After addressing the meaning of “trust” and “trustworthiness,” we review survey-based research on citizens' judgments of trust in governments and politicians, and historical and comparative case study research on political trust and government trustworthiness. We first provide an overview of research in these two traditions, and then take up four topics in more detail: () political trust and political participation; () political trust, public opinion, and the vote; () political trust, trustworthy government, and citizen compliance; and () political trust, social trust, and cooperation. We conclude with a discussion of fruitful directions for future research.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Aberbach JD. 1969. Alienation and political behavior.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 63:86–99 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aberbach JD, Walker JL. 1970. Political trust and racial ideology.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 64:1199–1219 [Google Scholar]
  3. Abney FG, Hutcheson JD Jr. 1981. Race, representation, and trust: changes in attitudes after the election of a black mayor.. Public Opin. Q. 45:91–101 [Google Scholar]
  4. Abramson PR. 1983. Political Attitudes in America. San Francisco: Freeman [Google Scholar]
  5. Abramson PR, Finifter AW. 1981. On the meaning of political trust: new evidence from items introduced in 1978.. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 25:297–307 [Google Scholar]
  6. Abravanel MD, Busch RJ. 1975. Political competence, political trust, and the action orientations of university students.. J. Polit. 37:57–82 [Google Scholar]
  7. Almond GA, Verba S. 1963. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  8. Arrow K. 1974. The Limits of Organization. New York: Norton [Google Scholar]
  9. Atkeson LR, McCann JA, Rapoport RB, Stone WJ. 1996. Citizens for Perot: assessing patterns of alienation and activism.. In Broken Contract: Changing Relationships Between Americans and Their Government, ed. SC Craig. Boulder, CO: Westview
  10. Ayres I, Braithwaite J. 1992. Responsive Regulation. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  11. Baldassare M. 1985. Trust in local government.. Soc. Sci. Q. 66:704–12 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bandura A. 1982. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency.. Am. Psychol. 37:122–47 [Google Scholar]
  13. Barber B. 1983. The Logic and Limits of Trust. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Beck PA, Rainey HG, Traut C. 1990. Disadvantage, disaffection, and race as divergent bases for citizen fiscal policy preferences.. J. Polit. 52:71–93 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bianco W. 1994. Trust: Representatives and Constituents. Ann Arbor: Univ. Michigan Press [Google Scholar]
  16. Bianco W. 1998. Uncertainty, appraisal and common interest: the roots of constituent trust.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 245–66
  17. Bobo L, Gilliam FD Jr. 1990. Race, sociopolitical participation, and black empowerment.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 84:377–93 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bok D. 1997. Measuring the performance of government.. See Nye et al 1997 55–66
  19. Braithwaite J. 1998. Institutionalizing distrust, enculturating trust.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 343–75
  20. Braithwaite J, Makkai T. 1994. Trust and compliance.. Policing Society 4:1–12 [Google Scholar]
  21. Braithwaite V, Levi M. eds 1998. Trust and Governance. New York: Russell Sage Found [Google Scholar]
  22. Brehm J, Rahn W. 1997. Individual-level evidence for the causes and consequences of social capital.. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 41(3):999–1023 [Google Scholar]
  23. Brennan G. 1998. Democratic trust: a rational choice theory view.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 197–217
  24. Capella JN, Jamieson KH. 1997. Spiral of Cynicism: The Press and the Public Good. New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  25. Chan S. 1997. Effects of attention to campaign coverage on political trust.. Int. J. Public Opin. Res. 9:286–96 [Google Scholar]
  26. Citrin J. 1974. Comment: the political relevance of trust in government.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 68:973–88 [Google Scholar]
