Species of migratory plant endoparasitic nematodes of three nematode families, Pratylenchidae, Anguinidae, and Aphelenchoididae, show marked variation in life cycles and fascinating contrasts in host-parasite interactions. The necessity for survival for periods in the absence of a host has resulted in some remarkable behavioral and physiological adaptations, especially in relation to anhydrobiotic survival. Many species are of major economic importance, and interactions with other pathogens enhance crop damage and yield loss. No single management strategy for endoparasitic nematodes is possible because control options have to be tailored to the nematode species, crop type, location, and economic returns. In this review, we focus on the contrast in life cycles and the wide spectrum of adaptations to obligate parasitism of most species of plant endoparasitic nematodes and examine how these aspects impinge on management options.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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