New tools have revealed that migrations of have been a dominant feature of the population biology of this pathogen for the past 50 years, and maybe for the past 170 years. We now have accurate information on the composition of many populations. However, migration followed by selection can lead and has led to dramatically rapid changes in populations over large regions. Except for the highlands of central Mexico, many populations of have probably been in flux over the past several decades. There is some evidence that this pathogen has different characteristics in the field than it does in the lab, and early field phenotypic analyses of hypotheses concerning fitness and pathogenicity would be beneficial. The newly available capacity to acquire and process vast amounts of weather and weather forecast data in combination with advancements in molecular diagnostics enables much greater precision in late blight management to produce recommendations that are site, host, and pathogen specific.


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