1932

Abstract

Immigration policy is often portrayed as a zero-sum trade-off between labor and capital or between high- and low-skilled labor. Many have attributed the rise of populist politicians and populist movements to immigrants and/or immigration policy. While immigration has distributional implications, we argue that something is clearly missing from the discussion: the fact that migrants are an engine of globalization, especially for countries in the Global South. Migration and migrant networks serve to expand economic markets, distribute information across national borders, and diffuse democratic norms and practices throughout the world, increasing trade and investment flows. We further argue that many commentators have got the causal relationship backward: Instead of immigration reducing support for globalization, we argue that trade, financial flows, and offshoring have reduced support for immigration among the elite and a vocal plurality of citizens in the Global North.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-051120-105059
2022-05-12
2024-04-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/polisci/25/1/annurev-polisci-051120-105059.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-051120-105059&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adams RH, Cuecuecha A. 2010. Remittances, household expenditure and investment in Guatemala. World Dev 38:111626–41
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adams RH, Page J. 2005. Do international migration and remittances reduce poverty in developing countries?. World Dev 33:1645–69
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Adelman J. 1994. Frontier Development: Land, Labour, and Capital on the Wheatlands of Argentina and Canada,1890–1914 Oxford/New York: Clarendon/Oxford Univ. Press
  4. Ahlquist J, Copelovitch M, Walter S 2020. The political consequences of external economic shocks: evidence from Poland. Am. J. Political Sci 64:904–20
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Alarian HM. 2020. Cause or consequence? The Alternative for Germany and attitudes toward migration policy. Ger. Politics Soc 38:259–89
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Allport GW. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice New York: Basic Books
  7. Ammar W. 2018. Migration and health: human rights in the era of populism. Lancet 392:101642526–28
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Andrews S, Leblang D, Pandya SS. 2018. Ethnocentrism reduces foreign direct investment. J. Politics 80:2697–700
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Arzheimer K, Carter E. 2006. Political opportunity structures and right-wing extremist party success. Eur. J. Political Res 45:3419–43
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Atkins GP, Wilson LC. 1998. The Dominican Republic and the United States: From Imperialism to Transnationalism Athens: Univ. Georgia Press
  11. Aubry A, Kugler M, Rapoport H 2012. Migration, FDI and the margins of trade Work. Pap. 222. Boston Cent. Int. Dev., Harvard Univ Cambridge, MA:
  12. Autor DH, Dorn D, Hanson GH. 2016. The China shock: learning from labor-market adjustment to large changes in trade. Annu. Rev. Econ 8:205–40
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Autor DH, Dorn D, Hanson G, Majlesi K 2020a. A note on the effect of rising trade exposure on the 2016 presidential election. Appendix to “Importing political polarization? The electoral consequences of rising trade exposure. .” Am. Econ. Rev 110:103139–83
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Autor DH, Dorn D, Katz LF, Patterson C, Van Reenen J. 2020b. The fall of the labor share and the rise of superstar firms. Q. J. Econ 135:2645–709
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bade KJ. 1987. Labour, migration, and the state: Germany from the late 19th century to the onset of the Great Depression. Population, Labour, and Migration in 19th- and 20th- Century Germany59–86 New York: St. Martin's
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ballard-Rosa C, Malik MA, Rickard SJ, Scheve K 2017. The economic origins of authoritarian values: evidence from local trade shocks in the United Kingdom. Comp. Lit. Stud 54:132321–53
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Barne D, Pirlea F. 2019. Money sent home by workers now largest source of external financing in low- and middle-income countries (excluding China). Netherlands for the World Bank Blog July 9. https://nl4worldbank.org/2019/07/09/money-sent-home-by-workers-now-largest-source-of-external-financing-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-excluding-china/
