque J Jr, Amorim L et al. 2016. The importance of primary inoculum and area-wide disease management to crop health and food security. Food Secur 8:221–38
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.
    Berger RD, Jones JW. 1985. A general model for disease progress with functions for variable latency and lesion expansion on growing host plants. Phytopathology 75:792–97
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.
    Berryman CA, Eamus D, Farrar JF 1991. The hydraulic conductivity of roots of rust-infected barley seedlings. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 38:407–15
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.
    Berryman CA, Eamus D, Farrar JF 1991. Water relations of leaves of barley infected with brown rust. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 38:393–405
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.
    Bockus WW, Bowden RL, Hunger RM, Murray TD, Smiley RW 2010. Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests St. Paul, MN: APS Press. , 3rd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.
    Bonman JM, Estrada BA, Bandong JM 1989. Leaf and neck blast resistance in tropical lowland rice cultivars. Plant Dis 73:388–90
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16.
    Bonman JM, Khush GS, Nelson RJ 1992. Breeding rice for resistance to pests. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 30:507–28
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17.
    Boote KJ, Jones JW, Mishoe JW, Berger RD 1983. Coupling pests to crop growth simulators to predict yield reductions. Phytopathology 73:1581–87
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18.
    Bourke PMA. 1964. Emergence of potato blight, 1843–46. Nature 203:805–8
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19.
    Bregaglio S, Titone P, Cappelli G, Tamborini L, Mongiano G, Confalonieri R 2016. Coupling a generic disease model to the WARM rice simulator to assess leaf and panicle blast impacts in a temperate climate. Eur. J. Agron. 76:107–17
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20.
    Breukers A, Kettenis DL, Mourits M, van der Werf W, Lansink AO 2006. Individual-based models in the analysis of disease transmission in plant production chains: an application to potato brown rot. Agric. Syst. 90:112–31
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21.
    Browning JA. 1974. Relevance of knowledge about natural ecosystems to development of pest management systems for agro-ecosystems. Proc. Am. Phytopathol. Soc. 1:191–99
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22.
    Buchanan BB, Hutcheson SW, Magyarosy AC, Montalbini P 1981. Photosynthesis in healthy and diseased plants. Effects of Disease on the Physiology of the Growing Plant PG Ayres 213–28 Cambridge, UK: Univ. Cambridge Press
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23.
    Buchenau GW. 1975. Relationship between yield loss and area under the wheat stem rust and leaf rust progress curves. Phytopathology 65:1317–18
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24.
    Campbell CL, Madden LV. 1990. Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology New York: Wiley-Interscience
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25.
    Ceresini PC, Castroagudin VL, Rodrigues FA, Rios JA, Aucique-Pérez CE et al. 2018. Wheat blast: past, present, and future. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 56:427–56
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26.
    Ceresini PC, Castroagudín VL, Rodrigues FA, Rios JA, Aucique‐Pérez CE et al. 2019. Wheat blast: from its origins in South America to its emergence as a global threat. Mol. Plant Pathol. 20:155–72
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27.
    Chiarappa L 1981. Crop Loss Assessment Methods Farnham, UK: FAO/CAB. Suppl3
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28.
    Crist E, Mora C, Engelman R 2017. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection. Science 356:260–64
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29.
    Damoram Nadu V, Srinivasa Rao B, Murty PSS 1981. Influence of sheath blight infection on the levels of chlorophyll and 14CO2 uptake in rice. Indian Phytopathol 34:30–33
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.
    De Wit CT, Penning de Vries FWT 1982. L'analyse des systèmes de production primaire. La Productivité de Pâturages Sahéliens Agricultural Research Reports 918, ed. FWT Penning de Vries, MA Djiteye 20–27 Wageningen, Neth: Pudoc Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31.
    Ding KJ, Tan GJ, Hu JS, Zhou SC 1997. Yield loss of rice damaged by rice false smut. Plant Prot 23:3–6
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32.
    Esker PD, Savary S, McRoberts N 2012. Crop loss analysis and global food supply: focusing now on required harvests. CAB Rev 7:1–14
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33.
    Evenson RE, Gollin D. 2003. Assessing the impact of the Green Revolution, 1960 to 2000. Science 300:758–62
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34.
    Fan J, Guo XY, Huang F, Li Y, Liu YF et al. 2014. Epiphytic colonization of Ustilaginoidea virens on biotic and abiotic surfaces implies the widespread presence of primary inoculum for rice false smut disease. Plant Pathol 63:937–45
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35.
