1932

Abstract

Not all politics is local. Not even local politics is necessarily local. The reemergence of local politics is not comparable to the nationalization of politics but is rather an element making multilevel policies more or less interconnected. This global review (not including North America) suggests that the rise of local politics is explained by three set of processes—() democratization, including protest, () economic globalization, urbanization, and the deepening of territorial inequalities, and () decentralization or deconcentration and the rise of local governance and policies. The rise of local politics is not a revival of the past but an element of the politics of scale taking. All over the world, local politics is increasingly about policies, governance, and political choice.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-041719-102158
2021-05-11
2024-06-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/polisci/24/1/annurev-polisci-041719-102158.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-041719-102158&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Agnew JA. 2013. Editorial. . Territ. Politics Gov. 1:11–4
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Auerbach AM. 2016. Clients and communities: the political economy of party network organization and development in India's urban slums. World Politics 68:1111–48
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bagnasco A. 1977. Tre Italie: La Problematica Territoriale Dello Sviluppo Italiano Bologna: Mulino
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baiocchi G 2003. Radicals in Power: The Workers’ Party and Experiments in Urban Democracy in Brazil London: Zed Books
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baiocchi G, Heller P, Silva M. 2011. Bootstrapping Democracy: Transforming Local Governance and Civil Society in Brazil Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Balme R, Garraud P, Hoffman-Martinot V, Le May S, Ritaine E 1994. Analysing territorial policies in Western Europe: the case of France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Eur. J. Political Res. 25:4389–411
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Banfield EC. 1958. The Moral Basis of a Backward Society New York: Free Press
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bardhan P, Mookherjee D. 2006. Decentralization and Local Governance in Developing Countries: A Comparative Perspective Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bauböck R. 2019. Cities versus states: Should urban citizenship be emancipated from nationality? EUI Work. Pap., Eur. Univ. Inst. San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy:
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bauder H. 2017. Sanctuary cities: policies and practices in international perspective. Int. Migr. 55:2174–87
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bekker S, Fourchard L 2013. Politics and Policies: Governing Cities in Africa Capetown: HSRC Press
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bénit-Gbaffou C, Oldfield S 2011. Accessing the state: everyday practices and politics in cities of the South. J. Asian Afr. Stud. Spec. Iss 46:5)
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bierschenk T, Olivier de Sardan JP. 2003. Powers in the village: rural Benin between democratisation and decentralisation. Africa 73:2145–73
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Blaser Mapitsa C 2018. Local politics of xenophobia. J. Asian Afr. Stud. 53:13–19
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bookchin M. 1995. From Urbanization to Cities: Toward a New Politics of Citizenship London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Boone C. 2003. Decentralization as political strategy in West Africa. Comp. Political Stud. 36:4355–80
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Boone C. 2014. Property and Political Order in Africa: Land Rights and the Structure of Politics Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bouziane M, Harders C, Hoffmann A 2013. Local Politics and Contemporary Transformations in the Arab World: Governance Beyond the Center Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Branch A, Mampilly Z. 2015. Africa Uprising: Popular Protest and Political Change London: Zed Books
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brenner N. 2003. New State Spaces: Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bulpitt J. 1983. Territory and Power in the United Kingdom: An Interpretation Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Burroni L. 2005. Governance territoriale dell'economia in Francia, Regno Unito e Italia. Stato Mercato 25:1131–66
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cabrero-Mendoza E. 2000. Mexican local governance in transition: fleeting change or permanent transformation?. Am. Rev. Public Adm. 30:4374–88
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Campbell T. 2003. The Quiet Revolution: Decentralization and the Rise of Political Participation in Latin American Cities Pittsburgh, PA: Univ. Pittsburgh Press
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Caramani D. 2004. The Nationalization of Politics: The Formation of National Electorates and Party Systems in Western Europe Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Castells M. 1983. The City and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cheema GS, Rondinelli DA 2007. Decentralizing Governance: Emerging Concepts and Practices Washington, DC: Brookings Inst. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chombart de Lauwe PHC 1982. La fin des villes, mythe ou réalité. Paris: Calmann-Levy
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Cooke P 1989. Localities: The Changing Face of Urban Britain London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Cooper F. 1983. Struggle for the City: Migrant Labor, Capital, and the State in Urban Africa New York: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Cox KR 1997. Spaces of Globalization: Reasserting the Power of the Local New York: Guilford