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Barone G, D'Ignazio A, de Blasio G, Naticchioni P 2016. Mr. Rossi, Mr. Hu and politics. The role of immigration in shaping natives’ voting behavior. J. Public Econ 136:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Barsbai T, Rapoport H, Steinmayr A, Trebesch C. 2017. The effect of labor migration on the diffusion of democracy: evidence from a former Soviet republic. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ 9:336–69
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Barton JH, Goldstein JL, Josling TE, Steinberg RH. 2006. The Evolution of the Trade Regime: Politics, Law, and Economics of the GATT and the WTO Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  21. Becker SO, Fetzer T. 2016. Does migration cause extreme voting? Work. Pap., Cent. Compet. Advant. Glob. Econ. Econ. Soc. Res. Counc Swindon, UK:
  22. Becker SO, Fetzer T, Novy D. 2017. Who voted for Brexit? A comprehensive district-level analysis. Econ. Policy 32:92601–50
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bermeo S. 2018. Targeted Development: Industrialized Country Strategy in a Globalizing World New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  24. Bermeo S, Leblang D. 2015. Migration and foreign aid. Int. Organ 69:3627–57
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Besco R. 2021. From stability to polarization: the transformation of Canadian public opinion on immigration, 1975–2019. Am. Rev. Can. Stud 51:1143–165
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Betz H-G. 1994. Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe London: Springer
  27. Billiet J, De Witte H. 1995. Attitudinal dispositions to vote for a ‘new’ extreme right-wing party: the case of ‘Vlaams Blok. .’ Eur. J. Political Res 27:2181–202
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Bisin A, Verdier T. 2000.. “ Beyond the melting pot”: cultural transmission, marriage, and the evolution of ethnic and religious traits. Q. J. Econ 115:3955–88
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Borjas GJ. 1987. Self-selection and the earnings of immigrants NBER Work. Pap2248
  30. Borjas GJ. 2016. We Wanted Workers: Unraveling the Immigration Narrative New York: W.W. Norton
  31. Borrie WD. 1994. The European Peopling of Australasia: A Demographic History, 1788–1988 Canberra: Aust. Nat. Univ.
  32. Bratsberg B, Raaum O, Røed K. 2014. Immigrants, labour market performance and social insurance. Econ. J 124:580F644–83
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Burns P, Gimpel JG. 2000. Economic insecurity, prejudicial stereotypes, and public opinion on immigration policy. Political Sci. Q 115:2201–25
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Buthe T, Milner H. 2008. The politics of foreign direct investment into developing countries: increasing FDI through international trade agreements?. Am. J. Political Sci 52:741–62
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Careja R, Emmenegger P. 2012. Making democratic citizens: the effects of migration experience on political attitudes in Central and Eastern Europe. Comp. Political Stud 45:7875–902
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Castles S. 1986. The guest-worker in Western Europe—an obituary. Int. Migr. Rev 20:4761–78
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Chauvet L, Mercier M. 2014. Do return migrants transfer political norms to their origin country? Evidence from Mali. J. Comp. Econ 42:3630–51
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Chen AH. 1987. Development of immigration law and policy: the Hong Kong experience. McGill Law J. 33:4631–75
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Chung EA. 2010. Immigration and Citizenship in Japan Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  40. Clemens MA, Hunt J 2019. The labor market effects of refugee waves: reconciling conflicting results. ILR Rev 72:4818–57
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Clemens MA, Postel HM. 2018. Deterring emigration with foreign aid: an overview of evidence from low-income countries. Popul. Dev. Rev 44:4667–93
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Clemens MA, Williamson JG. 2004. Why did the tariff-growth correlation change after 1950?. J. Econ. Growth 9:15–46
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Cohen R. 1997. Global Diasporas: An Introduction London: Univ. Coll. London Press
  44. Colantone I, Stanig P. 2018a. Global competition and Brexit. Am. Political Sci. Rev 112:2201–18
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Colantone I, Stanig P. 2018b. The trade origins of economic nationalism: import competition and voting behavior in Western Europe. Am. J. Political Sci 62:4936–53
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Collier P. 2015. Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press. , 2nd ed..
