1932

Abstract

This article considers the vast academic literature on campaign finance regulation in the United States, drawing on the fields of political theory, American politics, election law, constitutional law, and economics. The scholarly treatment of campaign finance regulation has become increasingly focused on fundamental questions about democratic governance and democratic values, and it has generated profound debates about participation, representation, free speech, political equality, liberty, and the organization and distribution of political power in government and society. This article reviews the original debate about campaign finance regulation and traces its evolution in both political theory and constitutional law, identifying current areas of inquiry and new directions in research. In particular, the article focuses on corruption, political equality and representation, electoral exceptionalism, and the post– landscape. It also surveys empirical findings from political science and economics.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-010814-104523
2015-05-11
2024-06-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/polisci/18/1/annurev-polisci-010814-104523.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-010814-104523&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abramowitz A. 1988. Explaining Senate election outcomes. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 82:385–403 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abramowitz A. 1991. Incumbency, campaign spending, and the decline of competition in U.S. House elections. J. Polit. 53:35–56 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ackerman B, Ayres I. 2004. Voting with Dollars: A New Paradigm for Campaign Finance New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  4. Alexander M. 2003. Campaign finance reform: central meaning and a new approach. Wash. Lee Law Rev. 60:767–839 [Google Scholar]
  5. Alexander M. 2011. Citizens United and equality forgotten. N. Y. Univ. Rev. Law Soc. Change 35:499–526 [Google Scholar]
  6. Ansolabehere S, de Figueiredo J, Snyder J. 2003. Why is there so little money in U.S. politics?. J. Econ. Perspect. 17:105–30 [Google Scholar]
  7. Ansolabehere S, Snyder J, Tripathi M. 2002. Are PAC contributions and lobbying linked? New evidence from the 1995 Lobby Disclosure Act. Bus. Polit. 4:131–55 [Google Scholar]
  8. Ayres I, Bulow J. 1998. The donation booth: mandating donor anonymity to disrupt the market for political influence. Stanford Law Rev. 50:837–91 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bafumi J, Herron M. 2010. Leapfrog representation and extremism: a study of American voters and their members in Congress. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 104:519–42 [Google Scholar]
  10. Baker E. 1998. Campaign expenditures and free speech. Harvard Civil Liberties Civil Rights Law Rev. 33:1–55 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bartels L. 2008. Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  12. Batchis W. 2012. Citizens United and the paradox of “corporate speech”: from freedom of association to freedom of the association. N. Y. Univ. Rev. Law Soc. Change 36:5–55 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bebchuk L, Jackson R. 2010. Corporate political speech: Who decides?. Harvard Law Rev. 124:83–117 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bebchuk L, Jackson R. 2013. Shining light on corporate political spending. Georgetown Law J. 101:923–67 [Google Scholar]
  15. BeVier L. 1985. Money and politics: a perspective on the First Amendment and campaign finance reform. Calif. Law Rev. 73:1045–90 [Google Scholar]
  16. BeVier L. 1994. Campaign finance reform: specious arguments, intractable dilemmas. Columbia Law Rev. 94:1258–80 [Google Scholar]