    FAO 1996. Rome declaration on world food security and world food summit plan of action Paper presented at the World Food Summit Rome: Nov. 13. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w3613e/w3613e00.HTM
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36.
    FAO 2017. The future of food and agriculture: trends and challenges Rep., FAO Rome: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6583e.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37.
    FAO, IFAD, WFP 2013. The state of food insecurity in the world 2013. The multiple dimensions of food security. Rep., FAO Rome: http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3434e/i3434e.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38.
    Fargette D, Konate G, Fauquet C, Muller E, Peterschmitt M, Thresh JM 2006. Molecular ecology and emergence of tropical plant viruses. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44:235–60
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39.
    Ferrandino FJ. 2008. Effect of crop growth and canopy filtration on the dynamics of plant disease epidemics spread by aerially dispersed spores. Phytopathology 98:492–503
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40.
    Flood J. 2010. The importance of plant health to food security. Food Secur 2:215–31
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41.
    Foley JA, DeFries R, Asner GP, Barford C, Bonan G et al. 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309:570–74
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.
    Gilligan CA, Truscott JE, Stacey AJ 2007. Impact of scale on the effectiveness of disease control strategies for epidemics with cryptic infection in a dynamical landscape: an example for a crop disease. J. R. Soc. Interface 4:925–34
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43.
    Ghatak A, Willocquet L, Savary S, Kumar J 2013. Variability in aggressiveness of rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) isolates originating from rice leaves and necks: a case of pathogen specialization. PLOS ONE 8:6e66180
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44.
    Godfray J, Beddington JR, Crute IA, Haddad L, Lawrence D et al. 2010. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 345:325–28
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.
    Godfray J, Mason-D'Croz D, Robinson S 2016. Food system consequences of a fungal disease epidemic in a major crop. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:20150467
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46.
    Goellner K, Loehrer M, Langenbach C, Conrath U, Koch E, Schaffrath U 2010. Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust. Mol. Plant Pathol. 11:169–77
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47.
    Gregory PH. 1948. The multiple infection transformation. Ann. Appl. Biol. 35:412–17
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48.
    Grimmer MK, John Foulkes M, Paveley ND 2012. Foliar pathogenesis and plant water relations: a review. J. Exp. Bot. 63:4321–31
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.
    Harlan JR. 1992. Crops and Man Madison, WI: Am. Soc. Agron. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50.
    Hay RKM. 1995. Harvest index: a review of its use in plant breeding and crop physiology. Ann. Appl. Biol. 126:197–216
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.
    Heesterbeek JAP, Zadoks JC. 1987. Modelling pandemics of quarantine pests and diseases: problems and perspectives. Crop Prot 6:211–21
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52.
    Hijmans RJ, Forbes GA, Walker TS 2000. Estimating the global severity of potato late blight with GIS‐linked disease forecast models. Plant Pathol 49:697–705
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.
    Johnson KB. 1987. Defoliation, disease, and growth: a reply. Phytopathology 77:1495–97
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54.
    Johnson KB, Radcliffe EB, Teng PS 1986. Effects of interacting populations of Alternaria solani, Verticillium dahliae, and the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) on potato yield. Phytopathology 76:1046–52
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55.
    Johnson KB, Teng PS. 1990. Coupling a disease progress model for early blight to a model of potato growth. Phytopathology 80:416–25
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56.
    Kankanala P, Czymmek K, Valent B 2007. Roles for rice membrane dynamics and plasmodesmata during biotrophic invasion by the blast fungus. Plant Cell 19:706–24
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57.
    Kettles GJ, Luna E. 2019. Food security in 2044: How do we control the fungal threat?. Fungal Biol 123:558–64
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58.
    Khush GS, Jena KK. 2009. Current status and future prospects for research on blast resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Advances in Genetics, Genomics and Control of Rice Blast Disease GL Wang, B Valent 1–10 Berlin: Springer Sci.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59.
    Koutroubas SD, Katsantonis D, Ntanos DA, Lupotto E 2009. Blast fungus inoculation reduces accumulation and remobilization of pre-anthesis assimilates to rice grains. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 48:240–52
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60.
    Legg JP, Jeremiah SC, Obiero HM, Maruthi MN, Ndyetabula I et al. 2011. Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa. Virus Res 159:161–70
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61.
    Liu B, Zhu XY, Zhang S, Wu J, Han SS et al. 2009. What it takes to achieve durable resistance to rice blast?. Advances in Genetics, Genomics and Control of Rice Blast Disease GL Wang, B Valent 385–402 Berlin: Springer Sci.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62.