  47. Cross GS. 1983. Immigrant Workers in Industrial France: The Making of a New Laboring Class Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
  48. d'Albis H, Boubtane E, Coulibaly D 2018. Macroeconomic evidence suggests that asylum seekers are not a “burden” for Western European countries. Sci. Adv 4:6eaaq0883
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Dancygier RM. 2010. Immigration and Conflict in Europe Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  50. Dancygier RM, Donnelly MJ. 2013. Sectoral economies, economic contexts, and attitudes toward immigration. J. Politics 75:117–35
    [Google Scholar]
  51. De Vries CE, Hobolt SB, Walter S. 2021. Politicizing international cooperation: the mass public, political entrepreneurs, and political opportunity structures. Int. Organ 75:2306–32
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Dehdari S. 2018. Economic distress and support for far-right parties: evidence from Sweden CONPOL Work. Pap., Uppsala Univ. Uppsala, Sweden: https://conpol.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/EconomicDistress.pdf
  53. Dennison J, Geddes A. 2019. A rising tide? The salience of immigration and the rise of anti-immigration political parties in Western Europe. Political Q. 90:1107–16
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Dinas E, Matakos K, Xefteris D, Hangartner D 2019. Waking up the Golden Dawn: Does exposure to the refugee crisis increase support for extreme-right parties?. Political Anal. 27:2244–54
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Dionne K, Turkmen F 2020. The politics of pandemic othering: putting COVID-19 in global and historical context. Int. Organ 74:S1E213–30
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Dippel C, Gold R, Heblich S 2015. Globalization and its (dis-) content: trade shocks and voting behavior NBER Work. Pap21812
  57. Dunlevy JA. 2006. The influence of corruption and language on the protrade effect of immigrants: evidence from the American states. Rev. Econ. Stat 88:1182–86
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Dunlevy JA, Hutchinson WK. 1999. The impact of immigration on American import trade in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. J. Econ. Hist 59:41043–62
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Dustmann C, Frattini T. 2014. The fiscal effects of immigration to the UK. Econ. J 124:580F593–643
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Ehsan R. 2016. Ethnic minorities are more likely to support the EU—but less likely to vote in the referendum. Conversation June 15. https://theconversation.com/ethnic-minorities-are-more-likely-to-support-the-eu-but-less-likely-to-vote-in-the-referendum-60808
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Ehsan R, Sloam J. 2020. Resources, values, identity: young cosmopolitans and the referendum on British membership of the European Union. Parliam. Aff 73:146–65
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Eichengreen B, Leblang D. 2008. Democracy and globalization. Econ. Politics 20:3289–334
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Elton E, Gruber M, Brown S, Goetzmann W. 2003. Modern Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis New York: John Wiley
  64. Escribà-Folch A, Meseguer C, Wright J. 2021. Global migration drives global democracy. Foreign Aff June 2. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/world/2021-06-02/global-migration-drives-global-democracy
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Esteves R, Khoudour-Casteras D. 2009. A fantastic rain of gold: European migrants’ remittances and balance of payments adjustment during the gold standard period. J. Econ. Hist 69:4951–85
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Eur. Asylum Support Off 2016. The push and pull factors of asylum-related migration. A literature review Tech. Rep., Maastricht Univ. and Glob. Migr. Data Anal. Cent. Int. Organ. Migr https://www.easo.europa.eu/file/push-and-pull-factors-asylum-related-migrationpdf
  67. Faist T. 2000. Transnationalization in international migration: implications for the study of citizenship and culture. Ethn. Racial Stud 23:2189–222
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Fan Y, Pan J, Shao Z, Xu Y. 2020. How discrimination increases Chinese overseas students’ support for authoritarian rule 21st Century China Cent. Res. Pap2020–05 http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3637710
    [Crossref]
  69. Felbermayr GJ, Toubal F. 2012. Revisiting the trade-migration nexus: evidence from new OECD data. World Dev 40:5928–37
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Ferris D, Hayduk R, Richards A, Schubert ES, Acri M. 2020. Noncitizen voting rights in the global era: a literature review and analysis. J. Int. Migr. Integr 21:949–71
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Fitzgerald J, Leblang D, Teets JC 2014. Defying the law of gravity: the political economy of international migration. World Politics 66:3406–45
    [Google Scholar]
  72. French KR, Poterba JM. 1991. Investor diversification and international equity markets. Am. Econ. Rev 81:2222–26
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Funke M, Schularick M, Trebesch C. 2016. Going to extremes: politics after financial crises, 1870–2014. Eur. Econ. Rev 88:227–60
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Gallup 2021. Immigration. Gallup News: In Depth: Topics A to Z. https://news.gallup.com/poll/1660/immigration.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Geddes A. 2003. The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe London/Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
  76. Gerber AS, Huber GA, Biggers DR, Hendry DJ. 2014. Self interest, beliefs, and policy opinions: understanding the economic source of immigration policy preferences Work. Pap., Yale Univ. New Haven, CT:
