This essay focuses on questions that pertain to the ideological, normative, symbolic, and epochal aspects of political Islam. Political theorists, historians, sociologists, and anthropologists have disagreed on whether political Islam is an exclusively modern political phenomenon or is indebted to long-standing Islamic religious commitments. More specifically, they have also disagreed on whether the shape and ambitions of political Islam are entirely determined by the powers and institutions of the modern, bureaucratic state, particularly its secular desire to control, regulate, and reshape religion. These interpretive debates have often sat uneasily with ongoing normative debates about what kind of secularism democracy requires and whether democracy has priority over liberal rights and freedoms.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abbas S. 2013. The echo chamber of freedom: the Muslim woman and the pretext of agency. boundary 2 40:155–189 [Google Scholar]
  2. ‘Abd al-Raziq ‘A. 1925. Al-Islam wa Usul al-Hukm: Bahth fi'l-Khilafa wa'l-Hukuma fi'l-Islam Cairo: Matba'at Misr [Google Scholar]
  3. Abou El Fadl K. 2001. Islam and the theology of power. Middle East Rep. 31:28–33 [Google Scholar]
  4. Abou El Fadl K. 2003. Islam and the challenge of democratic commitment. Fordham Int. Law J. 27:4–71 [Google Scholar]
  5. Abou El Fadl K. 2004. Islam and the challenge of democracy. Islam and the Challenge of Democracy J Cohen, D Chasman 3–48 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  6. Agrama HA. 2012. Questioning Secularism: Islam, Sovereignty, and the Rule of Law in Modern Egypt Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  7. Ahmad I. 2009. Islamism and Democracy in India: The Transformation of Jamaat-e-Islami Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  8. Ahmad I. 2011. Democracy and Islam. Philos. Soc. Crit. 37:459–70 [Google Scholar]
  9. Akhavi S. 1996. Contending discourses in Shi'i law on the doctrine of Wilayat Al-faqih. Iran. Stud. 29:229–68 [Google Scholar]
  10. Al-Azmeh A. 1991. Islamist revivalism and western ideologies. Hist. Workshop J. 32:44–53 [Google Scholar]
  11. Al-Azmeh A. 2007. The Times of History: Universal Topics in Islamic Historiography Budapest: Cent. Eur. Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  12. Ali ST. 2005. A Religion, Not a State: AliAbd al-Raziq's Islamic Justification of Political Secularism Salt Lake City: Univ. Utah Press [Google Scholar]
  13. Allievi S, Nielsen JS. 2003. Muslim Networks and Transnational Communities in and Across Europe Leiden: Brill [Google Scholar]
  14. Anjum O. 2012. Politics, Law, and Community in Islamic Thought: The Taymiyyan Moment Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  15. An-Na'im AA. 1990. Toward an Islamic Reformation: Civil Liberties, Human Rights, and International Law Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  16. An-Na'im AA. 1992. Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus Philadelphia, PA: Univ. Penn. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. An-Na'im AA. 1998. Shari ‘a and positive legislation: Is an Islamic state possible or viable?. Yearb. Islam. Middle East. Law 5:29–41 [Google Scholar]
  18. An-Na'im AA. 2008. Islam and the Secular State Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  19. Arjomand SA. 1986. Iran's Islamic Revolution in comparative perspective. World Polit. 38:383–414 [Google Scholar]
  20. Arjomand SA. 1988. Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  21. Asad T. 1986. The idea of an anthropology of Islam Occas. Pap. Ser., Cent. Contemp. Arab Stud., Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  22. Asad T. 2003. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  23. Asad T. 2005. Reflections on laïcité and the public sphere. Items Issues 5:1–11 [Google Scholar]
  24. Asad T. 2006. French secularism and the “Islamic veil affair.”. Hedgehog Rev. 8:93–106 [Google Scholar]
  25. Asad T. 2007. On Suicide Bombing New York: Columbia Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  26. Asad T. 2012. Fear and the ruptured state: reflections on Egypt after Mubarak. Soc. Res. 79:271–98 [Google Scholar]
  27. Asad T, Brown W, Butler J, Mahmood S. 2009. Is Critique Secular? Blasphemy, Injury, and Free Speech Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  28. Ayubi NNM. 1980. The political revival of Islam: the case of Egypt. Int. J. Middle East Stud. 12:481–99 [Google Scholar]