    Liu Y, Buchenauer H. 2005. Effect of infections with barley yellow dwarf virus and Fusarium spp. on assimilation of 14CO2 by flag leaves and translocation of photosynthates in wheat. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 112:529–43
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63.
    Lopes DB, Berger RD. 2001. The effects of rust and anthracnose on the photosynthetic competence of diseased bean leaves. Phytopathology 91:212–20
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64.
    Lucas J. 1998. Plant Pathology and Plant Pathogens Cambridge, UK: Blackwell Sci. , 3rd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65.
    Luo Y, Teng PS, Fabellar NG, TeBeest DO 1997. A rice-leaf blast combined model for simulation of epidemics and yield loss. Agric. Syst. 53:27–39
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66.
    Madden LV. 1983. Measuring and modeling crop loss at the field level. Phytopathology 73:1591–96
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.
    Madden LV, Hughes G, van den Bosch F 2007. The Study of Plant Disease Epidemics St. Paul, MN: APS Press
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68.
    Madden LV, Nutter FW. 1995. Modeling crop losses at the field scale. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 17:124–37
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69.
    Mahuku G, Lockhart BE, Wanjala B, Jones MW, Kimunye JN et al. 2015. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Phytopathology 105:956–65
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70.
    Martin NE, Hendrix JW. 1966. Influence of stripe rust on root development in wheat. Phytopathology 56:149
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71.
    McDonald BA. 2013. How can we achieve durable disease resistance in agroecosystems? Increase diversity!. Acta Phytopathol. Sin. 43:Suppl.98
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72.
    McDonald BA. 2014. Using dynamic diversity to achieve durable disease resistance in agricultural ecosystems. Tropical Plant Pathol 39:191–96
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73.
    McDonald BA, Linde C. 2002. Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 40:349–79
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74.
    McDonald BA, Stukenbrock EH. 2016. Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:170920160026
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75.
    Mendgen K. 1981. Nutrient uptake in rust fungi. Phytopathology 71:983–89
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76.
    Mendgen K, Deising H. 1993. Infection structures of fungal plant pathogens: a cytological and physiological evaluation. New Phytol 124:193–213
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77.
    Mew TW. 1991. Disease management in rice. CRC Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture III D Pimentel 279–99 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78.
    Mew TW, Alvarez AM, Leach JE, Swings J 1993. Focus on bacterial blight of rice. Plant Dis 77:5–12
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79.
    Mundt CC, Browning JA. 1985. Genetic diversity and cereal rust management. Diseases, Distribution, Epidemiology, and Control AP Roelfs, WR Bushnell 527–560 New York: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80.
    Newton AC, Johnson SN, Gregory PJ 2011. Implications of climate change for diseases, crop yields and food security. Euphytica 179:3–18
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81.
    Ngugi HK, Scherm H. 2006. Biology of flower-infecting fungi. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44:261–82
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82.
    Ou SH. 1987. Rice Diseases Slough, UK: CABI
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83.
    Pardey PG, Alston JM, Piggott RR 2006. Agricultural R&D in the Developing World: Too Little, Too Late? Washington, DC: Int. Food Policy Res. Inst.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84.
    Parry DW, Jenkinson P, McLeod L 1995. Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small grain cereals: a review. Plant Pathol 4:207–38
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85.
    Pinnschmidt HO, Batchelor WD, Teng PS 1995. Simulation of multiple species pest damage in rice using CERES-rice. Agric. Syst. 48:193–222
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86.
    Pinnschmidt HO, Bonman JM, Kranz J 1995. Lesion development and sporulation of rice blast. Z. Pflanzenkrankh. Pflanzensch. 102:299–306
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87.
    Pinstrup-Andersen P. 2009. Food security: definition and measurement. Food Secur 1:5–7
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88.
    Quiroz FJ, Molina JE, Dosio GAA 2014. Black stem by Phoma macdonaldii affected ecophysiological components that determine grain yield in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Field Crops Res 160:31–40
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89.
    Rabbinge R. 1993. The ecological background of food production. CIBA Foundation Symposium 177: Crop Protection and Sustainable Agriculture DJ Chadwick, J Marsh 2–29 Chichester, UK: Wiley & Sons
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90.
    Rabbinge R, de Wit CT 1989. Systems, models and simulation. Simulation and Systems Management in Crop Protection R Rabbinge, SA Ward, HH Van Laar 3–15 Wageningen, Neth: Pudoc Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91.
