1932

Abstract

We begin our review with research related to the racial formation and racial position of Asian Americans. How we define this fast-growing group and how it is situated in the broader racial landscape are critical to understanding its politics. We then turn to research on the history of Asian American civic engagement. These two research areas provide important context for the rest of the review, which covers three additional themes: () political participation; () partisanship, vote choice, and issue orientations; and () political representation. The last section returns to the theme of racial position, including its role in contemporary Asian American activism and its centrality to future research in the field.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-070621-032538
2023-06-15
2024-04-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/polisci/26/1/annurev-polisci-070621-032538.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-070621-032538&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. AAPI Civic Engagement Fund 2020. Election eve poll AAPI Civic Engag Fund: https://aapifund.org/program/research-and-tools/
  2. AAPI Data 2020. 2020 Asian American Voter Survey (AAVS) AAPI Data Sept. 15. https://aapidata.com/2020-survey/
  3. Adams BE, Ren P. 2006. Asian Americans and campaign finance in municipal elections. Soc. Sci. J. 43:4597–615
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Aoki A, Takeda O. 2008. Asian American Politics Cambridge, UK: Polity
  5. Atilano J, Wong J. 2018. The GOP tax reforms won't win over Asian Americans in 2018. Data Bits Blog, May 22. http://aapidata.com/blog/the-gops-tax-reforms-wont-win-over-asian-americans-in-2018/
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barreto MA. 2018. The cycle of undermobilization of minority voters. J. Race Ethn. Politics 3:1185–88
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Barreto MA, Frasure-Yokley L, Hancock A-M, Manzano S, Ramakrishnan SK et al. 2014. Collaborative Multi-racial Post-election Survey (CMPS), 2008 (ICPSR 35163) Resource Cent. Minority Data, Inter-univ. Consort. Political Soc. Res. (ICPSR) Ann Arbor, MI: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35163.v1
  8. Budiman A, Ruiz NG. 2021. Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population Rep., Apr. 29 Pew Res. Cent. Washington, DC: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/04/29/key-facts-about-asian-americans/
  9. Chan NK. 2021. Political inequality in the digital world: the puzzle of Asian American political participation online. Political Res. Q. 74:4882–98
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chan S. 2015. Labor. Keywords for Asian American studies. https://keywords.nyupress.org/asian-american-studies/essay/labor/
  11. Chen S. 2018. An elephant in a China shop. Medium Mar. 5. https://medium.com/@crwstrategy/an-elephant-in-a-china-shop-d69c6fccf944
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chen SG, Hosam C. 2022. Claire Jean Kim's racial triangulation at 20: rethinking Black-Asian solidarity and political science. Politics Groups Identities 10:3455–60
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cheung-Miaw C. 2021. Asian Americans and multiracial politics: the contribution and limits of racial triangulation theory. Politics Groups Identities 10:3461–67
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cho WT. 1999. Naturalization, socialization, participation: immigrants and (non-)voting. J. Politics 61:41140–55
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Colbern A, Ramakrishnan SK. 2020. Citizenship Reimagined: A New Framework for State Rights in the United States Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Univ. Press
  16. Collet C, Lien P-T 2009. The Transnational Politics of Asian Americans Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
  17. Darling-Hammond S, Michaels EK, Allen AM, Chae DH, Thomas MD et al. 2020. After “the China virus” went viral: racially charged coronavirus coverage and trends in bias against Asian Americans. Health Educ. Behav. 47:6870–79
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Davies EJ. 2022. The anti-Black axis: rethinking racial triangulation. Politics Groups Identities 10:3475–80
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Do M. 2020. Record number of Asian Americans are running for state legislatures in 30 states. Data Bits Blog Oct. 26. http://aapidata.com/blog/aa-state-leg-elections-2020/
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dugyala R, Jin B. 2021. Trauma and Trump will reshape how Asian Americans vote, poll finds. Politico Oct. 3. https://www.politico.com/interactives/2021/asian-american-community-voting-trends-polling/
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Espiritu YL. 1992. Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
  22. Fernandes D. 2022. Targeting of Asian Americans mobilizes new generation of activists. San Francisco Chron. June 10. https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/article/New-generation-of-activists-mobilized-17229577.php#
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Fraga BL. 2018. The Turnout Gap: Race, Ethnicity, and Political Inequality in a Diversifying America Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  24. Frasure L, Sanchez G, Valenzuela A, Hancock A-M. 2020. Collaborative Multi-racial Post-election Survey (CMPS), 2012 (ICPSR 37132), ver. V2 Inter-univ. Consort. Political Soc. Res. (ICPSR) Ann Arbor, MI: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37132.v2
  25. Fujino DC, Rodriguez RM. 2022. Contemporary Asian American Activism: Building Movements for Liberation Seattle: Univ. Wash. Press
  26. Garces LM, Poon O. 2018. Asian Americans and race-conscious admissions: understanding the conservative opposition's strategy of misinformation, intimidation and racial division Rep., Nov. 1 UCLA Civil Rights Proj. Los Angeles, CA: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/3560g5qq
  27. García-Castañon M, Huckle K, Walker HL, Chong C. 2019. Democracy's deficit: the role of institutional contact in shaping non-white political behavior. J. Race Ethn. Politics 4:11–31
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gell-Redman M, Visalvanich N, Crabtree C, Fariss CJ. 2018. It's all about race: how state legislators respond to immigrant constituents. Political Res. Q. 71:3517–31
