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Abstract

This article reviews the statistical models that underpin institutional comparisons on the basis of outcome measures for their students. These multilevel models are developed to levels of complexity that match the problems posed. The strengths and limitations of inferences from these models are explored with examples taken from education.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-statistics-022513-115615
2014-01-03
2024-06-21
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