  77. Givens TE. 2004. The radical right gender gap. Comp. Political Stud 37:130–54
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Golder M. 2003. Explaining variation in the success of extreme right parties in Western Europe. Comp. Political Stud 36:4432–66
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Goldin C, Katz LF. 1996. Technology, skill, and the wage structure: insights from the past. Am. Econ. Rev252–57
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Goldstein JL, Peters ME. 2014. Nativism or economic threat: attitudes toward immigrants during the Great Recession. Int. Interact 40:3376–401
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Goodman JB, Pauly LW. 1993. The obsolescence of capital controls? Economic management in an age of global markets. World Politics 46:150–82
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Goodman SW, Pepinsky TB. 2021. The exclusionary foundations of embedded liberalism. Int. Organ 75:2411–39
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Gould DM. 1994. Immigrant links to the home country: empirical implications for U.S. bilateral trade flows. Rev. Econ. Stat 76:2302–16
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Gourinchas P-O, Rey H, Sauzet M. 2019. The international monetary and financial system. Annu. Rev. Econ 11:859–93
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Graham B. 2019. Investing in the Homeland Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press
  86. Greif A. 1989. Reputation and coalitions in medieval trade: evidence on the Maghribi traders. J. Econ. Hist 49:4857–82
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Greif A. 1993. Contract enforceability and economic institutions in early trade: the Maghribi traders’ coalition. Am. Econ. Rev 83:525–48
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Hainmueller J, Hiscox MJ. 2007. Educated preferences: explaining attitudes toward immigration in Europe. Int. Organ 61:399–442
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Hainmueller J, Hiscox MJ. 2010. Attitudes toward highly skilled and low-skilled immigration: evidence from a survey experiment. Am. Political Sci. Rev 104:0161–84
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Hanson GH, Scheve K, Slaughter MJ. 2007. Public finance and individual preferences over globalization strategies. Econ. Politics 19:11–33
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Hatton TJ, Williamson JG. 2008. Global Migration and the World Economy: Two Centuries of Policy and Performance Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  92. Hatzigeorgiou A. 2010. Migration as trade facilitation: assessing the links between international trade and migration. B.E. J. Econ. Anal. Policy 10:1 https://doi.org/10.2202/1935-1682.2100
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  93. Hawkins F. 1991. Critical Years in Immigration: Canada and Australia Compared Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen's Univ. Press
  94. Head K, Ries J. 1998. Immigration and trade creation: econometric evidence from Canada. Can. J. Econ. Rev. Can. Econ 31:147–62
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Helbling M, Leblang D. 2019. Controlling immigration? How regulations affect migration flows. Eur. J. Political Res 58:1248–69
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Helliwell JF. 1996. Do national borders matter for Quebec's trade?. Can. J. Econ 29:3507–22
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Helms B, Leblang D. 2019. Global migration: causes and consequences. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics WR Thompson Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press https://oxfordre.com/politics/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-631
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Herander MG, Saavedra LA. 2005. Exports and the structure of immigrant-based networks: the role of geographic proximity. Rev. Econ. Stat 87:2323–35
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Herbert U. 1990. A History of Foreign Labor in Germany, 18801990: Seasonal Workers, Forced Laborers, Guest Workers Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Hull C. 1948. The Memoirs of Cordell Hull New York: Macmillan
  101. Ikenberry GJ. 2001. After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order after Major Wars Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  102. Int. Organ. Migr 2020. World Migration Report 2020 Geneva: Int. Organ. Migr.
  103. Irwin DA 1998. From Smoot-Hawley to reciprocal trade agreements: changing the course of U.S. trade policy in the 1930s. The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century MD Bordo, C Goldin, EN White 325–52 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Javorcik B, Ozden C, Spatareanu M, Neagu C. 2011. Migrant networks and foreign direct investment. J. Dev. Econ 94:2231–41
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Jetten J, Mols F, Postmes T. 2015. Relative deprivation and relative wealth enhances anti-immigrant sentiments: the v-curve re-examined. PLOS ONE 10:10e0139156
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Jetten J, Mols F, Steffens NK. 2021. Prosperous but fearful of falling: the wealth paradox, collective angst, and opposition to immigration. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull 47:5766–80
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Joppke C. 1998. Why liberal states accept unwanted immigration. World Politics 50:2266–93
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Kapur D. 2010. Diaspora, Development, and Democracy: The Domestic Impact of International Migration from India Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  109. Kaur A. 2006. International Migration in Malaysia and Singapore since the 1880s: State Policies, Migration Trends and Governance of Migration Armidale, Aust.: Univ. New England Asia Cent. (UNEAC) for the Malaysia and Singapore Soc. Aust.