    Rabbinge R, Jorritsma ITM, Schans J 1985. Damage components of powdery mildew in winter wheat. Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 91:235–47
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92.
    Rabbinge R, Rijsdijk FH. 1981. Disease and crop physiology: a modeler's point of view. Effects of Disease on the Physiology of the Growing Plant PG Ayres 201–20 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93.
    Rabbinge R, Vereyken PH. 1980. The effects of diseases or pests upon host. Z. Pflanzenk. Pflanzensch. 87:409–22
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94.
    Rabbinge R, Ward SA, Van Laar HH 1989. Simulation and Systems Management in Crop Protection Wageningen, Neth: Pudoc Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95.
    Reddy CS, Laha GS, Prasad MS, Krishnaveni D, Castilla NP, Nelson A, Savary S 2011. Characterizing multiple linkages between individual diseases, crop health syndromes, germplasm deployment, and rice production situations in India. Field Crops Res 120:241–53
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96.
    Robert C, Bancal MO, Lannou C 2002. Wheat leaf rust uredospore production and carbon and nitrogen export in relation to lesion size and density. Phytopathology 92:762–68
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97.
    Robert C, Bancal MO, Lannou C, Ney B 2005. Quantification of the effects of Septoria tritici blotch on wheat leaf gas exchange with respect to lesion age, leaf number, and leaf nitrogen status. J. Exp. Bot. 57:225–34
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98.
    Robert C, Bancal MO, Ney B, Lannou C 2005. Wheat leaf photosynthesis loss due to leaf rust, with respect to lesion development and leaf nitrogen status. New Phytol 165:227–41
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99.
    Rockström J, Steffen WL, Noone K, Persson Å, Chapin FS III et al. 2009. Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecol. Soc. 14:32
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100.
    Rosenzweig C, Parry M. 1994. Potential impact of climate change on world food supply. Nature 367:133–38
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101.
    Rossing WAH. 1991. Simulation of damage in winter wheat caused by the grain aphid Sitobion avenae. 2. Construction and evaluation of a simulation model. Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 97:25–54
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102.
    Rossing WAH. 1991. Simulation of damage in winter wheat caused by the grain aphid Sitobion avenae. 3. Calculation of damage at various attainable yield levels. Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 97:87–103
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103.
    Rossing WAH, van Oijen M, van der Werf W, Bastiaans L, Rabbinge R 1992. Modelling the effects of foliar pests and pathogens on light interception, photosynthesis, growth rate and yield of field crops. Pests and Pathogens: Plant Responses to Foliar Attack PG Ayres 161–80 Oxford, UK: BIOS Sci.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104.
    Savary S, Bosc JP, Noirot M, Zadoks JC 1988. Peanut rust in West Africa: a new component in a multiple pathosystem. Plant Dis 72:1001–9
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105.
    Savary S, Bregaglio S, Willocquet L, Gustafson D, Mason D'Croz D et al. 2017. Crop health and its global impacts on the components of food security. Food Secur 9:311–27
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106.
    Savary S, de Jong PD, Rabbinge R, Zadoks JC 1990. Dynamic simulation model for groundnut rust: a preliminary model. Agric. Syst. 32:113–41
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107.
    Savary S, Djurle A, Yuen J, Ficke A, Rossi V et al. 2017. A white paper on global wheat health based on scenario development and analysis. Phytopathology 107:1109–22
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108.
    Savary S, Jouanin C, Félix I, Gourdain E, Piraux F et al. 2016. Assessing plant health in a network of experiments on hardy winter wheat varieties in France: multivariate and risk factor analyses. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 146:757–78
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109.
    Savary S, McRoberts N, Esker PD, Willocquet L, Teng PS 2017. Production situations as drivers of crop health: evidence and implications. Plant Pathol 66:867–76
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110.
    Savary S, Mila A, Willocquet L, Esker PD, Carisse O, McRoberts N 2011. Risk factors for crop health under global change and agricultural shifts: a framework of analyses using rice in tropical and subtropical Asia as a model. Phytopathology 101:696–709
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111.
    Savary S, Nelson AD, Djurle A, Esker PD, Sparks A et al. 2018. Concepts, approaches, and avenues for modelling crop health and crop losses. Eur. J. Agron. 100:4–18
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112.
    Savary S, Nelson AD, Sparks AH, Willocquet L, Duveiller E et al. 2011. International agricultural research tackling the effects of global and climate changes on plant diseases in the developing world. Plant Dis 95:1204–16
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113.