  17. Blasi V. 1994. Free speech and the widening gyre of fund-raising: why campaign spending limits may not violate the First Amendment after all. Columbia Law Rev. 94:1281–1325 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bonica A, McCarthy N, Poole K, Rosenthal H. 2013. Why hasn't democracy slowed rising inequality?. J. Econ. Perspect. 27:103–24 [Google Scholar]
  19. Briffault R. 1999. Issue advocacy: redrawing the elections/politics line. Texas Law Rev. 77:1751–1802 [Google Scholar]
  20. Briffault R. 2005. The 527 problem… and the Buckley problem. George Wash. Law Rev. 73:949–99 [Google Scholar]
  21. Briffault R. 2008. Lobbying and campaign finance: separate and together. Stanford Law Policy Rev. 19:105–29 [Google Scholar]
  22. Briffault R. 2010. Campaign finance disclosure 2.0. Election Law J. 9:273–303 [Google Scholar]
  23. Briffault R. 2011a. Corporations, corruption, and complexity: campaign finance after Citizens United. Cornell J. Law Public Policy 20:643–71 [Google Scholar]
  24. Briffault R. 2011b. On dejudicializing American campaign finance law. Georgia State Univ. Law Rev. 27:887–933 [Google Scholar]
  25. Briffault R. 2011c. Two challenges for campaign finance disclosure after Citizens United and Doe v. Reed. William Mary Bill Rights J. 19:983–1014 [Google Scholar]
  26. Briffault R. 2012a. Updating disclosure for the new era of independent spending. J. Law Policy 27:683–719 [Google Scholar]
  27. Briffault R. 2012b. Super PACs. Minn. Law Rev. 96:1644–93 [Google Scholar]
  28. Briffault R. 2013. Coordination reconsidered. Columbia Law Rev. Sidebar 113:88–101 [Google Scholar]
  29. Burke T. 1997. The concept of corruption in campaign finance law. Const. Comment. 14:127–49 [Google Scholar]
  30. Cain B. 1995. Moralism and realism in campaign finance reform. Univ. Chicago Legal Forum 1995:111–40 [Google Scholar]
  31. Cain B. 2014. Is dependence corruption the solution to America's campaign finance problem?. Calif. Law Rev. 102:37–48 [Google Scholar]
  32. Charles G. 2014. Corruption temptation. Calif. Law Rev. 102:25–36 [Google Scholar]
  33. Cole D. 1991. First Amendment antitrust: the end of laissez-faire in campaign finance. Yale Law Policy Rev. 9:236–78 [Google Scholar]
  34. Dawood Y. 2006. Democracy, power, and the Supreme Court: campaign finance reform in comparative context. Int. J. Const. Law 4:269–93 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dawood Y. 2013. Freedom of speech and democracy: rethinking the conflict between liberty and equality. Can. J. Law Jurisprudence 26:293–311 [Google Scholar]
  36. Dawood Y. 2014a. Classifying corruption. Duke J. Const. Law Public Policy 9:102–32 [Google Scholar]
  37. Dawood Y. 2014b. Democracy divided: campaign finance regulation and the right to vote. N. Y. Univ. Law Rev. Online 89:17–29 [Google Scholar]
  38. de Figueiredo J, Garrett E. 2005. Paying for politics. Southern Calif. Law Rev. 78:591–668 [Google Scholar]
  39. Dorf M. 2011. The marginality of Citizens United. Cornell J. Law Public Policy 20:739–52 [Google Scholar]
  40. Dotan Y. 2004. Campaign finance reform and the social inequality paradox. Univ. Mich. J. Law Reform 37:955–1015 [Google Scholar]
  41. Dworkin R. 2000. Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  42. Ellis C. 2012. Understanding economic biases in representation: income, resources, and policy representation in the 100th House. Polit. Res. Q. 65:938–51 [Google Scholar]
  43. Ensley M. 2009. Individual campaign contributions and candidate ideology. Public Choice 138:221–38 [Google Scholar]
  44. Eule J. 1990. Promoting speaker diversity: Austin and Metro Broadcasting. Supreme Court Rev. 1990:105–32 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fiss O. 1996a. The Irony of Free Speech Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  46. Fiss O. 1996b. Liberalism Divided: Freedom of Speech and the Many Uses of State Power Boulder, CO: Westview [Google Scholar]
  47. Foley E. 1994. Equal-dollars-per-voter: a constitutional principle of campaign finance. Columbia Law Rev. 94:1204–57 [Google Scholar]
