Two theories predominate in discussions of why China and Vietnam have, over the past three decades, achieved such rapid economic growth. The first argues that their startling performance can be explained by economic factors associated with late industrialization. The second proposes that China and Vietnam represent novel models of political economic organization that need to be better studied and understood. In this essay we review the voluminous literature on the political economy of China and Vietnam, evaluating the critical debates over the economic benefits of decentralization, experimentation, and state-led development. Although the debate remains unsettled, analysis suggests that growth in the two countries was most robust during periods of state withdrawal from the economy and that current economic difficulties in both countries are now arising from the scale and character of the state's role in both economies.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abrami R, Malesky E, Zheng Y. 2013. Vietnam through Chinese eyes: divergent accountability in single-party regimes. See Dimitrov 2013b 237–73
  2. Auffret P. 2003. Trade reform in Vietnam: opportunities with emerging challenges. World Bank Res. Work. Pap. 2076, World Bank, Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  3. Bai C-E, Hsieh C-T, Qian Y. 2006. The return to capital in China Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Work. Pap. 12755 [Google Scholar]
  4. Beeson M, Pham HH. 2012. Developmentalism with Vietnamese characteristics: the persistence of state-led development in East Asia. J. Contemp. Asia 42:539–59 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blanchard O, Shleifer A. 2001. Federalism with and without political centralization: China versus Russia. IMF Staff Pap. 48:Spec. Issue171–79 [Google Scholar]
  6. Brandt L, Rawski TG. 2008. China's Great Economic Transformation New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  7. Brandt L, Zhu X. 2008. Accounting for China's growth IZA Discuss. Pap. 4764 [Google Scholar]
  8. Branstetter L, Lardy N. 2008. China's embrace of globalization. See Brandt & Rawski 2008 633–82
  9. Breslin S. 2011. The “China model” and the global crisis: from Friedrich List to a Chinese mode of governance?. Int. Aff. 87:1323–43 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bueno de Mesquita B, Smith A, Siverson RM, Morrow JD. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  11. Cai H, Treisman D. 2006. Did government decentralization cause China's economic miracle?. World Polit. 58:505–35 [Google Scholar]
  12. Che JH, Qian YY. 1998. Insecure property rights and government ownership of firms. Q. J. Econ. 113:467–96 [Google Scholar]
  13. Chen Y, Li H, Zhou LA. 2005. Relative performance evaluation and the turnover of provincial leaders in China. Econ. Lett. 88:3421–25 [Google Scholar]
  14. Coase R, Wang N. 2013. How China Became Capitalist New York: Palgrave Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  15. Communist Party Vietnam 2010. Vietnam's development goals, 2011–2020. CPV Online Newspap. Mar. 31; http://www.economica.vn/ChangePages.aspx?IDKey=T68H36363539105330&c=0&f=1 [Google Scholar]
  16. Darden K, Grzymała-Busse AM. 2006. The great divide: literacy, nationalism, and the communist collapse. World Polit. 59:83–115 [Google Scholar]
  17. de Melo M, Denizer C, Gelb A, Tenev S. 2003. Circumstance and choice: the role of initial conditions and policies in transition economies. World Bank Econ. Rev. 15:1–31 [Google Scholar]
  18. Dimitrov MA. 2013a. Vertical accountability in communist regimes: the role of citizen complaints in Bulgaria and China. See Dimitrov 2013b 276–300
  19. Dimitrov MA. 2013b. Why Communism Did Not Collapse: Understanding Communist Resiliance in Asia and Europe New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  20. Dinh TM, Malesky E, To TT, Nguyen DT. 2013. Effect of interest rate subsidies on firm performance and investment behavior during economic recession: evidence from Vietnam. Asian Econ. J. 27:2185–207 [Google Scholar]
  21. Do QA, Tran A, Nguyen T. 2013. One Mandarin benefits the whole clan: hometown infrastructure and nepotism in an autocracy Work. Pap., Sch. Public Environ. Aff., Univ. Indiana, Bloomington [Google Scholar]
  22. Easterly W. 2011. Benevolent autocrats Work. Pap., Dev. Res. Inst., New York Univ., New York [Google Scholar]
  23. Economist 2012. Not just tilting at windmills. The Economist Oct. http://www.economist.com/node/21564235 [Google Scholar]
  24. Eur. Bank Reconstr. Dev 2000. Transition Report 2000. London: EBRD [Google Scholar]
  25. Eur. Bank Reconstr. Dev 2012. Economic data. http://www.ebrd.com/pages/research/economics/data.shtml [Google Scholar]