  29. Ayubi NNM. 1993. Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Arab World New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  30. Baker RW. 2006. Islam Without Fear: Egypt and the New Islamists Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  31. Bâli . 2012. The perils of judicial independence: constitutional transition and the Turkish example. Va. J. Int. Law 52:235–320 [Google Scholar]
  32. Barlas A. 2013. Uncrossed bridges: Islam, feminism and secular democracy. Philos. Soc. Crit. 39:417–25 [Google Scholar]
  33. Bayat A. 1996. The coming of a post-Islamist society. Critique 5:43–52 [Google Scholar]
  34. Bayat A. 2007. Making Islam Democratic: Social Movements and the Post-Islamist Turn Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  35. Beinin J, Stork J. 1997. On the modernity, historical specificity, and international context of political Islam. Political Islam: Essays from Middle East Report J Beinin, J Stork 3–25 New York: IB Tauris [Google Scholar]
  36. Benhabib S. 2014. The new legitimation crises of Arab states and Turkey. Philos. Soc. Crit. 40:349–58 [Google Scholar]
  37. Berman P. 2003. Terror and Liberalism New York: WW Norton [Google Scholar]
  38. Bielefeldt H. 1995. Muslim voices in the human rights debate. Hum. Rights Q. 17:587–617 [Google Scholar]
  39. Bilgrami A. 2012. Islam and the West: conflict, democracy, identity. Philos. Soc. Crit. 38:477–83 [Google Scholar]
  40. Browers ML. 2009. Political Ideology in the Arab World Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  41. Brown NJ. 1997. Shari ‘a and state in the modern Muslim Middle East. Int. J. Middle East Stud. 29:359–76 [Google Scholar]
  42. Brown NJ. 2012. When Victory Is Not an Option: Islamist Movements in Arab Politics Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  43. Burrin P. 1997. Political religion: the relevance of a concept. Hist. Mem. 9:321–49 [Google Scholar]
  44. Casanova J. 1994. Public Religions in the Modern World Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  45. Char A. 2010. Islam: the test of globalization. Philos. Soc. Crit. 36:295–307 [Google Scholar]
  46. Cook M. 2014. Ancient Religions, Modern Politics: The Islamic Case in Comparative Perspective Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  47. Dabashi H. 2006. Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction [Google Scholar]
  48. Dabashi H. 2011. The Green Movement in Iran New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction [Google Scholar]
  49. Dallmayr F. 2011. Whither democracy? Religion, politics and Islam. Philos. Soc. Crit. 37:437–48 [Google Scholar]
  50. de Vries H, Sullivan LE. 2006. Political Theologies: Public Religions in a Post-Secular World New York: Fordham Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  51. Dekmejian RH. 1980. The anatomy of Islamic revival: legitimacy, crisis, ethnic conflict and the search for Islamic alternatives. Middle East J. 34:1–12 [Google Scholar]
  52. Devji F. 2005. Landscapes of the Jihad: Militancy, Morality, Modernity Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  53. Devji F. 2008. The Terrorist in Search of Humanity: Militant Islam and Global Politics New York: Columbia Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  54. Devji F. 2014. Politics after Al-Qaeda. Philos. Soc. Crit. 40:431–38 [Google Scholar]
  55. Eickelman D, Piscatori J. 1996. Muslim Politics Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  56. El-Ghobashy M. 2005. The metamorphosis of the Egyptian Muslim brothers. Int. J. Middle East Stud. 37:373–95 [Google Scholar]
  57. Esposito JL, Shahin EE. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  58. Esposito J, Voll J. 1996. Islam and Democracy New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  59. Euben RL. 1999. Enemy in the Mirror: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Limits of Modern Rationalism Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  60. Fadel M. 2013. Judicial institutions, the legitimacy of Islamic state law and democratic transition in Egypt: Can a shift toward a common law model of adjudication improve the prospects of a successful democratic transition?. Int. J. Const. Law 11:646–65 [Google Scholar]
  61. Feldman N. 2007. After Jihad: America and the Struggle for Islamic Democracy New York: Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  62. Fischer MM. 1982. Islam and the revolt of the petit bourgeoisie. Daedalus 111:101–25 [Google Scholar]
  63. Fukuyama F. 2001. History is still going our way. Wall Street J. Oct. 5. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB1002238464542684520 [Google Scholar]