  27. Citrin J. 1977. Political alienation as a social indicator.. Soc. Indic. Res. 4:381–419 [Google Scholar]
  28. Citrin J. 1991. Political trust and risky policy.. Unpublished
  29. Citrin J, Green DP. 1986. Presidential leadership and the resurgence of trust in government.. Br. J. Polit. Sci. 16:431–53 [Google Scholar]
  30. Citrin J, McClosky H, Shanks JM, Sniderman PM. 1975. Personal and political sources of political alienation.. Br. J. Polit. Sci. 5:1–31 [Google Scholar]
  31. Citrin J, Muste C. 1999. Trust in government.. See Robinson 1999 465–532
  32. Coleman JS. 1990. Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  33. Craig SC. 1993. The Malevolent Leaders: Popular Discontent in America. Boulder, CO: Westview [Google Scholar]
  34. Craig SC. 1996. The angry voter: politics and popular discontent in the 1990s. In Broken Contract: Changing Relationships Between Americans and Their Government, ed. SC Craig 46–66 Boulder, CO: Westview [Google Scholar]
  35. Craig SC, Maggiotto MA. 1981. Political discontent and political action.. J. Polit. 43:514–22 [Google Scholar]
  36. Craig SE, Niemi RG, Silver GE. 1990. Political efficacy and trust: a report on the NES pilot study items.. Polit. Behav. 12:289–314 [Google Scholar]
  37. Dalton RJ. 1999. Political support in advanced industrial democracies.. See Norris 1999a 57–77
  38. Dasgupta P. 1988. Trust as a commodity.. See Gambetta 1988 49–72
  39. Daunton M. 1998. Trusting Leviathan: British fiscal administration from the Napoleonic Wars to the Second World War.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 102–34
  40. de Tocqueville A. 1990 (1840). Democracy in America, Vol. II. New York: Vintage [Google Scholar]
  41. Dunn J. 1988. Trust and political agency.. See Gambetta 1988 73–93
  42. Easton D. 1965. A Systems Analysis of Political Life. New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  43. Easton D. 1975. A re-assessment of the concept of political support.. Br. J. Polit. Sci. 5:435–57 [Google Scholar]
  44. Eisenstadt SN. 1995. Power, Trust and Meaning. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  45. Elster J. 1989. The Cement of Society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  46. Feldman S. 1983. The measurement and meaning of political trust.. Polit. Methodol. 9:341–54 [Google Scholar]
  47. Fenno RF Jr. 1978. Home Style: House Members in the Districts. Boston: Little Brown [Google Scholar]
  48. Finifter AW. 1970. Dimensions of political alienation.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 64:389–410 [Google Scholar]
  49. Fishbein M, Ajzen I. 1974. Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley [Google Scholar]
  50. Flynn J, Burns W, Mertz CK, Slovic P. 1992. Trust as a determinant of opposition to high-level radioactive waste repository: analysis of a structural model.. Risk Anal. 12:417–29 [Google Scholar]
  51. Flynn J, Slovic P. 1993. Nuclear wastes and public trust.. Forum Appl. Res. Public Policy 8:91–100 [Google Scholar]
  52. Fraser J. 1970. The mistrustful-efficacious hypothesis and political participation.. J. Polit. 32:444–49 [Google Scholar]
  53. Fukuyama F. 1995. Trust. New York: Basic Books [Google Scholar]
  54. Gambetta D. ed 1988. Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. New York: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  55. Gamson WA. 1968. Power and Discontent. Homewood, IL: Dorsey [Google Scholar]
  56. Gamson WA. 1975. Political trust and its ramifications. In Social Psychology and Political Behavior: Problems and Prospects, ed. GA Soule, JW Soule 40–55 Columbus, OH: Merrill [Google Scholar]
  57. Gellner E. 1988. Trust, cohesion, and the social order.. See Gambetta 1988 142–57
  58. Gibson JL. 1999. Social networks, civil society, and the prospects for consolidating Russia's democratic transition.. Unpublished
  59. Giddens A. 1990. The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge, UK: Polity [Google Scholar]
  60. Goldsteen RL, Goldsteen K, Schorr JK. 1992. Trust and its relationship to psychological distress: the case of Three Mile Island.. Polit. Psychol. 13:693–707 [Google Scholar]
  61. Greif A. 1994. On the political foundations of the late medieval commercial revolution: Genoa during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.. J. Econ. Hist. 54(4):271–87 [Google Scholar]