  26. Fforde A. 2007. Vietnamese State Industry and the Political Economy of Commercial Rennaissance: Dragon's Tooth or Curate's Egg? London: Chandos [Google Scholar]
  27. Fforde A, De Vylder S. 1996. From Plan to Market: The Economic Transition in Vietnam Boulder, CO: Westview [Google Scholar]
  28. Fish MS. 1998. The determinants of economic reform in the post-communist world. East. Eur. Polit. Soc. 12:31–78 [Google Scholar]
  29. Florini A, Lai H, Tan Y. 2012. China Experiments: From Local Innovations to National Reform Washington, DC: Brookings Inst. [Google Scholar]
  30. Frye T. 2010. Building States and Markets After Communism: The Perils of Polarized Democracy New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  31. Gainsborough MJ. 2003. The Political Economy of Vietnam: The Case of Ho Chi Minh City London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  32. Gainsborough MJ. 2007. From patronage to “outcomes”: Vietnam's Communist Party Congress revisited. J. Vietnam. Stud. 2:3–26 [Google Scholar]
  33. Gainsborough MJ. 2010. Vietnam: Rethinking the State London: Zed Books [Google Scholar]
  34. Gao Q, Evans M, Garfunkel I. 2013. Social benefits and income inequality in post-socialist China and Vietnam. Chinese Social Policy in a Time of Transition DJ Besharov, K Baehler 48–67 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  35. Gershenkron A. 1962. Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective Cambridge, MA: Belknap [Google Scholar]
  36. Gordon RH, Li W. 2003. Government as a discriminating monopolist in the financial market: the case of China. J. Public Econ. 87:283–312 [Google Scholar]
  37. Grosjean P. 2011. The institutional legacy of the Ottoman Empire: Islamic rule and financial development in South Eastern Europe. J. Comp. Econ. 39:1–16 [Google Scholar]
  38. Gueorguiev D. 2012. Budget democracy: trials in China PhD thesis. Univ. Calif., San Diego [Google Scholar]
  39. Guo G. 2009. China's local political budget cycles. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 53:621–32 [Google Scholar]
  40. Hakkala K, Kokko A. 2007. The state and the private sector in Vietnam Work. Pap., Eur. Inst. Jpn. Stud., Stockholm [Google Scholar]
  41. Halper SA. 2010. The Beijing Consensus: How China's Authoritarian Model Will Dominate the Twenty-First Century. New York: Basic Books [Google Scholar]
  42. Hare PG. 1976. Industrial prices in Hungary: the new economic mechanism. Sov. Stud. 28:189–206 [Google Scholar]
  43. Harvie C, Lee HH. 2002. New regionalism in East Asia: How does it relate to the East Asian economic development model?. ASEAN Econ. Bull. 19:123–40 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hellman JS. 1998. Winners take all: the politics of partial reform in postcommunist transitions. World Polit. 50:203–34 [Google Scholar]
  45. Heritage Found 2014. Index of economic freedom http://www.heritage.org/index/ [Google Scholar]
  46. Hoff K, Stiglitz JE. 2004. After the big bang? Obstacles to the emergence of the rule of law in post-communist studies Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Work. Pap. 9282 [Google Scholar]
  47. Horsley J. 2008. China adopts first nationwide open government information regulations Work. Pap., China Law Cent., Yale Univ., New Haven [Google Scholar]
  48. Huang H. 2012. Signal left, turn right: central rhetoric and local reform in China. Polit. Res. Q. 66:292–305 [Google Scholar]
  49. Huang Y. 1996. Central-local relations in China during the reform era: the economic and institutional dimensions. World Dev. 24:4655–72 [Google Scholar]
  50. Huang Y. 2008. Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics: Entrepreneurship and the State New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  51. Huang Y. 2011. Rethinking the Beijing consensus. Asia Policy 11:1–26 [Google Scholar]
  52. Int. Monet. Fund 2012. Government Finance Statistics. Washington, DC: IMF [Google Scholar]
  53. Jefferson GH, Rawski TG, Zheng YZ. 1996. Chinese industrial productivity: trends, measurement issues, and recent developments. J. Comp. Econ. 23:146–80 [Google Scholar]
  54. Kerkvliet BJ. 2005. The Power of Everyday Politics: How Vietnamese Peasants Transformed National Policy Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  55. King G, Pan J, Roberts M. 2013. How censorship in China allows government criticism but silences collective expression. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 107:326–43 [Google Scholar]