  64. Gellner E. 1992. Postmodernism, Reason and Religion London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  65. Gellner E. 1994. Conditions of Liberty: Civil Society and Its Rivals London: Hamish Hamilton [Google Scholar]
  66. Gentile E. 2005. Political religion: a concept and its critics—a critical survey. Total. Mov. Polit. Relig. 6:19–32 [Google Scholar]
  67. Gerges FA. 2005. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  68. Ghobadzadeh N. 2013. Religious secularity: a vision for revisionist political Islam. Philos. Soc. Crit. 39:1005–27 [Google Scholar]
  69. Gourgouris S. 2008a. Antisecularist failures: a counterresponse to Saba Mahmood. Public Cult. 20:453–59 [Google Scholar]
  70. Gourgouris S. 2008b. Detranscendentalizing the secular. Public Cult. 20:437–45 [Google Scholar]
  71. Gray J. 2003. Al Qaeda and What It Means To Be Modern London: Faber [Google Scholar]
  72. Gunter MM. 2012. Turkey: the politics of a new democratic constitution. Middle East Policy 19:119–25 [Google Scholar]
  73. Habermas J. 2008. Notes on post-secular society. New Perspect. Q. 25:17–29 [Google Scholar]
  74. Hamid S. 2014. Temptations of Power: Islamists and Illiberal Democracy in a New Middle East New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  75. Haykel B. 2009. On the nature of Salafi thought and action. See Meijer 2009 33–51
  76. Hallaq WB. 2013. The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity's Moral Predicament New York: Columbia Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  77. Harnisch C, Mecham Q. 2009. Democratic ideology in Islamist opposition? The Muslim Brotherhood's ‘civil state.'. Middle East. Stud. 45:189–205 [Google Scholar]
  78. Hashemi N. 2009. Islam, Secularism, and Liberal Democracy: Toward a Democratic Theory for Muslim Societies New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  79. Hashemi N. 2014. Rethinking religion and political legitimacy across the Islam-West divide. Philos. Soc. Crit. 40:439–47 [Google Scholar]
  80. Hefner RW. 2011. Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  81. Hegghammer T. 2009. Jihadi-Salafis or revolutionaries? On religion and politics in the study of militant Islamism. See Meijer 2009 244–66
  82. Hirschkind C. 1995. Heresy or hermeneutics: the case of Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd. Stanford Humanit. Rev. 5:35–49 [Google Scholar]
  83. Hirschkind C. 1997. What is political Islam?. Middle East Rep. 27:12–14 [Google Scholar]
  84. Hitchens C. 2007. Defending Islamofascism. Slate Oct. 22. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/fighting_words/2007/10/defending_islamofascism.html [Google Scholar]
  85. Høigilt J, Nome F. 2014. Egyptian Salafism in revolution. J. Islam. Stud. 25:33–54 [Google Scholar]
  86. Huntington S. 1984. Will more countries become democratic?. Polit. Sci. Q. 99:193–218 [Google Scholar]
  87. Huntington S. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the Modern World New York: Simon & Schuster [Google Scholar]
  88. Ibn Taymiyya T. 2000. Al-Siyasa al-Shar'iyya fi Islah al-Ra'i wa'l-Ra'iya Beirut: Dar al Kitab al-'Ilmiyya [Google Scholar]
  89. ‘Imara M. 1989. Ma'rakat al-Islam wa-Usul al-Hukm Cairo: Dar al-shuruq [Google Scholar]
  90. Imber C. 1997. Ebu's-su'ud: The Islamic Legal Tradition Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  91. Jackson SA. 2003. Shari ‘ah, democracy, and the modern nation-state: some reflections on Islam, popular rule, and pluralism. Fordham Int. Law J. 27:88–107 [Google Scholar]
  92. Jahanbegloo R. 2009. Legitimacy crisis and the future of democracy in Iran. Constellations 16:361–62 [Google Scholar]
  93. Jahanbegloo R. 2013. Democracy in Iran London: Palgrave Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  94. Johansen B. 2008. A perfect law in an imperfect society: Ibn Taymiyya's concept of “governance in the name of the sacred law.”. The Law Applied: Contextualizing the Islamic Sharia P Bearman, W Heinrichs, BG Weiss 259–94 New York: IB Tauris [Google Scholar]
  95. Johnston DL. 2007. Maqāsid al-Sharī'a: epistemology and hermeneutics of Muslim theologies of human rights. Welt Islams 47:149–87 [Google Scholar]
  96. Keddie NR. 1969. Pan-Islam as proto-nationalism. J. Mod. Hist. 41:17–28 [Google Scholar]
  97. Kedourie E. 1992. Democracy and Arab Political Culture Washington, DC: Wash. Inst. Near East Policy [Google Scholar]