  110. Kelley N, Trebilcock MJ 1998. The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy Toronto, Can./Buffalo, NY: Univ. Toronto Press
  111. Keohane RO, Nye JS. 1977. Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition Boston: Little, Brown
  112. Kerr SP, Kerr WR. 2021. Whose job is it anyway? Co-ethnic hiring in new U.S. ventures. J. Hum. Cap 15:86–127
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Kinder DR, Sears DO. 1981. Prejudice and politics: symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol 40:3414–31
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Knigge P. 1998. The ecological correlates of right-wing extremism in Western Europe. Eur. J. Political Res 34:2249–79
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Kugler M, Levintal O, Rapoport H. 2017. Migration and Cross-Border Financial Flows Washington, DC: World Bank
  116. La Cava G 1999. Italians in Brazil New York: Peter Lang
  117. Lacroix T, Levitt P, Vari-Lavoisier I. 2016. Social remittances and the changing transnational political landscape. Comp. Migr. Stud 4:16
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Lanati M, Thiele R. 2018. The impact of foreign aid on migration revisited. World Dev 111:59–74
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Lane PR. 2005. Global bond portfolios and EMU Work. Pap. 553, Eur. Central Bank, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.
  120. Leblang DA. 2010. Familiarity breeds investment: diaspora networks and international investment. Am. Political Sci. Rev 104:584–600
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Leblang DA 2016. Migrant networks, political institutions, and international investment. Handbook on Migration and Social Policy G Freeman, M Nikola 108–20 London: Edward Elgar
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Levitsky S, Way LA 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  123. Levitt P. 1998. Social remittances: migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion. Int. Migr. Rev 32:4926–48
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Lewis E. 2011. Immigration, skill mix, and capital skill complementarity. Q. J. Econ 126:21029–69
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Lewis KK. 1999. Trying to explain home bias in equities and consumption. J. Econ. Lit 37:2571–608
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Lopez-Cordova E, Olmedo A. 2006. International remittances and development: existing evidence, policies and recommendations INTAL/ITD Occas. Pap. No. 41, Inst. Integr. Latin Am. Caribbean and Integr Trade Hemisph. Issues Div .
  127. Lubbers M, Scheepers P. 2002. French Front National voting: a micro and macro perspective. Ethn. Racial Stud 25:1120–49
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Lucassen J. 1987. Migrant Labour in Europe, 16001900: The Drift to the North Sea Beckenham, UK: Croom Helm
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Lucassen J, Penninx R. 1997. Newcomers: Immigrants and Their Descendants in the Netherlands; 1550–1995 Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis
  130. Malhotra N, Margalit Y, Mo C 2013. Economic explanations for opposition to immigration: distinguishing between prevalence and conditional impact. Am. J. Political Sci 57:391–410
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Mansfield ED, Mutz DC. 2009. Support for free trade: self-interest, sociotropic politics, and out-group anxiety. Int. Organ 63:3425–57
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Margalit Y. 2012. Lost in globalization: international economic integration and the sources of popular discontent. Int. Stud. Q 56:3484–500
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Margalit Y. 2019. Economic insecurity and the causes of populism, reconsidered. J. Econ. Perspect 33:4152–70
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Massey DS. 1988. Economic development and international migration in comparative perspective. Popul. Dev. Rev 14:3383–413
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Massey DS, Arango J, Hugo G, Kouaouci A, Pellegrino A, Taylor JE. 1993. Theories of international migration: a review and appraisal. Popul. Dev. Rev 19:3431–66
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Massey DS, Pren KA. 2012. Unintended consequences of US immigration policy: explaining the post-1965 surge from Latin America. Popul. Dev. Rev 38:11–29
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Mayda AM, Peri G, Steingress W 2018. The political impact of immigration: evidence from the United States NBER Work. Pap24510
  138. McCallum J. 1995. National borders matter: Canada-U.S. regional trade patterns. Am. Econ. Rev 85:3615–23
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Melitz MJ. 2003. The impact of trade on intra-industry reallocations and aggregate industry productivity. Econometrica 71:61695–725
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Miller MK, Peters ME. 2018. Restraining the huddled masses: migration policy and autocratic survival. Br. J. Political Sci 50:2403–33
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Milner HV. 1999. The political economy of international trade. Annu. Rev. Political Sci 2:91–114
