Potato () is the world's third-largest food crop. It severely suffers from late blight, a devastating disease caused by . This oomycete pathogen secretes host-translocated RXLR effectors that include avirulence (AVR) proteins, which are targeted by resistance (R) proteins from wild species. Most genes appear to have coevolved with at its center of origin in central Mexico. Various and genes were recently cloned, and here we catalog characterized R-AVR pairs. We describe the mechanisms that employs for evading R protein recognition and discuss partial resistance and partial virulence phenotypes in the context of our knowledge of effector diversity and activity. Genome-wide catalogs of effectors are available, enabling effectoromics approaches that accelerate gene cloning and specificity profiling. Engineering genes with expanded pathogen recognition has also become possible. Importantly, monitoring effector allelic diversity in pathogen populations can assist in gene deployment in agriculture.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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