  98. Kerr MH. 1966. Islamic Reform: The Political and Legal Theories of MuhammadAbduh and Rashid Rida Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  99. Khan MM. 2006. Islamic Democratic Discourse: Theory, Debates, and Philosophical Perspectives Lanham, MD: Lexington Books [Google Scholar]
  100. Kramer M. 1993. Islam versus democracy. Commentary 95:35–42 [Google Scholar]
  101. Lacroix S. 2009. Between revolution and apoliticism: Nasir al-Din al-Albani and his impact on the shaping of contemporary Salafism. See Meijer 2009 58–80
  102. Lawrence B. 1989. Defenders of God: The Fundamentalist Revolt Against the Modern Age San Francisco: Harper & Row [Google Scholar]
  103. Lerner D. 1958. The Passing of Traditional Society London: Collier-Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  104. Lewis B. 1976. The return of Islam. Commentary 61:39–49 [Google Scholar]
  105. Lewis B. 1993. Islam and liberal democracy. Atlantic 271:89–97 [Google Scholar]
  106. Lewis B. 1996. Islam and liberal democracy: a historical overview. J. Democr. 7:52–63 [Google Scholar]
  107. Lilla M. 2008. The Stillborn God: Religion, Politics, and the Modern West New York: Random House [Google Scholar]
  108. Lombardi CB. 2006. State Law as Islamic Law in Modern Egypt: The Incorporation of the Sharia into Egyptian Constitutional Law Leiden: Brill [Google Scholar]
  109. Mahmood S. 1994. Islamism and fundamentalism. Middle East Rep. 24:29–30 [Google Scholar]
  110. Mahmood S. 2006. Secularism, hermeneutics, and empire: the politics of Islamic reformation. Public Cult. 18:323–47 [Google Scholar]
  111. Mahmood S. 2011. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  112. Mandaville PG. 2002. Transnational Muslim Politics: Reimagining the Umma New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  113. Mandaville PG. 2007. Global Political Islam New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  114. March AF. 2010. Taking people as they are: Islam as a realistic utopia in the political theory of Sayyid Qutb. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 107:523–39 [Google Scholar]
  115. March AF. 2012. Speech and the sacred: Does the defense of free speech rest on a mistake about religion?. Polit. Theory 40:319–46 [Google Scholar]
  116. March AF. 2013. Genealogies of sovereignty in Islamic political theology. Soc. Res. 80:293–320 [Google Scholar]
  117. March AF. 2015. Naturalizing shari ‘a: foundationalist ambiguities in modern Islamic apologetics. Islam. Law Soc. 22:In press [Google Scholar]
  118. Marty ME, Appleby RS. 1991–1995. The Fundamentalism Project: A Study Conducted by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 5 vols Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  119. McCants W. 2012. The lesser of two evils: the Salafi turn to party politics in Egypt. Middle East Memo 23, Brookings Inst., Washington, DC
  120. Mecham Q, Hwang JC. 2014. Islamic Parties and Political Normalization in the Muslim World Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press [Google Scholar]
  121. Meijer R. 2009. Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement New York: Columbia Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  122. Monroe SL. 2012. Salafis in parliament: democratic attitudes and party politics in the Gulf. Middle East J. 66:409–24 [Google Scholar]
  123. Moussalli AS. 2001. The Islamic Quest for Democracy, Pluralism, and Human Rights Gainesville: Univ. Press Florida [Google Scholar]
  124. Moustafa T. 2007. The Struggle for Constitutional Power Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  125. Mufti AR. 2013. Why I am not a postsecularist. boundary 2 40:7–19 [Google Scholar]
  126. Muti ‘i MB. 1926. Haqiqat al-Islam wa-Usul al-Hukm Cairo: al-Matba'a al-Salafiyya wa Maktabatuha [Google Scholar]
  127. Najjar FM. 1958. Islam and modern democracy. Rev. Polit. 20:164–80 [Google Scholar]
  128. Nasr SVR. 2001. Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the Making of State Power New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  129. Nasr SVR. 2005. The rise of “Muslim democracy”. J. Democr. 16:13–27 [Google Scholar]
  130. Paz R. 2009. Debates within the family: Jihadi-Salafi debates on strategy, takfir, extremism, suicide bombings and the sense of the apocalypse. See Meijer 2009 267–80
  131. Pitts J. 2010. Political theory of empire and imperialism. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 13:211–35 [Google Scholar]
  132. Qutb S. 2008. The Sayyid Qutb Reader: Selected Writings on Politics, Religion, and Society AJ Bergesen New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  133. Rahnama A. 1998. An Islamic Utopian: A Political Biography of Ali Shariati New York: IB Tauris [Google Scholar]