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Milner HV, Mukherjee B. 2009. Democratization and economic globalization. Annu. Rev. Political Sci 12:163–81
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Milner HV, Tingley D. 2010. The political economy of U.S. foreign aid: American legislators and the domestic politics of aid. Econ. Politics 22:2200–32
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Misuriello V. 1993. Politica de La Inmigracion En La Argentina, 1853–1970 Buenos Aires, Argent.: Ed. Gab., Univ. Nac. Tucuman
  145. Mols F, Jetten J. 2014. No guts, no glory: how framing the collective past paves the way for anti-immigrant sentiments. Int. J. Intercult. Relat 43:74–86
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Mols F, Jetten J. 2016. Explaining the appeal of populist right-wing parties in times of economic prosperity. Political Psychol. 37:2275–92
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Moore J. 1987. Refugees and Foreign Policy: Immediate Needs and Durable Solutions Washington, DC: Bur. Public Aff., US Dep. State
  148. Moses JW. 2011. Emigration and Political Development New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  149. Müller K, Schwarz C. 2021. Fanning the flames of hate: social media and hate crime. J. Eur. Econ. Assoc 19:42131–67
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Murat M. 2020. Foreign aid, bilateral asylum immigration and development. J. Popul. Econ 33:179–114
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Murray M. 2021. America first? The erosion of American status under Trump Policy Ser. Work. Pap2021–43
  152. Neumayer E, Spess L. 2005. Do bilateral investment treaties increase foreign direct investment to developing countries?. World Dev. 33:101567–85
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Norris P. 2005. Radical Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  154. Nowrasteh A, Orr R. 2018. Immigration and the welfare state: immigrant and native use rates and benefit levels for means-tested welfare and entitlement programs Immigr. Res. Policy Brief 6 May 10, Cato Inst. Washington, DC:
  155. Nowrasteh A, Powell B. 2020. Wretched Refuse? The Political Economy of Immigration and Institutions New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  156. Ottaviano GI, Peri G. 2012. Rethinking the effect of immigration on wages. J. Eur. Econ. Assoc 10:1152–97
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Özden Ç, Parsons CR, Schiff M, Walmsley TL. 2011. Where on earth is everybody? The evolution of global bilateral migration 1960–2000. World Bank Econ. Rev 25:112–56
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Pandya SS. 2014a. Trading Spaces: Foreign Direct Investment Regulation, 1970–2000 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  159. Pandya SS. 2014b. Democratization and foreign direct investment liberalization, 1970–2000. Int. Stud. Q 58:3475–88
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Pandya SS, Leblang D. 2017. Risky business: institutions versus social networks in FDI. Econ. Politics 29:291–117
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Pantoja AD, Menjívar C, Magaña L. 2008. The spring marches of 2006: Latinos, immigration, and political mobilization in the 21st century. Am. Behav. Sci 52:4499–506
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Papademetriou DG, Hamilton KA. 1996. Converging Paths to Restriction: French, Italian, and British Responses to Immigration Washington, DC: Carnegie Endow. Int. Peace
  163. Parker CS. 2021. Status threat: moving the right further to the right?. Daedalus 150:256–75
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Pérez-Armendáriz C, Crow D. 2010. Do migrants remit democracy? International migration, political beliefs, and behavior in Mexico. Comp. Political Stud 43:1119–48
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Peters ME. 2014. Trade, foreign direct investment and immigration policy making in the US. Int. Organ 68:4811–44
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Peters ME. 2015. Open trade, closed borders: immigration in the era of globalization. World Politics 67:1114–54
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Peters ME. 2017. Trading Barriers: Immigration and the Remaking of Globalization Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  168. Peters ME. 2019. Immigration and international law. Int. Stud. Q 63:2281–95
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Peters ME. 2020. Integration and disintegration: trade and labor market integration. J. Int. Econ. Law 23:2391–412
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Peters ME, Miller MK. 2022. Emigration and political contestation. Int. Stud. Q 66:1sqab088
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Plender R. 1972. International Migration Law Leiden, Neth.: Sijthoff
  172. Portes A. 1998. Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annu. Rev. Sociol 24:1–24
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Portes A, Böröcz J. 1989. Contemporary immigration: theoretical perspectives on its determinants and modes of incorporation. Int. Migr. Rev 23:3606–30