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Crouch C, Le Galès P, Trigilia C, Voelzkow H 2004. Changing Governance of Local Economies: Responses of European Local Production Systems Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Denters B, Rose LE 2005. Comparing Local Governance, Trends and Developments Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Desai R, Sanyal R. 2012. Urbanizing Citizenship: Contested Spaces in Indian Cities Delhi: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Dickovick JT, Wunsch JS 2014. Decentralization in Africa: The Paradox of State Strength Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Faguet JP. 2014. Decentralization and governance. World Dev 53:2–13
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Falletti TG. 2010. Decentralization and Subnational Politics in Latin America New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Feltran G. 2020. The Entangled City: Crime as Urban Fabric in São Paulo Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Fischer B, McCann B, Auyero J 2014. Cities from Scratch: Poverty and Informality in Urban Latin America Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ford R, Jennings W 2020. The changing cleavage politics of Western Europe. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 23:295–314
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Foucault M. 2007. Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977–78 Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Fourchard L. 2020. Sorting Out, Excluding and Policing: Urban Lives in South Africa and Nigeria Oxford, UK: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Geddes B. 1999. What do we know about democratization after twenty years?. Annu. Rev. Political Sci. 2:115–44
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Genschel P, Zangl B. 2014. State transformations in OECD countries. Annu. Rev. Political Sci. 17:337–54
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Goldfrank B. 2011. Deepening Local Democracy in Latin America: Participation, Decentralization, and the Left University Park, PA: Penn State Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Goldsmith MJ, Page EC 2010. Changing Government Relations in Europe: From Localism to Intergovernmentalism London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Grémion P. 1976. Le pouvoir périphérique: bureaucrates et notables dans le système politique français Paris: Seuil
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Grindle MS. 2007. Going Local: Decentralization, Democratization, and the Promise of Good Governance Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Guarneros-Meza V, Geddes M. 2010. Local governance and participation under neoliberalism: comparative perspectives. Int. J. Urban Reg. Res. 34:1115–29
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Gyford J. 1985. The Politics of Local Socialism London: Taylor & Francis
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Harloe M, Pickvance CG, Urry J 1988. Place, Policy and Politics: Do Localities Matter? London: Unwin Hyman
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Harriss J, Stokke K, Törnquist O 2004. Politicising Democracy: The New Local Politics of Democratisation Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Harvey D. 1987. The Urbanization of Capital: Studies in the History and Theory of Capitalist Urbanization Oxford, UK: Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Harvey D. 1989. From managerialism to entrepreneurialism: the transformation in urban governance in late capitalism. Geogr. Annal. Ser. B Hum. Geogr. 71:13–17
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Heinelt H, Kübler D. 2004. Metropolitan Governance in the 21st Century: Capacity, Democracy and the Dynamics of Place London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Hicken A. 2011. Clientelism. Annu. Rev. Political Sci. 14:289–310
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Hooghe L, Marks G. 2003. Unraveling the central state, but how? Types of multi-level governance. Am. Political Sci. Rev. 97:2233–43
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hsing Y. 2010. The Great Urban Transformation: Politics of Land and Property in China New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Jacobsson K 2015. Urban Grassroots Movements in Central and Eastern Europe Abingdon, UK: Ashgate
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Jayal NG, Amit P, Sharma PK. 2006. Local Governance in India: Decentralization and Beyond New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  61. John P. 2001. Local Governance in Western Europe London: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Keating M. 2008. Thirty years of territorial politics. West Eur. . Politics 31:1–260–81
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kemeny T, Storper M. 2020. The fall and rise of interregional inequality: explaining shifts from convergence to divergence. Sci. Reg. 19:2175–98
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kersting N, Caulfield J, Nickson RA, Olowu D, Wollmann H. 2009. Local Governance Reform in Global Perspective Wiesbaden, Ger: Springer-Verlag
    [Google Scholar]
  65. King DS 1989. The new right, the new left and local government. The Future of Local Government J Stewart, G Stoker 185–211 London: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  66. King DS, Le Galès P 2017. Reconfiguring European States in Crisis Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  67. King DS, Pierre J 1990. Challenges to Local Government London: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Kraal K, Vertovec S. 2017. Citizenship in European Cities: Immigrants, Local Politics and Integration Policies London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Kriesi H, Grande E, Lachat R, Dolezal M, Bornschier S, Frey T. 2008. West European Politics in the Age of Globalization Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Le Galès P 2002. European Cities: Social Conflicts and Governance Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Le Galès P 2017. The political sociology of cities and urbanisation processes: social movements, inequalities and governance. The Sage Handbook of the 21st Century City S Hall, R Burdett 215–35 London: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Le Galès P, Pierson P 2019.. “ Superstar cities” and the generation of durable inequality. Daedalus 148:346–72
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Loughlin J, Hendriks F, Lidström A 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Lund C. 2006. Twilight institutions: public authority and local politics in Africa. Dev. Change 37:4685–705
