Bacteria have many export and secretion systems that translocate cargo into and across biological membranes. Seven secretion systems contribute to pathogenicity by translocating proteinaceous cargos that can be released into the extracellular milieu or directly into recipient cells. In this review, we describe these secretion systems and how their complexities and functions reflect differences in the destinations, states, functions, and sizes of the translocated cargos as well as the architecture of the bacterial cell envelope. We examine the secretion systems from the perspective of pathogenic bacteria that proliferate within plant tissues and highlight examples of translocated proteins that contribute to the infection and disease of plant hosts.


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