  56. Kitschelt H. 2003. Accounting for postcommunist regime diversity: What counts as a good cause?. Capitalism and Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe: Assessing the Legacy of Communist Rule G Ekiert, S Hanson 49–86 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  57. Landry PF. 2008. Decentralized Authoritarianism in China: The Communist Party's Control of Local Elites in the Post-Mao Era New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  58. Lau LJ, Qian Y, Roland G. 2000. Reform without losers: an interpretation of China's dual-track approach to transition. J. Pol. Econ. 108:120–43 [Google Scholar]
  59. Li DD. 1996. Ambiguous property rights in transition economies: the case of the Chinese non-state sector. J. Comp. Econ. 23:1–19 [Google Scholar]
  60. Li H, Li L, Wu B, Xiong Y. 2012. The end of cheap Chinese labor. J. Econ. Perspect. 26.4:57–74 [Google Scholar]
  61. Lin JY, Cai F, Zhou L. 2003. The China Miracle: Development Strategy and Economic Reform Hong Kong: Chin. Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  62. London JD. 2009. Vietnam and the making of market Leninism. Pac. Rev. 22:373–97 [Google Scholar]
  63. London JD. 2013. Welfare regimes in China and Viet Nam. J. Contemp. Asia 44:84–107 [Google Scholar]
  64. Lorentzen PL. 2009. Deliberately incomplete press censorship Presented at Annu. Meet. Int. Soc. New Inst. Econ., 13th, Berkeley [Google Scholar]
  65. Lorentzen PL, Landry PF, Yasuda JK. 2014. Undermining authoritarian innovation: the power of China's industrial giants. J. Polit 76182–94 [Google Scholar]
  66. Ma L, Wu J. 2011. What drives fiscal transparency? Evidence from provincial governments in China Presented at Glob. Conf. Transparency Res., 1st, Rutgers Univ. Newark, NJ [Google Scholar]
  67. Malesky E. 2008. Straight ahead on red: how foreign direct investment empowers subnational leaders. J. Polit. 70:97–119 [Google Scholar]
  68. Malesky E, Abrami R, Zheng Y. 2011. Accountability and inequality in single-party regimes: a comparative analysis of Vietnam and China. Comp. Polit. 43:401–21 [Google Scholar]
  69. Malesky E, Nguyen VC, Tran A. 2014. The impact of recentralization on public services: a difference-in-differences analysis of the abolition of elected councils in Vietnam. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 108144–68 [Google Scholar]
  70. Malesky E, Schuler P. 2010. Nodding or needling: analyzing delegate responsiveness in an authoritarian parliament. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 104:482–503 [Google Scholar]
  71. Malesky E, Taussig M. 2009. Where is credit due? Legal institutions, connections, and the efficiency of bank lending in Vietnam. J. Law Econ. Organ. 252:535–78 [Google Scholar]
  72. Manion M. 2006. Democracy, community, trust: the impact of Chinese village elections in context. Comp. Polit. Stud. 39:301–24 [Google Scholar]
  73. Manion M. 2008. When communist party candidates can lose, who wins? Assessing the role of local people's congresses in the selection of leaders in China. China Q. 195:607–30 [Google Scholar]
  74. Markevich A, Zhuruvskaya E. 2011. M-form hierarchy with poorly-diversified divisions: a case of Khrushchev's reform in Soviet Russia. J. Public Econ. 95:1550–60 [Google Scholar]
  75. Marshall MG, Jaggers K. 2002. Polity IV Project: political regime characteristics and transitions, 1800–2002. Dataset users' manual. Univ. Md., College Park [Google Scholar]
  76. Marshall MG, Jaggers K. 2012. Polity IV Project: political regime characteristics and transitions, 1800–2012 Coll. Park Integr. Netw. Soc. Conflict Res., Cent. Int. Dev. Conflict Manag., Univ. Md., College Park. http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/polity4.htm [Google Scholar]
  77. Martinez-Bravo M, Padró-i-Miquel G, Qian N, Yao Y. 2012. Do local elections in non-democracies increase accountability evidence from rural China? Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Work. Pap. 16948 [Google Scholar]
  78. Masina P. 2006. Vietnam's Development Strategies New York/London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  79. Maskin E, Qian Y, Xu C. 2000. Incentives, information, and organizational form. Rev. Econ. Stud. 67:2359–78 [Google Scholar]
  80. McMillan J, Naughton B, Lin G. 1996. Contracts between firm and state. China's State-Owned Enterprise Reforms D Fureng, C Lin, B Naughton 781–807 London: Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  81. McNally C. 2013. Sino-capitalism: China's reemergence and the international political economy. World Polit. 64:741–76 [Google Scholar]
  82. Mertha AC. 2005. The Politics of Piracy: Intellectual Property in Contemporary China Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  83. Minh NK, Long GT. 2008. Factor productivity and efficiency of the Vietnamese economy in transition. Asia-Pac. Dev. 15:193–105 [Google Scholar]