    Savary S, Nelson A, Willocquet L, Pangga I, Aunario J 2012. Modelling and mapping potential epidemics of rice diseases globally. Crop Prot 34:6–17
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 114.
    Savary S, Stetkiewicz S, Brun F, Willocquet L 2015. Modelling and mapping potential epidemics of wheat diseases: examples on leaf rust and Septoria tritici blotch using EPIWHEAT. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 142:771–90
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115.
    Savary S, Teng PS, Willocquet L, Nutter FW Jr 2006. Quantification and modeling of crop losses: a review of purposes. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44:89–112
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 116.
    Savary S, Willocquet L. 2014. Simulation modeling in botanical epidemiology and crop loss analysis. Plant Health Instr https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disimpactmngmnt/topc/BotanicalEpidemiology/Pages/default.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 117.
    Savary S, Willocquet L, Elazegui FA, Castilla NP, Teng PS 2000. Rice pest constraints in tropical Asia: quantification of yield losses due to rice pests in a range of production situations. Plant Dis 84:357–69
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 118.
    Savary S, Willocquet L, Elazegui FA, Teng PS, Van Du P et al. 2000. Rice pest constraints in tropical Asia: characterization of injury profiles in relation to production situations. Plant Dis 84:341–56
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 119.
    Savary S, Willocquet L, Pethybridge SJ, Esker P, McRoberts N, Nelson A 2019. The global burden of pathogens and pests on major food crops. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 3:430–39
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 120.
    Savary S, Zadoks JC. 1992. Analysis of crop loss in the multiple pathosystem groundnut-rust-late leaf spot. I. Six experiments. Crop Prot 11:99–109
    [Google Scholar]
  121. 121.
    Savary S, Zadoks JC. 1992. Analysis of crop loss in the multiple pathosystem groundnut-rust-late leaf spot. III. Correspondence analyses. Crop Prot 11:229–39
    [Google Scholar]
  122. 122.
    Schierenbeck M, Fleitas MC, Miralles DJ, Simón MR 2016. Does radiation interception or radiation use efficiency limit the growth of wheat inoculated with tan spot or leaf rust. Field Crops Res 199:65–76
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 123.
    Severns PM, Sackett KE, Mundt CC 2015. Outbreak propagule pressure influences the landscape spread of a wind-dispersed, epidemic-causing, plant pathogen. Landsc. Ecol. 30:2111–19
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 124.
    Shim HS, Hong SJ, Yeh WH, Han SS, Sung JM 2005. Damage analysis of rice panicle blast on disease occurrence time and severity. Plant Pathol. J. 21:87–92
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 125.
    Singh RP, Hodson DP, Huerta-Espino J, Jin Y, Njau P et al. 2008. Will stem rust destroy the world's wheat crop?. Adv. Agron. 98:271–309
    [Google Scholar]
  126. 126.
    Steffen W, Richardson K, Rockström J, Cornell SE, Fetzer I et al. 2015. Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 347:1259855
    [Google Scholar]
  127. 127.
    Stevenson WR, Loria R, Franc GD, Weingartner DP 2001. Compendium of Potato Diseases St. Paul, MN: APS Press
    [Google Scholar]
  128. 128.
    Teng PS. 1983. Estimating and interpreting disease intensity and loss in commercial fields. Phytopathology 73:1587–90
    [Google Scholar]
  129. 129.
    Teng PS, Gaunt RE. 1980. Modelling systems of disease and yield loss in cereals. Agric. Syst. 6:131–54
    [Google Scholar]
  130. 130.
    Teng PS, Savary S. 1992. Implementing the system approach in pest management. Agric. Syst. 40:237–64
    [Google Scholar]
  131. 131.
    Teng PS, Savary S, Revilla I 1993. Systems of plant protection. CIBA Foundation Symposium 177: Crop Protection and Sustainable Agriculture DJ Chadwick, J Marsh 116–139 Chichester, UK: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  132. 132.
    Tissera P, Ayres PG. 1986. Transpiration and the water relations of faba bean (Vicia faba) infected by rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae). New Phytol 102:385–95
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 133.
    Torres CQ, Teng PS. 1993. Path coefficient and regression analysis of the effects of leaf and panicle blast on tropical rice yield. Crop Prot 12:296–302
    [Google Scholar]
  134. 134.