  48. Foley E. 1998. Philosophy, the Constitution, and campaign finance. Stanford Law Policy Rev. 10:23–31 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gardner J. 2009. What Are Campaigns For? The Role of Persuasion in Electoral Law and Politics New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  50. Gardner J. 2011a. Anti-regulatory absolutism in the campaign arena: Citizens United and the implied slippery slope. Cornell J. Law Public Policy 20:673–717 [Google Scholar]
  51. Gardner J. 2011b. Anonymity and democratic citizenship. William Mary Bill Rights J. 19:927–57 [Google Scholar]
  52. Gardner J, Charles G. 2012. Election Law in the American Political System New York: Aspen Casebook [Google Scholar]
  53. Garrett E. 2002. The future of campaign finance reform laws in the courts and in Congress. Oklahoma City Univ. Law Rev. 27:665–92 [Google Scholar]
  54. Garrett E. 2004. McConnell v. FEC and disclosure. Election Law J. 3:237–44 [Google Scholar]
  55. Garrett E, Smith D. 2005. Veiled political actors and campaign disclosure laws in direct democracy. Election Law J. 4:295–328 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gerber A. 1998. Estimating the effect of campaign spending on Senate election outcomes using instrumental variables. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 92:401–11 [Google Scholar]
  57. Gerken H. 2011. Lobbying as the new campaign finance. Georgia State Univ. Law Rev. 27:1155–68 [Google Scholar]
  58. Gerken H. 2014. The real problem with Citizens United: campaign finance, dark money, and shadow parties. Marquette Law Rev. 97:903–23 [Google Scholar]
  59. Gerken H, Tausanovitch A. 2014. A public finance model for lobbying: lobbying, campaign finance, and the privatization of democracy. Election Law J. 13:75–90 [Google Scholar]
  60. Gilbert M. 2013. Campaign finance disclosure and the information tradeoff. Iowa Law Rev. 98:1847–94 [Google Scholar]
  61. Gilens M. 2012. Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  62. Gottlieb S. 1989. The dilemma of election campaign finance reform. Hofstra Law Rev. 18:213–300 [Google Scholar]
  63. Green D, Krasno J. 1988. Salvation for the spendthrift incumbent: reestimating the effects of campaign spending in House elections. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 32:884–907 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hasen R. 1996. Clipping coupons for democracy. Calif. Law Rev. 84:1–59 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hasen R. 1999. Campaign finance laws and the Rupert Murdoch problem. Texas Law Rev. 77:1627–65 [Google Scholar]
  66. Hasen R. 2003. The Supreme Court and Election Law: Judging Equality from Baker v. Carr to Bush v. Gore. New York and London: N. Y. Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  67. Hasen R. 2004. Buckley is dead, long live Buckley: the new campaign finance incoherence of McConnell v. Federal Election Commission. Univ. Penn. Law Rev. 153:31–72 [Google Scholar]
  68. Hasen R. 2008. Beyond incoherence: the Roberts Court's deregulatory turn in FEC v. Wisconsin Right to Life. Minn. Law Rev. 92:1064–1109 [Google Scholar]
  69. Hasen R. 2011a. Citizens United and the orphaned antidistortion rationale. Georgia State Univ. Law Rev. 27:989–1006 [Google Scholar]
  70. Hasen R. 2011b. Citizens United and the illusion of coherence. Mich. Law Rev. 109:581–623 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hasen R. 2012a. Fixing Washington. Harvard Law Rev. 126:550–624 [Google Scholar]
  72. Hasen R. 2012b. Chill out: a qualified defense of campaign finance disclosure laws in the internet age. J. Law Policy 27:557–73 [Google Scholar]
  73. Hasen R. 2012c. Lobbying, rent-seeking, and the constitution. Stanford Law Rev. 64:191–253 [Google Scholar]
  74. Hasen R. 2013. Is “dependence corruption” distinct from a political equality argument for campaign finance laws? A reply to Professor Lessig. Election Law J. 12:305–16 [Google Scholar]