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Prather L. 2020. Transnational ties and support for foreign aid. Int. Stud. Q 64:1120–32
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Rapoport H, Sardoschau S, Silve A. 2020. Migration and cultural change CESifo Work. Pap. 8547, CESifo Netw. Munich, Ger: https://www.cesifo.org/en/publikationen/2020/working-paper/migration-and-cultural-change
  176. Rauch JE, Trindade V. 2002. Ethnic Chinese networks in international trade. Rev. Econ. Stat 84:1116–30
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Rhodes-Purdy MH, Navarre R, Utych S. 2021. Populist psychology: economics, culture, and emotions. J. Politics 83:41559–72
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Samers M. 1997. The production of diaspora: Algerian emigration from colonialism to neo-colonialism (1840–1970). Antipode 29:132–64
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Schain M. 2008. The Politics of Immigration in France, Britain, and the United States: A Comparative Study London: Palgrave Macmillan
  180. Scheve K, Slaughter M. 2001. Labor market competition and individual preferences over immigration policy. Rev. Econ. Stat 83:1133–45
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Schewel K. 2020. Understanding immobility: moving beyond the mobility bias in migration studies. Int. Migr. Rev 54:2328–55
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Shain Y. 1999. The Mexican-American diaspora's impact on Mexico. Political Sci. Q 114:4661–91
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Sheffer G. 2003. Diaspora Politics: At Home Abroad Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  184. Sicsic P. 1994. Foreign immigration and the French labor force, 1896–1926. Migration and the International Labor Market, 18501939ed. T Hatton, J Williamson119–38 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Singer DA. 2010. Migrant remittances and exchange rate regimes in the developing world. Am. Political Sci. Rev 104:2307–23
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Sjaastad LA. 1962. The costs and returns of human migration. J. Political Econ 70:580–93
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Smeekes A, Jetten J, Verkuyten M, Wohl MJ, Jasinskaja-Lahti I et al. 2018. Regaining in-group continuity in times of anxiety about the group's future. Soc. Psychol 49:6311–29
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Spilimbergo A. 2009. Democracy and foreign education. Am. Econ. Rev 99:1528–43
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Stark O. 1984. Rural-to-urban migration in LDCs: a relative deprivation approach. Econ. Dev. Cult. Change 32:3475–86
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Stark O, Bloom DE. 1985. The new economics of labor migration. Am. Econ. Rev 75:2173–78
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Timmer AS, Williamson JG. 1998. Immigration policy prior to the 1930s: labor markets, policy interactions, and globalization backlash. Popul. Dev. Rev 24:4739–71
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Tingley D. 2012. Public finance and immigration preferences: a lost connection. Polity 45:14–33
    [Google Scholar]
  193. UNDP (United Nations Popul. Div.) 2017. Trends in international migrant stock: the 2017 revision Dataset, United Nations New York: https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2017/estimates17.asp
  194. Van der Brug W, Fennema M, Tillie J 2000. Anti-immigrant parties in Europe: ideological or protest vote?. Eur. J. Political Res 37:177–102
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Wahba J. 2015. Who benefits from return migration to developing countries?. IZA World Labor 2015:123 https://wol.iza.org/uploads/articles/123/pdfs/who-benefits-from-return-migration-to-developing-countries.one-pager.pdf?v=1
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Walter S. 2021. The backlash against globalization. Annu. Rev. Political Sci 24:421–42
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Weidenbaum ML, Hughes S. 1996. The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs Are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia New York: Martin Kessler Books
  198. Yang D. 2008. International migration, remittances and household investment: evidence from Philippine migrants’ exchange rate shocks. Econ. J 118:528591–630
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Yates J. 1993. Control through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management, Vol. 6 Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
  200. Zeitz AO, Leblang DA. 2021. Migrants as engines of financial globalization: the case of global banking. Int. Stud. Q 65:2360–74
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Zhou M. 1997. Segmented assimilation: issues, controversies, and recent research on the new second generation. Int. Migr. Rev975–1008
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-051120-105059
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-051120-105059
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error