    Van der Plank JE. 1963. Plant Diseases: Epidemics and Control New York: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 135.
    van Ittersum MK, Rabbinge R 1997. Concepts in production ecology for analysis and quantification of agricultural input-output combinations. Field Crops Res 52:197–208
    [Google Scholar]
  136. 136.
    van Ittersum MK, van Bussel LGJ, Wolf J, Grassini P, van Wart J et al. 2016. Can sub-Saharan Africa feed itself?. PNAS 113:14964–69
    [Google Scholar]
  137. 137.
    Van Oijen M. 1992. Evaluation of breeding strategies for resistance and tolerance to late blight in potato by means of simulation. Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 98:3–11
    [Google Scholar]
  138. 138.
    Vermeulen SJ, Campbell BM, Ingram JSI 2012. Climate change and food systems. Annu. Rev. Environ. Res. 37:195–222
    [Google Scholar]
  139. 139.
    Weltzien HC. 1972. Geophytopathology. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 10:277–98
    [Google Scholar]
  140. 140.
    Wheeler T, Von Braun J 2013. Climate change impacts on global food security. Science 341:508–13
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 141.
    Wild CP, Gong YY. 2010. Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue. Carcinogenesis 31:71–82
    [Google Scholar]
  142. 142.
    Willett W, Rockström J, Loken B, Springmann M, Lang T et al. 2019. Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 393:447–92
    [Google Scholar]
  143. 143.
    Willocquet L, Aubertot JN, Lebard S, Robert C, Lannou C, Savary S 2008. Simulating multiple pest damage in varying winter wheat production situations. Field Crops Res 107:12–28
    [Google Scholar]
  144. 144.
    Willocquet L, Elazegui FA, Castilla N, Fernandez L, Fischer KS et al. 2004. Research priorities for rice pest management in tropical Asia: a simulation analysis of yield losses and management efficiencies. Phytopathology 94:672–82
    [Google Scholar]
  145. 145.
    Willocquet L, Félix I, de Vallavieille-Pope C, Savary S 2018. Reverse modelling to estimate yield losses caused by crop diseases. Plant Pathol 67:1669–79
    [Google Scholar]
  146. 146.
    Willocquet L, Savary S, Fernandez L, Elazegui FA, Castilla N et al. 2002. Structure and validation of RICEPEST, a production situation-driven, crop growth model simulating rice yield response to multiple pest injuries for tropical Asia. Ecol. Model. 153:247–68
    [Google Scholar]
  147. 147.
    Willocquet L, Savary S, Fernandez L, Elazegui FA, Teng PS 2000. Development and evaluation of a multiple-pest, production situation specific, simulation model of rice yield losses in tropical Asia. Ecol. Model. 131:133–59
    [Google Scholar]
  148. 148.
    Xu X, Nicholson P. 2009. Community ecology of fungal pathogens causing wheat head blight. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 47:83–103
    [Google Scholar]
  149. 149.
    Yuen JE. 2012. Modelling pathogen competition and displacement: Phytophthora infestans in Scandinavia. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 133:25–32
    [Google Scholar]
  150. 150.
    Zadoks JC. 1971. Systems analysis and the dynamics of epidemics. Phytopathology 61:600–10
    [Google Scholar]
  151. 151.
    Zadoks JC. 1985. On the conceptual basis of crop loss assessment: the threshold theory. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 23:455–73
    [Google Scholar]
  152. 152.
    Zadoks JC. 2008. On the Political Economy of Plant Disease Epidemics: Capita Selecta in Historical Epidemiology Wageningen, Neth: Wageningen Acad. Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  153. 153.
    Zadoks JC, Schein RD. 1979. Epidemiology and Plant Disease Management New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  154. 154.
    Zeigler RS, Barclay A. 2008. The relevance of rice. Rice 1:3–10
    [Google Scholar]
  155. 155.
    Zeigler RS, Savary S. 2009. Plant diseases and the world's dependence on rice. The Role of Plant Pathology in Food Safety and Food Security RN Strange, ML Gullino 3–9 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  156. 156.
    Zhao C, Liu B, Piao S, Wang X, Lobell DB et al. 2017. Temperature increase reduces global yields of major crops in four independent estimates. PNAS 114:9326–31
    [Google Scholar]
  157. 157.
    Zhao D, Glynn NC, Glaz B, Comstock JC, Sood S 2011. Orange rust effects on leaf photosynthesis and related characters of sugarcane. Plant Dis 95:640–47
    [Google Scholar]
  158. 158.
    Zhu Y, Chen H, Fan J, Wang Y, Li Y et al. 2000. Genetic diversity and disease control in rice. Nature 406:718–22
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-phyto-010820-012856
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-phyto-010820-012856
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error