  75. Hasen R. 2014a. Super PAC contributions, corruption, and the proxy war over coordination. Duke J. Const. Law Public Policy 9:1–21 [Google Scholar]
  76. Hasen R. 2014b. Three wrong progressive approaches (and one right one) to campaign finance reform. Harvard Law Policy Rev. 8:21–37 [Google Scholar]
  77. Hasen R. 2014c. “Electoral integrity,” “dependence corruption,” and what's new under the sun. N. Y. Univ. Law Rev. Online 89:87–91 [Google Scholar]
  78. Heerwig J, Shaw K. 2014. Through a glass, darkly: the rhetoric and reality of campaign finance disclosure. Georgetown Law J. 102:1443–500 [Google Scholar]
  79. Hellman D. 2011. Money talks but it isn't speech. Minn. Law Rev. 95:953–1002 [Google Scholar]
  80. Hellman D. 2013. Defining corruption and constitutionalizing democracy. Mich. Law Rev. 111:1385–422 [Google Scholar]
  81. Issacharoff S. 2009. The constitutional logic of campaign finance regulation. Pepperdine Law Rev. 36:373–93 [Google Scholar]
  82. Issacharoff S. 2010. On political corruption. Harvard Law Rev. 124:118–77 [Google Scholar]
  83. Issacharoff S, Karlan P. 1999. The hydraulics of campaign finance reform. Texas Law Rev. 77:1705–38 [Google Scholar]
  84. Issacharoff S, Karlan PS, Pildes RS. 2012. The Law of Democracy: Legal Structure of the Political Process New York: Foundation Press [Google Scholar]
  85. Jacobson G. 1990. The effects of campaign spending in House elections: new evidence for old arguments. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 34:334–62 [Google Scholar]
  86. Jacobson G. 2003. The Politics of Congressional Elections Boston: Little, Brown [Google Scholar]
  87. Johnson B. 2010. Individual contributions: a fundraising advantage for the ideologically extreme?. Am. Polit. Res. 38:890–908 [Google Scholar]
  88. Johnstone A. 2012. Madisonian case for disclosure. George Mason Law Rev. 19:413–69 [Google Scholar]
  89. Kang M. 2005. The hydraulics and politics of party regulation. Iowa Law Rev. 91:131–87 [Google Scholar]
  90. Kang M. 2010. After Citizens United. Indiana Law Rev. 44:243–54 [Google Scholar]
  91. Kang M. 2012. The end of campaign finance law. Virginia Law Rev. 98:1–66 [Google Scholar]
  92. Kang M. 2013a. The year of the super PAC. George Wash. Law Rev. 81:1902–27 [Google Scholar]
  93. Kang M. 2013b. Campaign disclosure in direct democracy. Minn. Law Rev. 97:1700–29 [Google Scholar]
  94. Kang M. 2014. Party-based corruption and McCutcheon v. FEC. Northwestern Univ. Law Rev. Online 108:240–56 [Google Scholar]
  95. Kang M, Shepherd J. 2011. The partisan price of justice: an empirical analysis of campaign contributions and judicial decisions. N. Y. Univ. Law Rev. 86:69–130 [Google Scholar]
  96. Karlan P. 2012. The Supreme Court 2011 term forward: democracy and disdain. Harvard Law Rev. 126:1–71 [Google Scholar]
  97. Karlan P. 2014. Citizens deflected: electoral integrity and political reform. See Post 2014 141–51 [Google Scholar]
  98. Kuhner T. 2014. Capitalism v. Democracy: Money in Politics and the Free Market Constitution. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  99. La Raja R, Wiltse D. 2011. Don't blame donors for ideological polarization of political parties: ideological change and stability among political contributors, 1972–2008. Am. Polit. Res. 40:501–30 [Google Scholar]
  100. Lessig L. 2011. Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress—and a Plan to Stop It New York and Boston: Twelve [Google Scholar]
  101. Lessig L. 2013a. Lesterland: The Corruption of Congress and How to End It TED Books Book 34 [Google Scholar]
  102. Lessig L. 2013b. A reply to Professor Hasen. Harvard Law Rev. Forum 126:61–74 [Google Scholar]
  103. Lessig L. 2014a. A reply to Professors Cain and Charles. Calif. Law Rev. 102:49–52 [Google Scholar]
  104. Lessig L. 2014b. Out-Posting Post. See Post 2014 97–105
  105. Levitt J. 2010. Confronting the impact of Citizens United. Yale Law Policy Rev. 29:217–34 [Google Scholar]