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hajnal ZL, Lee T. 2011. Why Americans Don't Join the Party: Race, Immigration, and the Failure (of Political Parties) to Engage the Electorate Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  30. Hall LK. 2015. Which of these things is not like the other: Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders are not Asian Americans, and all Pacific Islanders are not Hawaiian. Am. Q. 67:3727–47
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hardy-Fanta C, Lien P, Pinderhughes D, Sierra CM 2016. Contested Transformation: Race, Gender, and Political Leadership in 21st Century America New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  32. HoSang DM. 2021. The triangulators and the triangulated: agency and power in Claire Jean Kim's racial triangulation theory. Politics Groups Identities 10:3487–92
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hua W, Junn J. 2020. Amidst pandemic and racial upheaval: where Asian Americans fit. J. Race Ethnicity Politics 6:116–32
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Jorden M, Rudman S, Villarino E, Hoferka S, Patel MT et al. 2020. Evidence for limited early spread of COVID-19 within the United States, January–February 2020. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 69:681–84
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Junn J. 2007. From coolie to model minority: U.S. immigration policy and the construction of racial identity. Du Bois Rev. 4:2355–73
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Junn J, Masuoka N. 2008. Asian American identity: shared racial status and political context. Perspect. Politics 6:4729–40
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kim CJ. 1999. The racial triangulation of Asian Americans. Politics Soc. 27:1105–38
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kim CJ. 2018. Are Asians the new Blacks? Affirmative action, anti-Blackness, and the “sociometry” of race. Du Bois Rev. 15:2217–44
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kim CJ. 2022. Asian Americans and anti-Blackness. Politics Groups Identities 10:3503–10
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kim CJ, Lee T. 2001. Interracial politics: Asian Americans and other communities of color. PS Political Sci. Politics 34:3631–37
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kuo A, Malhotra N, Mo CH. 2017. Social exclusion and political identity: the case of Asian American partisanship. J. Politics 79:117–32
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Lai JS. 2011. Asian American Political Action: Suburban Transformations Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner
  43. Lai JS. 2022. Asian American Connective Action in the Age of Social Media: Civic Engagement, Contested Issues, and Emerging Identities Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
  44. Lee E. 2015. The Making of Asian America: A History New York: Simon & Schuster
  45. Lee J, Ramakrishnan K. 2020. Who counts as Asian. Ethn. Racial Stud. 43:101733–56
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lee T. 2000. The backdoor and the backlash: campaign finance and the politicization of Chinese Americans. Asian Am. Policy Rev. 9:30–55
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Leighley JE. 2001. Strength in Numbers? The Political Mobilization of Racial and Ethnic Minorities Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  48. Leighley JE, Vedlitz A. 1999. Race, ethnicity, and political participation: competing models and contrasting explanations. J. Politics 61:41092–1114
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Lien P. 1997. The Political Participation of Asian Americans: Voting Behavior in Southern California New York: Routledge
  50. Lien P. 2004. Pilot National Asian American Political Survey (PNAAPS), 2000–2001: version 1 Inter-univ. Consort. Political Soc. Res. (ICPSR) Ann Arbor, MI: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03832.v1
  51. Lien P. 2010. The Making of Asian America through Political Participation Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
  52. Lien P, Collet C, Wong J, Ramakrishnan SK. 2001. Asian Pacific-American public opinion and political participation. PS Political Sci. Politics 34:3625–30
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Lien P, Conway MM, Wong J. 2004. The Politics of Asian Americans: Diversity and Community New York: Routledge
  54. Lien P, Filler N. 2022. Contesting the Last Frontier: Race, Gender, Ethnicity, and Political Representation of Asian Americans New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  55. Lien P, Wong J. 2009. Like Latinos? Explaining the transnational political behavior of Asian Americans. The Transnational Politics of Asian Americans137–52. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Maeda DJ. 2012. Rethinking the Asian American Movement New York: Routledge
  57. Masuoka N, Han H, Leung V, Zheng BQ. 2018. Understanding the Asian American vote in the 2016 election. J. Race Ethn. Politics 3:1189–215
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Masuoka N, Junn J. 2013. The Politics of Belonging: Race, Public Opinion, and Immigration Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  59. Masuoka N, Ramanathan K, Junn J. 2019. New Asian American voters: political incorporation and participation in 2016. Political Res. Q. 72:4991–1003
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Monte L, Shin H 2022. 20.6 Million people in the U.S. identify as Asian, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. US Census Bur. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/05/aanhpi-population-diverse-geographically-dispersed.html
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Murray C. 2012. Why aren't Asians Republicans?. AEI Ideas Blog Nov. 26. https://www.aei.org/politics-and-public-opinion/why-arent-asians-republicans/
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Nakanishi DT. 1986. The UCLA Asian Pacific American voter registration study Work. Pap. Inst. Soc. Sci. Res., UCLA Los Angeles, CA: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7mb2n3qn
  63. Nakanishi DT. 1991. The next swing vote? Asian Pacific Americans and California politics. Racial Ethn. Politics Calif. 1:25–54
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Nakanishi DT, Lai J. 2001. National Asian Pacific American Political Almanac 2001–2002. Los Angeles: UCLA Asian Am. Stud. Cent., 10th ed..