  62. Greif A. 1998. Self-enforcing political systems and economic growth: late medieval Genoa. In Analytic Narratives, ed. R Bates, A Greif, M Levi, J-L Rosenthal, B Weingast 23–63 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  63. Guterbock TM, London B. 1983. Race, political orientation, and participation: an empirical test of four competing theories.. Am. Sociol. Rev. 48:439–53 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hardin R. 1996. Trustworthiness.. Ethics 107:26–42 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hardin R. 1998. Trust in government.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 9–27
  66. Hart V. 1978. Distrust and Democracy: Political Trust in America and Britain. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  67. Hawkins BW, Marando VL, Taylor GA. 1971. Efficacy, mistrust, and political participation: findings from additional data and indicators.. J. Polit. 33:1130–36 [Google Scholar]
  68. Hawthorn G. 1988. Three ironies of trust.. See Gambetta 1988 111–26
  69. Hetherington MJ. 1998. The political relevance of political trust.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 92:791–808 [Google Scholar]
  70. Hetherington MJ. 1999. The effect of political trust on the presidential vote, 1968–96.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 93:311–26 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hibbing JR, Patterson SC. 1994. Public trust in the new parliaments of Central and Eastern Europe.. Polit. Stud. 42:570–92 [Google Scholar]
  72. Hibbing JR, Theiss-Morse E. 1995. Congress as Public Enemy: Public Attitudes Toward American Political Institutions. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  73. Hirschman A. 1984. Against parsimony: three easy ways of complicating some categories of economic discourse.. Am. Econ. Rev. 74(2):89–96 [Google Scholar]
  74. Holmberg S. 1999. Down and down we go: political trust in Sweden.. See Norris 1999a 103–22
  75. Hunter S, Leyden KM. 1995. Beyond NIMBY: explaining opposition to hazardous waste facilities.. Policy Stud. J. 23:601–19 [Google Scholar]
  76. Inglehart R. 1997. Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Political and Economic Change in 43 Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  77. Inglehart R. 1999. Postmaterialist values and the erosion of institutional authority.. See Nye et al 1999 217–36
  78. Jackman RW, Miller RA. 1998. Social capital and politics.. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 1:47–73 [Google Scholar]
  79. Jackson JS. 1973. Alienation and black political participation.. J. Polit. 35:849–85 [Google Scholar]
  80. Jennings MK. 1998. Political trust and the roots of devolution.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 218–44
  81. Jennings MK, van Deth JW. 1989. Continuities in Political Action: a Longitudinal Study of Political Orientations in Three Western Democracies. Berlin: de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  82. Kaase M, Newton K. 1995. Beliefs in Government, Vol. 5. New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  83. Karp JA. 1995. Explaining public support for legislative term limits.. Public Opin. Q. 59:373–91 [Google Scholar]
  84. King DC. 1997. The polarization of American parties and mistrust of government.. See Nye et al 1997 155–78
  85. Larson DW. 1997. Anatomy of Mistrust. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  86. Lawrence RZ. 1997. Is it really the economy, stupid?. See Nye et al 1997 111–32
  87. Levi M. 1988. Of Rule and Revenue. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  88. Levi M. 1997. Consent, Dissent and Patriotism. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  89. Levi M. 1998. A state of trust.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 77–101
  90. Levi M. 2000. When good defenses make good neighbors. In Institutions, Contracts, and Organizations: Perspectives from New Institutional Economics, ed. C Menard 137–57 Colchester, UK: Elgar [Google Scholar]
  91. Lipset SM, Schneider W. 1983. The Confidence Gap: Business, Labor, and Government in the Public Mind. New York: Free [Google Scholar]
  92. Lipset SM, Schneider W. 1987. The confidence gap during the Reagan years, 1981–1987.. Polit. Sci. Q. 102:1–23 [Google Scholar]