  84. Minot N, Bauch B. 2005. Spatial patterns of poverty in Vietnam and their implications for policy. Food Policy 30:461–75 [Google Scholar]
  85. Montinola G, Qian Y, Weingast B. 1995. Federalism, Chinese style: the political basis for economic success in China. World Polit. 48:50–81 [Google Scholar]
  86. Mountfield E, Wong CPW. 2005. Public expenditure on the frontline: toward effective management by subnational governments. East Asia Decentralizes: Making Local Government Work in Asia R White, P Smoke 85–105 Washington, DC: World Bank [Google Scholar]
  87. Nathan AJ. 2006. Present at the stagnation: Is China's development stalled?. For. Aff. 85:177–82 [Google Scholar]
  88. Naughton BJ. 1995. Growing Out of the Plan: Chinese Economic Reform 1978–1993 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  89. Naughton BJ. 2003. How much can regional integration do to unify China's markets?. How Far Across the River? Chinese Policy Reform at the Millennium NC Hope, DT Yang, MY Li 204–32 Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  90. Naughton BJ. 2008. A political economy of China's economic transition. See Brandt & Rawski 2008 91–136
  91. Naughton BJ, Yang DL. 2004. Holding China Together: Diversity and National Integration in the Post-Deng Era Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  92. Nguyen VT, Freeman NJ. 2009. State-owned enterprises in Vietnam: Are they ‘crowding out’ the private sector?. Post-Communist Econ. 21:227–47 [Google Scholar]
  93. Nove A. 1983. The Economics of Feasible Socialism Boston: Allen Unwin [Google Scholar]
  94. Oi J. 1999. Rural China Takes Off: The Institutional Foundations of Economic Reform Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  95. Pei M. 2006. China's Trapped Transition: The Limits of Developmental Autocracy Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  96. Pei M. 2012. The political future of the communist regime in China: resiliency versus fragility. Proc. Int. Conf. China Taiwan Glob. Perspect., Taipei [Google Scholar]
  97. Perkins D, Yusuf S. 1984. Rural Development in China Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  98. Perkins DH, Rawski TG. 2008. Forecasting China's economic growth to 2025. See Brandt & Rawski 2008 829–86
  99. Phan D, Coxhead I. 2013. Long-run costs of piecemeal reform: wage inequality and returns to education in Vietnam. J. Comp. Econ. 41:1106–22 [Google Scholar]
  100. Phong D. 2005. Vietnam's Economic History, 1955–1975 Hanoi: Vietnam Acad. Soc. Sci. [Google Scholar]
  101. Pincus J. 2009. Vietnam: sustaining growth in a difficult times. ASEAN Econ. Bull. 26:11–24 [Google Scholar]
  102. Pincus J, Vu TTA, Pham DN, Wilkinson B, Nguyen XT. 2012. Structural reform for growth, equity, and national sovereignty Work. Pap., Kennedy Sch. Gov., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA [Google Scholar]
  103. Pop-Eleches G. 2007. Historical legacies and post-communist regime change. J. Polit. 69:908–26 [Google Scholar]
  104. Przeworski A. 1991. Democracy and the Market New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  105. Qian Y. 2003. How reform worked in China. In Search of Prosperity: Analytic Narratives on Economic Growth D Rodrik 297–333 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  106. Qian Y, Xu C. 1993. Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry/expansion of the non-state sector. Econ. Transit. 1:135–70 [Google Scholar]
  107. Ramo JC. 2004. The Beijing Consensus London: For. Policy Cent. [Google Scholar]
  108. Rodrik D. 2007. One Economics, Many Recipes Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  109. Rozelle S. 1996. Stagnation without equity: changing patterns of income and inequality in China's post-reform rural economy. China J. 35:63–96 [Google Scholar]
  110. Sachs JD. 1996. The transition at mid decade. Am. Econ. Rev. 86:2128–33 [Google Scholar]
  111. Segal A. 2009. Advantage: How American Innovation Can Overcome the Asian Challenge New York: W.W. Norton [Google Scholar]
  112. Sheng Y. 2010. Economic Openness and Territorial Politics in China New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  113. Shih V. 2008. Factions and Finance in China: Elite Conflict and Inflation New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  114. Shih V, Adolph C, Liu MX. 2012. Explaining the advancement of central committee members in China. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 106:166–87 [Google Scholar]
  115. Shirk SL. 1993. Logic of Economic Reform in China Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  116. Shirk SL. 2007. China: Fragile Superpower Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  117. Shirk SL. 2009. Changing Media, Changing China Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  118. Stiglitz JE. 2006. The transition from communism to market: a reappraisal after 15 years Presented at Annu. Meet. Eur. Bank Reconstr. Dev., London [Google Scholar]