  134. Ramadan T. 2008. Radical Reform: Islamic Ethics and Liberation New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  135. Rida MR. 1988 (1922). Al-Khilafa wa al-Imamatu al-'Uzma Cairo: al-Zahra' li'l-I'lam al-'Arabi [Google Scholar]
  136. Robbins B. 2013. Why I am not a postsecularist. boundary 2 40:55–76 [Google Scholar]
  137. Roy O. 1994. The Failure of Political Islam Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  138. Roy O. 2004. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah New York: Columbia Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  139. Rutherford BK. 2006. What do Egypt's Islamists want? Moderate Islam and the rise of Islamic constitutionalism. Middle East J. 60:707–31 [Google Scholar]
  140. Sachedina A. 2001. The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  141. Salamé G. 1994. Democracy Without Democrats? The Renewal of Politics in the Muslim World New York: IB Tauris [Google Scholar]
  142. Salomon N. 2009. The Salafi critique of Islamism: doctrine, difference and the problem of Islamic political action in contemporary Sudan. See Meijer 2009 143–68
  143. Schirazi A. 1998. The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the State in the Islamic Republic London: IB Tauris [Google Scholar]
  144. Schwartz S. 2006. What is “Islamofascism”? A history of the word from the first Westerner to use it. Wkly. Standard Aug. 17. http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/012/593ajdua.asp [Google Scholar]
  145. Scott RM. 2012. What might the Muslim Brotherhood do with al-Azhar? Religious authority in Egypt. Welt Islams 52:131–65 [Google Scholar]
  146. Shepard WE. 1987. Islam and ideology: towards a typology. Int. J. Middle East Stud. 19:307–36 [Google Scholar]
  147. Shepard WE. 1989. Islam as a “system” in the later writings of Sayyid Qutb. Middle East Stud. 25:31–50 [Google Scholar]
  148. Shepard WE. 2003. Sayyid Qutb's doctrine of jahiliyya. Int. J. Middle East Stud. 35:521–45 [Google Scholar]
  149. Sivan E. 1985. Radical Islam: Medieval Theology and Modern Politics New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  150. Stilt K. 2010. Islam is the solution: constitutional visions of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Tex. Int. Law J. 46:73–108 [Google Scholar]
  151. Stilt K. 2012. Islamic Law in Action: Authority, Discretion, and Everyday Experiences in Mamluk Egypt New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  152. Strauss L. 1981. Progress or return? The contemporary crisis in Western civilization. Mod. Jud. 1:17–45 [Google Scholar]
  153. Sulami MF. 2003. The West and Islam: Western Liberal Democracy Versus the System of Shura London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  154. Otto JM. 2010. Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present Leiden, Neth: Leiden Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  155. Tibi B. 2009. Islam's Predicament with Modernity: Religious Reform and Cultural Change New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  156. Tibi B. 2012. Islamism and Islam New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  157. Vogel FE. 2000. Islamic Law and Legal System: Studies of Saudi Arabia Leiden, Neth: Brill [Google Scholar]
  158. Volpi F. 2011. Political Islam: A Critical Reader New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  159. Walzer M. 1993. Interpretation and Social Criticism Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  160. Wickham CR. 2013. The Muslim Brotherhood: Evolution of an Islamist Movement Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  161. Wiktorowicz Q. 2001. The Management of Islamic Activism: Salafis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and State Power in Jordan Albany, NY: SUNY Press [Google Scholar]
  162. Wright R. 1991. Islam, democracy and the West. Foreign Aff. 71:131–45 [Google Scholar]
  163. Yavuz MH. 2009. Secularism and Muslim Democracy in Turkey Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  164. Zaman MQ. 2002. The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  165. Zartman IW. 1992. Democracy and Islam: the cultural dialectic. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 524:181–91 [Google Scholar]
  166. Zubaida S. 1992. Islam, the state and democracy: contrasting conceptions of society in Egypt. Middle East Rep. 179:2–10 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error