  93. Listhaug O. 1995. The dynamics of trust in politicians. In Citizens and the State, ed. H-D Klingemann, D Fuchs 261–97 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  94. Listhaug O, Wiberg M. 1995. Confidence in political and private institutions. In Citizens and the State, ed. H-D Klingemann, D Fuchs 298–322 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  95. Litt E. 1963. Political cynicism and political futility.. J. Polit. 25:312–23 [Google Scholar]
  96. Lowery D, Sigelman L. 1981. Understanding the tax revolt: eight explanations.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 75:964–74 [Google Scholar]
  97. Luhmann N. 1979. Trust and Power. Chichester, UK: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  98. Luks S. 1999. The consequences of trust in government for political participation and vote choice.. Unpublished
  99. Luks S, Citrin J. 1997. Revisiting political trust in an angry age.. Unpublished
  100. Majone G. 1997. Mutual trust, credible commitments and the evolution of rules for a single European market. In The Evolution of the Single European Market, ed. DG Mayes 253–74 Cheltenham: Elgar [Google Scholar]
  101. Mansbridge J. 1997. Social and cultural causes of dissatisfaction with U.S. government.. See Nye et al 1997 133–53
  102. Markus GB. 1979. The political environment and the dynamics of public attitudes: a panel study.. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 23:338–59 [Google Scholar]
  103. McAllister I. 1999. The economic performance of governments.. See Norris 1999a 188–203
  104. Miller AH. 1974a. Political issues and trust in government: 1964–1970.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 68:951–72 [Google Scholar]
  105. Miller AH. 1974b. Rejoinder to “comment” by Jack Citrin: political discontent or ritualism?. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 68:989–1001 [Google Scholar]
  106. Miller AH. 1984. Review of The Confidence Gap: Business, Labor, and Government in the Public Mind, by Seymour Martin Lipset and William Scheider.. Public Opin. Q. 48:838–40 [Google Scholar]
  107. Miller AH, Borrelli S. 1991. Confidence in government during the 1980s.. Am. Polit. Q. 19:147–73 [Google Scholar]
  108. Miller AH, Goldenberg EN, Erbring L. 1979. Type-set politics: impact of newspapers on public confidence.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 73:67–84 [Google Scholar]
  109. Miller AH, Listhaug O. 1990. Political parties and confidence in government: a comparison of Norway, Sweden and the United States.. Br. J. Polit. Sci. 20:357–86 [Google Scholar]
  110. Miller A, Listhaug O. 1999. Political performance and institutional trust.. See Norris 1999a 204–16
  111. Miller WE. 1980. Disinterest, disaffection, and participation in presidential politics.. Polit. Behav. 2:7–32 [Google Scholar]
  112. Mishler W, Rose R. 1997. Trust, distrust, and skepticism: popular evaluations of civil and political institutions in post-communist societies.. J. Polit. 59:419–51 [Google Scholar]
  113. Misztal BA. 1998. Trust in Modern Societies: The Search for the Bases of Social Order. Cambridge, UK: Polity [Google Scholar]
  114. Moe TM. 1990. The politics of structural choice: toward a theory of public bureaucracy. In From Chester Barnard to the Present and Beyond, ed. O Williamson 116–53 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  115. Muller EN. 1977. Behavioral correlates of political support.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 71:454–67 [Google Scholar]
  116. Muller EN, Jukam TO. 1977. On the meaning of political support.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 71:1561–95 [Google Scholar]
  117. Muller EN, Jukam TO, Selligson MA. 1982. Diffuse political support and anti-system political behavior: a comparative analysis.. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 26:240–64 [Google Scholar]
  118. Newton K. 1999. Social and political trust.. See Norris 1999a 169–87
  119. Nilson DC, Nilson LB. 1980. Trust in elites and protest orientation: an integrative approach.. Polit. Behav. 2:385–404 [Google Scholar]
  120. Norris P. ed 1999a. Critical Citizens: Global Confidence in Democratic Government. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  121. Norris P. 1999b. Institutional explanations for political support.. See Norris 1999a 217–35