  119. Sutherland D, Yao S. 2011. Income inequality in China over 30 years of reforms. Camb. J. Reg. Econ. Soc. 4.1:91–105 [Google Scholar]
  120. Svejnar J. 2008. China in light of the performance of the transition economies. See Brandt & Rawski 2008 68–91
  121. Syrquin M, Chenery H. 1989. Three decades of industrialization. World Bank Econ. Rev. 3:145–81 [Google Scholar]
  122. Szamosszegi A, Kyle C. 2011. An analysis of state-owned enterprises and state capitalism in China Work. Pap., U.S.-China Econ. Secur. Rev., Washington, DC. http://www.uscc.gov/Research/analysis-state-owned-enterprises-and-state-capitalism-china [Google Scholar]
  123. Tao R, Xu Z. 2006. Groping for stones to cross the river versus coordinated policy reforms: the case of two reforms in China. J. Policy Reform 9:177–201 [Google Scholar]
  124. Teorell J, Charron N, Samanni M, Holmberg S, Rothstein B. 2011. The Quality of Government dataset, version 6 Quality Gov. Inst., Univ. Gothenburg. http://www.qog.pol.gu.se [Google Scholar]
  125. Thayer C. 1988. The regularization of politics: continuity and change in the party's central committee. Postwar Vietnam: Dilemmas in Socialist Development D Marr, C White 177–93 Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  126. Truex R. 2012. Representation by design: preference congruence in an authoritarian parliament Work. Pap., Dep. Polit. Sci., Yale Univ., New Haven [Google Scholar]
  127. Tsai K. 2008. Capitalism without Democracy: The Private Sector in Contemporary China Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  128. Tsai L. 2007. Accountability without Democracy: Solidary Groups and Public Goods Provision in Rural China New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  129. Turley WS, Womack B. 1998. Asian socialism's open doors: Guangzhou and Ho Chi Minh City. China J. 40:95–119 [Google Scholar]
  130. Van Arkadie B, London JD, Pham TLH, Tran TH, Khuat THO. et al. 2010. Joint country analysis: development challenges in a middle-income Vietnam Work. Pap., Dev. Progr., United Nations, Hanoi [Google Scholar]
  131. Van Arkadie B, Mallon R. 2003. Vietnam: A Transition Tiger? Canberra, Aust.: Asia Pac. Press [Google Scholar]
  132. Vu HL. 2009. Vietnam's agricultural productivity: a Malmquist index approach Work. Pap., Vietnam Dev. Forum, Hanoi [Google Scholar]
  133. Wallace J. 2011. Authoritarian information problems: data manipulation in China Work. Pap., Dep. Polit. Sci., Ohio State Univ., Columbus [Google Scholar]
  134. Whiting SH. 2000. Power and Wealth in Rural China: The Political Economy of Institutional Change New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  135. Williamson J. 2012. Is the Beijing consensus now dominant?. Asia Policy 13:1–16 [Google Scholar]
  136. Woo WT. 1994. The art of reforming centrally-planned economies: comparing China, Poland and Russia. J. Comp. Econ. 18:276–308 [Google Scholar]
  137. World Bank 2012. World development indicators Annu. Rep., Dev. Data Group, Int. Econ. Dep., Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  138. World Bank 2013. China 2030: Building a Modern, Harmonious, and Creative High-Income Society Washington, DC: World Bank [Google Scholar]
  139. Xu C. 2011. The fundamental institutions of China's reforms and development. J. Econ. Lit. 49:1076–151 [Google Scholar]
  140. Xu C, Zhuang J. 1998. Why China Grew: The Role of Decentralization Cambridge, MA/London: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  141. Yang DL. 2004. Remaking the Chinese Leviathan: Market Transition and the Politics of Governance in China Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  142. Yang DL. 2006. Economic transformation and its political discontents in China: authoritarianism, unequal growth, and the dilemmas of political development. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 9:143–64 [Google Scholar]
  143. Yang G. 2005. Environmental NGOs and institutional dynamics in China. China Q. 181:46–65 [Google Scholar]
  144. Yao Y. 2010. The end of the Beijing consensus: Can China's model of authoritarian growth survive?. For. Aff. 90:1091–35 [Google Scholar]
  145. Young A. 1995. The tyranny of numbers: confronting the statistical realities of the East Asian growth experience. Q. J. Econ. 110:641–80 [Google Scholar]
  146. Young A. 2000. The razor's edge: distortions and incremental reform in the People's Republic of China. Q. J. Econ. 115:1091–135 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error