  65. Nakanishi DT, Lai JS, eds. 2003. Asian American Politics: Law, Participation, and Policy Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
  66. Ngai MM. 2006. Birthright citizenship and the alien citizen symposium: new dimensions of citizenship: contributions. Fordham Law Rev. 75:52521–30
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Nguyen MH, Lee DH, Garces LM, Poon O, Wong J. 2021. Mobilizing social science research to inform judicial decision-making: SFFA v. . Harvard. Asian Am. Law J. 28:4–56
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Okamoto DG. 2014. Redefining Race: Asian American Panethnicity and Shifting Ethnic Boundaries New York: Russell Sage Found.
  69. Phan NT, Lee KL. 2022. Toward a decolonial quantitative political science: Indigenous self-identification in the 2019 Native Hawaiian Survey. J. Race Ethn. Politics 7:190–118
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Phillips CD. 2021. Nowhere to Run: Race, Gender, and Immigration in American Elections New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  71. Phillips CD, Lee T. 2018. Superficial equality: gender and immigration in Asian American political participation. Politics Groups Identities 6:3373–88
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Pinderhughes DM. 1997. Voting rights policy and redistricting: an introductory essay. Race and Representation G Persons 3–16. New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Poon O, Garces LM, Wong J, Segoshi M, Silver D, Harrington S. 2019. Confronting misinformation through social science research: SFFA v. . Harvard. Asian Am. Law J. 26:4–12
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Poon O, Squire D, Kodama C, Byrd A, Chan J et al. 2016. A critical review of the model minority myth in selected literature on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in higher education. Rev. Educ. Res. 86:2469–502
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Railey K. 2012. Asian-Americans take higher profile in congressional races. Christian Sci. Monit. July 19. https://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Elections/2012/0719/Asian-Americans-take-higher-profile-in-congressional-races
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Ramakrishnan SK 2005. Democracy in Immigrant America Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  77. Ramakrishnan SK. 2013. Opinions of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: the Affordable Care Act Rep. 2012 National Asian American Survey http://naasurvey.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/NAAS12-ACA-report-oct2013.pdf
  78. Ramakrishnan SK. 2016a. Gun control is an Asian American issue. Data Bits Blog June 13. https://aapidata.com/blog/asian-americans-gun-control/
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Ramakrishnan SK. 2016b. How Asian Americans became Democrats. Am. Prosp. July 26. https://prospect.org/civil-rights/asian-americans-became-democrats/
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Ramakrishnan SK. 2021. In 2020, AAPIs saw the highest increases in voter turnout. Data Bits Blog May 18. https://aapidata.com/blog/2020-record-turnout/
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Ramakrishnan SK, Junn J, Lee T, Wong J. 2011. National Asian American Survey (NAAS), United States 2008 (ICPSR 31481) ver. V2. Inter-univ Consort. Political Soc. Res. Ann Arbor, MI: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR31481.v2
  82. Ramakrishnan SK, Lee J, Lee T, Wong J. 2018. National Asian American Survey (NAAS) Pre-Election Survey, United States 2016 (ICPSR 37024) ver. V1. Inter-univ Consort. Political Soc. Res. Ann Arbor, MI: https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/web/RCMD/studies/37024
  83. Ramakrishnan SK, Lee J, Lee T, Wong J. 2020. National Asian American Survey (NAAS) Post-Election Survey, United States 2016 (ICPSR 37380) ver. V1. Inter-univ Consort. Political Soc. Res. Ann Arbor, MI: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37380.v1
  84. Ramakrishnan SK, Shah S. 2017. Yes, President Trump, Asian Americans are environmentalists. Data Bits Blog June 9. http://aapidata.com/blog/trump-environment-asianam/
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Ramakrishnan SK, Wong J, Lee T, Junn J. 2009. Race-based considerations and the Obama vote: evidence from the 2008 National Asian American Survey. Du Bois Rev. 6:1219–38
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Ramakrishnan SK, Yeung M. 2012. Unsilencing the voices of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: a briefing about national polling of AAPIs in the United States Rep. 2012 National Asian American Survey https://naasurvey.com/unsilencing-the-voices-of-asian-americans-and-pacific-islanders/