  106. Levitt J. 2014. Electoral integrity: the confidence game. N. Y. Univ. Law Rev. Online 89:70–86 [Google Scholar]
  107. Levitt S. 1994. Using repeat challengers to estimate the effects of campaign spending on election outcomes in the U.S. House. J. Polit. Econ. 102:777–98 [Google Scholar]
  108. Lowenstein D. 1985. Political bribery and the intermediate theory of politics. UCLA Law Rev. 32:784–851 [Google Scholar]
  109. Lowenstein D. 1989. On campaign finance reform: the root of all evil is deeply rooted. Hofstra Law Rev. 18:301–67 [Google Scholar]
  110. Lowenstein D. 1995. Campaign contributions and corruption: comments on Strauss and Cain. Univ. Chicago Legal Forum 1995:163–92 [Google Scholar]
  111. Lowenstein D, Hasen R, Tokaji D. 2012. Election Law: Cases and Materials, 5th. Durham, NC: Carolina Acad. [Google Scholar]
  112. Malbin M, Gais T. 1998. The Day After Reform: Sobering Campaign Finance Lessons from the American States Albany, NY: Rockefeller Inst. Press [Google Scholar]
  113. Mayer K, Werner T, Williams A. 2006. Do public funding programs enhance electoral competition?. The Marketplace of Democracy: Electoral Competition and American Politics M McDonald, J Samples 245–67 Washington, DC: Brookings Inst. Press [Google Scholar]
  114. Mayer L. 2007. The much maligned 527 and institutional choice. Boston Univ. Law Rev. 87:625–88 [Google Scholar]
  115. Mayer L. 2011. Disclosures about disclosure. Indiana Law Rev. 44:255–84 [Google Scholar]
  116. Mazo E. 2014. Avoiding supreme injustice: a way around the Supreme Court for campaign finance reform(ers). Duke J. Const. Law Public Policy 9:259–313 [Google Scholar]
  117. Meiklejohn A. 1948. Free Speech and Its Relation to Self-Government New York: Harper Brothers [Google Scholar]
  118. Michelman F. 2014. Legitimacy, strict scrutiny, and the case against the Supreme Court. See Post 2014 106–24
  119. Milyo J. 1999. The political economics of campaign finance. Independent Rev. 3:537–47 [Google Scholar]
  120. Milyo J, Primo D, Groseclose T. 2000. Corporate PAC contributions in perspective. Bus. Polit. 2:75–88 [Google Scholar]
  121. Moon R. 1998. The state of free speech. Univ. Toronto Law J. 48:125–49 [Google Scholar]
  122. Neuborne B. 1998. The Supreme Court and free speech: love and a question. St. Louis Univ. Law J. 42:789–812 [Google Scholar]
  123. Neuborne B. 1999a. Towards a democracy-centred reading of the First Amendment. Northwestern Univ. Law Rev. 93:1055–74 [Google Scholar]
  124. Neuborne B. 1999b. Is money different?. Texas Law Rev. 77:1607–25 [Google Scholar]
  125. Ortiz D. 1998. The democratic paradox of campaign finance reform. Stanford Law Rev. 50:893–914 [Google Scholar]
  126. Overton S. 2001. But some are more equal: race, exclusion and campaign finance. Texas Law Rev. 80:987–1056 [Google Scholar]
  127. Overton S. 2004. The donor class: campaign finance, democracy, and participation. Univ. Penn. Law Rev. 153:73–118 [Google Scholar]
  128. Pasquale F. 2008. Reclaiming egalitarianism in the political theory of campaign finance reform. Univ. Illinois Law Rev. 2008:599–660 [Google Scholar]
  129. Persily N, Lammie K. 2004. Perceptions of corruption and campaign finance: when public opinion determines constitutional law. Univ. Penn. Law Rev. 153:119–80 [Google Scholar]
  130. Pildes R. 2011. Elections as a distinct sphere under the First Amendment. See Youn 2011 19–36
  131. Pitkin H. 1967. The Concept of Representation Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  132. Polsky G, Charles G. 2005. Regulating section 527 organizations. George Wash. Law Rev. 73:1000–1035 [Google Scholar]
  133. Post R. 1999. Regulating election speech under the First Amendment. Texas Law Rev. 77:1837–43 [Google Scholar]
  134. Post R. 2011. Campaign finance regulations and First Amendment fundamentals. See Youn 2011 11–18
