This article reviews the statistical models that underpin institutional comparisons on the basis of outcome measures for their students. These multilevel models are developed to levels of complexity that match the problems posed. The strengths and limitations of inferences from these models are explored with examples taken from education.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Amrein-Beardsley A, Collins C, Polasky SA, Sloat EF. 2013. Value-added model (VAM) research for educational policy: framing the issue. Educ. Policy Anal. Arch. 21:4 [Google Scholar]
  2. Baty P. 2010. Measured, and found wanting more. Times High. Educ. July 8 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bird SM, Cox D, Farewell VT, Goldstein H, Holt T, Smith P. 2005. Performance indicators: good, bad, and ugly. J. R. Stat. Soc. A 168:1–27 [Google Scholar]
  4. Dill D, Soo M. 2005. Academic quality, league tables and public policy: a cross-national analysis of university ranking systems. High. Educ. 49:4495–537 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ferrão ME, Goldstein H. 2012. Adjusting for differential misclassification in multilevel models: the relationship between child exposure to smoke and cognitive development. Qual. Quant. In press. doi:10.1007/s11135-012-9765-5 [Google Scholar]
  6. Foley B, Goldstein H. 2012. Measuring Success: League Tables in the Public Sector London: British Acad. [Google Scholar]
  7. Goldstein H, Burgess S, McConell B. 2007. Modelling the effect of pupil mobility on school differences in educational achievement. J. R. Stat. Soc. A 170:4941–54 [Google Scholar]
  8. Goldstein H, Carpenter J, Kenward M, Levin K. 2009. Multilevel models with multivariate mixed response types. Stat. Model. 9:3173–97 [Google Scholar]
  9. Goldstein H, Healy MJR. 1995. The graphical presentation of a collection of means. J. R. Stat. Soc. A 581:1175–77 [Google Scholar]
  10. Goldstein H, Rasbash J, Yang M, Woodhouse G, Pan H. et al. 1993. Multilevel analysis of school examination results. Oxf. Rev. Educ. 19:4425–33 [Google Scholar]
  11. Goldstein H, Sammons P. 1997. The influence of secondary and junior schools on sixteen year examination performance: a cross-classified multilevel analysis. Sch. Eff. Sch. Improv. 8:2219–30 [Google Scholar]
  12. Goldstein H, Spiegelhalter DJ. 1996. League tables and their limitations: statistical issues in comparisons of institutional performance. J. R. Stat. Soc. A 159:385–443 [Google Scholar]
  13. Goldstein H. 2011. Multilevel Statistical Models Chichester, UK: Wiley, 4th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  14. Hazelkorn E. 2011. Rankings and the Reshaping of Higher Education: The Battle for World-Class Excellence. New York: Palgrave MacMillan [Google Scholar]
  15. Hood C. 2007. Public service management by numbers: Why does it vary? Where has it come from? What are the gaps and puzzles?. Public Money Manag. 27:295–102 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hubbard AE, Ahern J, Fleischer NL, Van der Laan M, Lippman SA. et al. 2010. To GEE or not to GEE. Epidemiology 21:4467–74 [Google Scholar]
  17. Leckie G, Goldstein H. 2009. The limitations of using school league tables to inform school choice. J. R. Stat. Soc. A 172:835–51 [Google Scholar]
  18. Leckie G, Goldstein H. 2011. Understanding uncertainty in school league tables. Fisc. Stud. 32:207–24 [Google Scholar]
  19. Lockwood JR, McCaffrey DF, Mariano LT, Setodji C. 2007. Bayesian methods for scalable value-added assessment. J. Educ. Behav. Stat. 32:2125–50 [Google Scholar]
  20. Nuttall DL, Goldstein H, Prosser R, Rasbash J. 1989. Differential school effectiveness. Int. J. Educ. Res. 13:769–76 [Google Scholar]
  21. Rubin D. 1987. Multiple Imputation for Non-Response in Surveys Chichester, UK: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  22. Spiegelhalter DJ, Best NG, Carlin BP, Van der Linde A. 2002. Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit. J. R. Stat. Soc. B 64:583–640 [Google Scholar]
  23. Spiegelhalter DJ, Goldstein H. 2009. Comment: citation statistics. Stat. Sci. 24:21–24 [Google Scholar]
  24. Yang M, Goldstein H, Rath T, Hill N. 1999. The use of assessment data for school improvement purposes. Oxf. Rev. Educ. 25:4469–83 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error