  122. North DC. 1981. Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: Norton [Google Scholar]
  123. North DC. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  124. North DC, Weingast BR. 1989. Constitutions and commitment: the evolution of institutions governing public choice in seventeenth century England.. J. Econ. Hist. 49(4):803–32 [Google Scholar]
  125. Nye J, Joseph S, Zelikow PD, King DC. eds 1997. Why People Don't Trust Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  126. Offe C. 1999. How can we trust our fellow citizens? In Democracy and Trust, ed. ME Warren 42–87 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  127. Orren G. 1997. Fall from grace: the public's loss of faith in government.. See Nye et al 1997 77–108
  128. Pagden A. 1988. The destruction of trust and its economic consequences in eighteenth century Naples.. See Gambetta 1988 127–41
  129. Paige JM. 1971. Political orientation and riot participation.. Am. Sociol. Rev. 36:810–20 [Google Scholar]
  130. Parker GR. 1989. The role of constituent trust in congressional elections.. Public Opin. Q. 53:175–96 [Google Scholar]
  131. Parker SL, Parker GR. 1993. Why do we trust our congressman?. J. Polit. 55:442–53 [Google Scholar]
  132. Patterson SC, Caldeira GA. 1990. Stand up for Congress: variations in public esteem since the 1960s.. Legis. Stud. Q. 15:25–47 [Google Scholar]
  133. Patterson TE. 1994. Out of Order. New York: Knopf [Google Scholar]
  134. Peel M. 1995. Good Times, Hard Times. Melbourne: Melbourne Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  135. Pettit P. 1995. The cunning of trust.. Phil. Public Aff. 24:202–25 [Google Scholar]
  136. PEW Research Center for the People and the Press 1998. Deconstructing Distrust: How Americans View Government. Washington, DC: PEW Res. Cent. People and the Press [Google Scholar]
  137. Pharr S. 1997. Public trust and democracy in Japan.. See Nye et al 1997 237–52
  138. Pierce R, Converse PE. 1989. Attitudinal roots of popular protest: the French upheaval of May 1968.. Int. J. Public Opin. Res. 1:221–41 [Google Scholar]
  139. Pierce R, Converse PE. 1990. Attitudinal sources of protest behavior in France: differences between before and after measurement.. Public Opin. Q. 54:295–316 [Google Scholar]
  140. Pinney N, Scholz JT. 1995. Duty, fear, and tax compliance: the heuristic basis of citizenship behavior.. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 39:490–512 [Google Scholar]
  141. Putnam R. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  142. Putnam R. 1995. Bowling alone, revisited.. Responsive Comm. Spring:18–33 [Google Scholar]
  143. Putnam RD. 1996. The strange disappearance of civic America.. Am. Prospect Winter:34–48 [Google Scholar]
  144. Robinson JP, Shaver PR, Wrightsman L. eds 1999. Measures of Political Attitudes. New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  145. Robinson MJ. 1976. Public affairs television and the growth of political malaise: the case of “The Selling of the Pentagon.”. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 70:409–32 [Google Scholar]
  146. Root HL. 1989. Tying the king's hands: credible commitments and royal fiscal policy during the Old Regime.. Rationality Society 1:240–58 [Google Scholar]
  147. Rose R. 1994. Postcommunism and the problem of trust.. J. Democracy 5(3):18–30 [Google Scholar]
  148. Rosenstone SJ, Behr RL, Lazarus EH. 1984. Third Parties in America: Citizen Response to Major Party Failure. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  149. Rosenstone SJ, Hansen JM. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  150. Scholz JT. 1998. Trust, taxes, and compliance.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 135–66
  151. Scholz JT, Lubell M. 1998a. Adaptive political attitudes: duty, trust, and fear as monitors of tax policy.. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 42(3):903–20 [Google Scholar]
  152. Scholz JT, Lubell M. 1998b. Trust and taxpaying: testing the heuristic approach to collective action.. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 42(3):903–20 [Google Scholar]
  153. Schwartz DC. 1973. Political Alienation and Political Behavior. Chicago: Aldine [Google Scholar]