  135. Post R. 2014. Citizens Divided: Campaign Finance Reform and the Constitution Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  136. Powell L. 2012. The Influence of Campaign Contributions in State Legislatures: The Effects of Institutions and Politics Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press [Google Scholar]
  137. Primo D, Milyo J. 2006. Campaign finance laws and political efficacy: evidence from the states. Election Law J. 5:23–39 [Google Scholar]
  138. Raskin J, Bonifaz J. 1994. The constitutional imperative and practical superiority of democratically financed elections. Columbia Law Rev. 94:1160–1203 [Google Scholar]
  139. Rawls J. 1999. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press. Rev. ed. [Google Scholar]
  140. Redish M. 2001. Money Talks: Speech, Economic Power, and the Values of Democracy New York: N. Y. Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  141. Rosenblum N. 2008. On the Side of the Angels: An Appreciation of Parties and Partisanship Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  142. Sachs S. 2011. Corruption, clients, and political machines: a response to Professor Issacharoff. Harvard Law Rev. Forum 124:62–71 [Google Scholar]
  143. Sachs B. 2012. Unions, corporations, and political opt-out rights after Citizens United. Columbia Law Rev. 112:800–69 [Google Scholar]
  144. Samples J. 2006. The Fallacy of Campaign Finance Reform Chicago and London: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  145. Scarrow S. 2007. Political finance in comparative perspective. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 10:193–210 [Google Scholar]
  146. Schauer F, Pildes R. 1999. Electoral exceptionalism and the First Amendment. Texas Law Rev. 77:1803–36 [Google Scholar]
  147. Schlozman K, Tierney J. 1986. Organized Interests and American Democracy New York: HarperCollins College Div. [Google Scholar]
  148. Schlozman K, Verba S, Brady H. 2012. The Unheavenly Chorus: Unequal Political Voice and the Broken Promise of American Democracy Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  149. Sitaraman G. 2014. Contracting around Citizens United. Columbia Law Rev. 114:755–806 [Google Scholar]
  150. Smith B. 1996. Faulty assumptions and undemocratic consequences of campaign finance reform. Yale Law J. 105:1049–91 [Google Scholar]
  151. Smith B. 1997a. Money talks: speech, corruption, equality, and campaign finance. Georgetown Law J. 86:45–99 [Google Scholar]
  152. Smith B. 1997b. The sirens' song: campaign finance regulation and the First Amendment. J. Law Policy 6:1–43 [Google Scholar]
  153. Smith B. 1998. Soft money, hard realities: the constitutional prohibition on a soft money ban. J. Legis. 24:179–200 [Google Scholar]
  154. Smith B. 2001. Unfree Speech: The Folly of Campaign Finance Reform Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  155. Smith B. 2013. Separation of campaign and state. George Wash. Law Rev. 81:2038–107 [Google Scholar]
  156. Snyder J Jr. 1992. Long-term investing in politicians: or, give early, give often. J. Law Econ. 35:15–43 [Google Scholar]
  157. Sorauf F. 1988. Money in American Elections Glenview, NJ: Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown College Div. [Google Scholar]
  158. Sorauf F. 1992. Inside Campaign Finance: Myths and Realities New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  159. Spencer D, Wood A. 2014. Citizens United, states divided: an empirical analysis of independent political spending. Indiana Law J. 89:315–72 [Google Scholar]
  160. Stephanopoulos N. 2015. Aligning campaign finance law. Virginia Law Rev. In press [Google Scholar]
  161. Stone G. 2011. “Electoral exceptionalism” and the First Amendment. See Youn 2011 37–54
  162. Stratmann T. 2005. Some talk: money in politics. A (partial) review of the literature. Public Choice 124:135–56 [Google Scholar]
  163. Strauss D. 1994. Corruption, equality, and campaign finance reform. Columbia Law Rev. 94:1369–89 [Google Scholar]