  87. Raychaudhuri T. 2020. Socializing Democrats: examining Asian American vote choice with evidence from a national survey. Elect. Stud. 63:102114
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Sadhwani S. 2022. Asian American mobilization: the effect of candidates and districts on Asian American voting behavior. Political Behav. 44:1105–31
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Saito LT. 1998. Race and Politics: Asian Americans, Latinos, and Whites in a Los Angeles Suburb Champaign: Univ. Ill. Press
  90. Scharlin C, Villanueva L. 2011. Philip Vera Cruz: A Personal History of Filipino Immigrants and the Farmworkers Movement Seattle: Univ. Wash. Press
  91. Shah S, Shao S. 2018. The 116th Congress will have the most AAPIs. Ever. Data Bits Blog Nov. 29. http://aapidata.com/blog/aapis-116th-congress/
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Sonenshein R. 1993. Politics in Black and White: Race and Power in Los Angeles Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  93. Takaki R. 1984. Pau Hana: Plantation Life and Labor in Hawaii, 1835–1920 Honolulu: Univ. Hawaii Press
  94. Takaki R. 2012. Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans New York: Back Bay Books Rev. ed .
  95. Tam Cho WK. 2003. Contagion effects and ethnic contribution networks. Am. J. Political Sci. 47:2368–87
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Tyson VC. 2016. Twists of Fate: Multiracial Coalitions and Minority Representation in the US House of Representatives New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  97. Uhlaner CJ, Cain BE, Kiewiet DR. 1989. Political participation of ethnic minorities in the 1980s. Political Behav. 11:3195–231
    [Google Scholar]
  98. USCIS 2020. Edward Bing Kan: the first Chinese-American naturalized after repeal of Chinese exclusion. US Citizenship and Immigration Services https://www.uscis.gov/about-us/our-history/history-office-and-library/edward-bing-kan-the-first-chinese-american-naturalized-after-repeal-of-chinese-exclusion
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Vo L. 2004. Mobilizing an Asian American Community Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
  100. Voss BL. 2018. The archaeology of precarious lives: Chinese railroad workers in nineteenth-century North America. Curr. Anthropol. 59:3287–313
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Wang LL. 2007. Race, class, citizenship, and extraterritoriality: Asian Americans and the 1996 campaign finance scandal. Amerasia J. 33:1167–88
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Wei W. 2010. The Asian American Movement Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press
  103. Wong D. 2021. The future is ours to build: Asian American abolitionist counterstories for Black liberation. Politics Groups Identities 10:3493–502
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Wong J. 2006. Democracy's Promise: Immigrants and American Civic Institutions. New York: Russell Sage Found.
  105. Wong J, Lien P, Conway MM 2005. Group-based resources and political participation among Asian Americans. Am. Political Res. 33:4545–76
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Wong J, Ramakrishnan SK, Lee T, Junn J. 2011. Asian American Political Participation: Emerging Constituents and Their Political Identities New York: Russell Sage Found.
  107. Wong J, Shah S. 2021. Convergence across difference: understanding the political ties that bind with the 2016 National Asian American Survey. RSF Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 7:270–92
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Wong K 2003. Building a New Asian Pacific American labor alliance: a new chapter in our history. Asian American Politics D Nakanishi, J Lai 421–30. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Yellow Horse A, Jeung R, Matriano R. 2021. Stop AAPI Hate national report Rep. Stop AAPI Hate Mar. 19, 2020–Sept. 30, 2021. https://stopaapihate.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/21-SAH-NationalReport2-v2.pdf
  110. Zhou K, Patterson D. 2021. Changing patterns of Asian-American partisanship: Accounting for the politicization of the U.S.’s fastest growing minority. Soc. Sci. Q. 102:41428–38
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-070621-032538
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-polisci-070621-032538
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error