  154. Sears DO, Tyler TR, Citrin J, Kinder DR. 1978. Political system support and public response to the energy crisis.. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 22:56–82 [Google Scholar]
  155. Sears DO, McConahay JB. 1973. The Politics of Violence: The New Urban Blacks and the Watts Riot. Boston: Houghton Mifflin [Google Scholar]
  156. Sears DO, Citrin J. 1982. Tax Revolt: Something for Nothing in California. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  157. Seeman M. 1959. Alienation studies.. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 1:91–123 [Google Scholar]
  158. Seligman A. 1997. The Problem of Trust. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  159. Seligson MA. 1983. On the measurement of diffuse support: some evidence from Mexico.. Soc. Indic. Res. 12:1–24 [Google Scholar]
  160. Shingles RD. 1981. Black consciousness and political participation: the missing link.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 75:76–91 [Google Scholar]
  161. Sigelman L, Sigelman CK, Walkosz BJ. 1992. The public and the paradox of leadership: an experimental analysis.. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 36:366–85 [Google Scholar]
  162. Silver A. 1985. “Trust” in social and political theory. In The Challenge of Social Control: Essays in Honor of Morris Janowitz, ed. GD Suttle, MN Zald 52–67 Norwood, NJ: Ablex [Google Scholar]
  163. Sniderman PM. 1981. A Question of Loyalty. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  164. Stokes DE. 1962. Popular evaluations of government: an empirical assessment. In Ethics and Bigness: Scientific, Academic, Religious, Political, and Military, ed. H Cleveland, HD Lasswell 61–72 New York: Harper [Google Scholar]
  165. Stokes SC. 1999. What do policy switches tell us about democracy? In Democracy, Accountability, and Representation, ed. A Przeworksi, SC Stokes, B Manin 131–53 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  166. Sztompka P. 1996. Trust and emerging democracy.. Int. Sociol. 11(1):37–62 [Google Scholar]
  167. Sztompka P. 1999. Trust. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  168. Tarrow S. 2000. Mad cows and activists: contentious politics in the trilateral democracies. In Disaffected Democracies: What's Troubling the Trilateral Democracies, ed. S Pharr, R Putnam 270–89 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  169. Tyler TR. 1990. Why People Obey The Law. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  170. Tyler TR. 1998. Trust and democratic government.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 269–94
  171. Uslaner EM. 1999. Democracy and social capital.. See Warren 1999a 121–50
  172. Verba S, Schlozman KL, Brady HE. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  173. Warren ME. ed 1999a. Democracy and Trust. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  174. Warren ME. 1999b. Democratic theory and trust.. See Warren 1999a 310–45
  175. Weatherford MS. 1984. Economic “stagflation” and public support for the political system.. Br. J. Polit. Sci. 14:187–205 [Google Scholar]
  176. Weatherford MS. 1992. Measuring political legitimacy.. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 86:149–66 [Google Scholar]
  177. Weatherford S. 1987. How does government performance influence political support?. Polit. Behav. 9:5–28 [Google Scholar]
  178. Weingast BR. 1998. Constructing trust: the political and economic roots of ethnic and regional violence. In Where is the New Institutionalism Now?, ed. V Haufler, K Soltan, E Uslaner 163–200 Ann Arbor: Univ. Michigan Press [Google Scholar]
  179. Whiting S. 1998. The mobilization of private investment as a problem of trust in local governance structures.. See Braithwaite & Levi 1998 167–93
  180. Williams JT. 1985. Systematic influences on political trust: the importance of perceived institutional performance.. Polit. Methodol. 11:125–42 [Google Scholar]
  181. Williams B. 1988. Formal structures and social reality.. See Gambetta 1988 3–13
  182. Williamson OE. 1993. Calculativeness, trust, and economic organization.. J. Law Econ. 34:453–500 [Google Scholar]
  183. Yamagishi T, Yamagishi M. 1994. Trust and commitment in the United States and Japan.. Motiv. Emot. 18(2):129–66 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error