  164. Strauss D. 1995. What is the goal of campaign finance reform?. Univ. Chicago Legal Forum 1995:141–61 [Google Scholar]
  165. Sullivan K. 1997. Political money and freedom of speech. Univ. Calif. Davis Law Rev. 30:663–90 [Google Scholar]
  166. Sullivan K. 2010. Two concepts of freedom of speech. Harvard Law Rev. 124:143–77 [Google Scholar]
  167. Sunstein C. 1992. Free speech now. Univ. Chicago Law Rev. 59:255–316 [Google Scholar]
  168. Sunstein C. 1994. Political equality and unintended consequences. Columbia Law Rev. 94:1390–1414 [Google Scholar]
  169. Sunstein C. 1995. Democracy and the Problem of Free Speech New York: Free Press [Google Scholar]
  170. Tausanovitch C, Warshaw C. 2013. Measuring constituent policy preferences in Congress, state legislatures, and cities. J. Polit. 75:330–42 [Google Scholar]
  171. Teachout Z. 2009. The anti-corruption principle. Cornell Law Rev. 94:341–414 [Google Scholar]
  172. Teachout Z. 2014a. Corruption in America: From Benjamin Franklin's Snuff Box to Citizens United Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  173. Teachout Z. 2014b. The forgotten law of lobbying. Election Law J. 13:4–26 [Google Scholar]
  174. Thomas S. 1989. Do incumbent campaign expenditures matter?. J. Polit. 51:965–76 [Google Scholar]
  175. Thompson D. 1995. Ethics in Congress: From Individual to Institutional Corruption Washington, DC: Brookings Inst. Press [Google Scholar]
  176. Thompson D. 2002. Just Elections: Creating a Fair Electoral Process in the United States Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  177. Thompson D. 2004. Election time: normative implications of temporal properties of the electoral process in the United States. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 98:51–63 [Google Scholar]
  178. Thompson D. 2005. Two concepts of corruption: making campaigns safe for democracy. George Wash. Law Rev. 73:1036–69 [Google Scholar]
  179. Tillman S. 2014. Why Professor Lessig's “dependence corruption” is not a founding-era concept. Election Law J. 13:336–45 [Google Scholar]
  180. Tobin D. 2011. Campaign disclosure and tax-exempt entities: a quick repair to the regulatory plumbing. Election Law J. 10:427–48 [Google Scholar]
  181. Tokaji D. 2011. The obliteration of equality in American campaign finance law: a transborder comparison. J. Parliam. Polit. Law 5:381–98 [Google Scholar]
  182. Tokaji D, Strause R. 2014. The New Soft Money: Outside Spending in Congressional Elections Columbus: Ohio State Univ. Moritz College of Law [Google Scholar]
  183. Torres-Spelliscy C. 2011. Has the tide turned in favor of disclosure? Revealing money in politics after Citizens United and Doe v. Reed. Georgia State Univ. Law Rev. 27:1057–1104 [Google Scholar]
  184. Urbanati N. 2014. Free speech as the citizen's right. See Post 2014 125–40
  185. Warren M. 2004. What does corruption mean in a democracy?. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 48:328–43 [Google Scholar]
  186. Warren M. 2006. Democracy and deceit: regulating appearances of corruption. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 50:160–74 [Google Scholar]
  187. Winkler A. 2004. Other people's money: corporations, agency costs, and campaign finance law. Georgetown Law J. 92:871–940 [Google Scholar]
  188. Wright J. 1976. Politics and the constitution: Is money speech?. Yale Law J. 85:1001–21 [Google Scholar]
  189. Wright J. 1982. Money and the pollution of politics: Is the First Amendment an obstacle to political equality?. Columbia Law Rev. 82:609–45 [Google Scholar]
  190. Youn M. 2011. Money, Politics, and the Constitution: Beyond Citizens United. New York: Century Found. Press [Google Scholar]
  191. Zipkin S. 2010. The election period and regulation of the democratic process. William Mary Bill Rights J. 18:533–93 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-010814-104523
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error