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Lund C. 2008. Local Politics and the Dynamics of Property in Africa New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Magnusson W. 2013. Politics of Urbanism: Seeing Like a City London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Mann M. 1997. Has globalization ended the rise and rise of the nation-state?. Rev. Int. Political Econ. 4:3472–96
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Marques E 2021. Progressive Incrementalism, Policy and Politics in São Paolo. Oxford, UK: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Mingione E. 1993. New urban poverty and the crisis in the citizenship/welfare system: the Italian experience. Antipode 25:3206–22
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Morgenstern S. 2017. Are Politics Local? The Two Dimensions of Party Nationalization Around the World New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Mossberger K, Clarke SE, John P 2015. The Oxford Handbook of Urban Politics Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Nelson DN. 1980. Local Politics in Communist Countries Lexington: Univ. Press Ky.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. OCS (Observatoire du changement social) 1987. L'Esprit des lieux Paris: Ed. CNRS
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Page EC. 1991. Localism and Centralism in Europe. The Political and Legal Bases of Local Self-Government. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Paller JW. 2019. Democracy in Ghana: Everyday Politics in Urban Africa Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Pickvance C. 2003. From urban social movements to urban movements: a review and introduction to a symposium on urban movements. Int. J. Urban Reg. Res. 27:1102–9
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Pickvance CG, Préteceille E. 1991. State Restructuring and Local Power: A Comparative Perspective London: Pinter
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Piore MJ, Sabel C. 1984. The Second Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity New York: Basic Books
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Post AE. 2018. Cities and politics in the developing world. Annu. Rev. Political Sci. 21:115–33
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Rhodes RAW. 1988. Beyond Westminster and Whitehall: The Sub-Central Governments of Britain London: Taylor & Francis
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Rhodes RAW, Wright V 1987. Tensions in the Territorial Politics of Western Europe London: Frank Cass
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Rokkan S, Unwin D. 1983. Economy, Territory and Identity: Politics of West European Peripheries London: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Rowe W 2013. China, 1300–1900. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History P Clark 310–27 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Roy D. 2013. Rural Politics in India: Political Stratification and Governance in West Bengal Delhi: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Sassen S. 2001. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Schulte Nordholt HGC, van Klinken G. 2007. Renegotiating Boundaries: Local Politics in Post-Suharto Indonesia Leiden/Boston: Brill
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Schuurman F, Van Naerssen T 2013. Urban Social Movements in the Third World London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Selee AD, Peruzzotti E 2009. Participatory Innovation and Representative Democracy in Latin America Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Sellers JM, Lidström A, Bae Y. 2020. Multilevel Democracy: How Local Institutions and Civil Society Shape the Modern State New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Shatkin G. 2017. Cities for Profit: The Real Estate Turn in Asia's Urban Politics Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Shin HB. 2018. Urban movements and the genealogy of urban rights discourses: the case of urban protesters against redevelopment and displacement in Seoul, South Korea. Ann. Am. Assoc. Geogr. 108:2356–69
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Simone A. 2014. Djakarta: Drawing the City Near Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Stone CN. 2005. Looking back to look forward: reflections on urban regime analysis. Urban Aff. Rev. 40:3309–41
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Storper M, Manville M. 2006. Behaviour, preferences and cities: urban theory and urban resurgence. Urban Stud 43:81247–74
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Swianiewicz P. 2014. An empirical typology of local government systems in Eastern Europe. Local Gov. Stud. 40:2292–311
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Swyngedouw E. 2004. Globalisation or ‘glocalisation’? Networks, territories and rescaling. Camb. Rev. Int. Aff. 17:125–48
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Tajbakhsh K. 2020. Authoritarian state building through political decentralization and local government law: evidence from the Islamic Republic of Iran. Oñati Socio-Legal Ser 10:5104074
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Tarrow S. 1977. Between Centre and Periphery: Grassroots Politicians in Italy and France New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Tönnies F. 1957 (1887). Community and Society (Gemeinschaft Und Gesellschaft) transl. CP Loomis Lansing: Mich. State Univ. Press. From German
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Trigilia C. 1986. Small-firm development and political subcultures in Italy. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 2:3161–75
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Tsai L. 2007. Democracy without Accountability: Solidary Groups and Public Goods Provision in Rural China New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Veyne P. 1992. Bread and Circuses: Historical Sociology and Political Pluralism London: Penguin Books
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Walton JK, Seddon D. 1994. Free Markets and Food Riots: The Politics of Global Adjustment Oxford, UK: Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Wimmer A, Glick, Schiller N 2002. Methodological nationalism and beyond: nation–state building, migration and the social sciences. Glob. Netw. 2:4301–34
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-041719-102158
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error